List of British monarchs

Last updated
Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (Both Realms).svg
There are two versions of the Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom. The common version is on the left, while the Scottish version is on the right. In the shield of the common version, England is represented in the first and fourth quarters, Scotland is represented in the second quarter, and Northern Ireland is represented in the third quarter. In the shield of the Scottish version, the Royal Arms of England and the Royal Arms of Scotland are exchanged. [1]

There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland on 1 May 1707. England and Scotland had been in personal union since 24 March 1603. On 1 January 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland merged, which resulted in the creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. After 26 of Ireland's 32 counties left the union on 6 December 1922, in order to form the Irish Free State, the name of the nation was amended to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on 12 April 1927.

Contents

List

Anne had ruled the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Scotland, and the Kingdom of Ireland since 8 March 1702. She became monarch of the Kingdom of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland on 1 May 1707. Her total reign lasted for 12 years and 146 days. For a family tree that shows George I's relationship to Anne, see George I of Great Britain § Family tree.

NamePortraitArmsBirthMarriagesDeathHouseRef.
Anne
Anne Stuart
1 May 1707 [lower-alpha 1]

1 August 1714
(7 years, 92 days)
Dahl, Michael - Queen Anne - NPG 6187.jpg Royal Arms of Great Britain (1707-1714).svg 6 February 1665
St James's Palace
Daughter of James II and VII
and Anne Hyde
Prince George of Denmark
St James's Palace
28 July 1683
No surviving children
1 August 1714
Kensington Palace
Age: 49 years, 176 days
Stuart [2]
George I
George Louis
1 August 1714 [lower-alpha 2]

11 June 1727
(12 years, 315 days)
King George I by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt.jpg Royal Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg 28 May 1660
Leineschloss
Son of Ernest Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg
and Sophia of Hanover
Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Celle
21 November 1682
2 children
11 June 1727
Osnabrück
Age: 67 years, 14 days
Hanover [3]
George II
George Augustus
11 June 1727 [lower-alpha 3] [lower-roman 1]

25 October 1760
(33 years, 126 days)
George II by Thomas Hudson.jpg Royal Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg 30 October 1683
Herrenhausen
Son of George I
and Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Celle
Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach
22 August 1705
Herrenhausen
8 children
25 October 1760
Kensington Palace
Age: 76 years, 350 days
[4]
George III
George William Frederick
25 October 1760 [lower-alpha 4]

29 January 1820
(59 years, 97 days)
Allan Ramsay - King George III in coronation robes - Google Art Project.jpg Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg 4 June 1738
Norfolk House
Son of Prince Frederick
and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
St James's Palace
8 September 1761
15 children
29 January 1820
Windsor Castle
Age: 81 years, 228 days
[5]
George IV
George Augustus Frederick
29 January 1820 [lower-alpha 5]

26 June 1830
(10 years, 149 days)
George IV 1821 color.jpg Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg 12 August 1762
St James's Palace
Son of George III
and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
(1) Maria Fitzherbert
Park Lane
15 September 1785
No verified children
(2) Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
St James's Palace
8 April 1795
1 daughter
26 June 1830
Windsor Castle
Age: 67 years, 318 days
[6]
William IV
William Henry
26 June 1830 [lower-alpha 6]

20 June 1837
(6 years, 360 days)
William IV.jpg Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg 21 August 1765
Buckingham Palace
Son of George III
and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
Kew Palace
13 July 1818
2 daughters
20 June 1837
Windsor Castle
Age: 71 years, 303 days
[7]
Victoria
Alexandrina Victoria
20 June 1837 [lower-alpha 7]

22 January 1901
(63 years, 217 days)
Queen Victoria 1843.jpg Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace
Daughter of the Duke of Kent and Strathearn
and Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
St James's Palace
10 February 1840
9 children
22 January 1901
Osborne House
Age: 81 years, 243 days
[8]
Edward VII
Albert Edward
22 January 1901 [lower-alpha 8]

6 May 1910
(9 years, 105 days)
King Edward VII by Sir (Samuel) Luke Fildes.jpg Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg 9 November 1841
Buckingham Palace
Son of Victoria
and Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
Alexandra of Denmark
St George's Chapel
10 March 1863
6 children
6 May 1910
Buckingham Palace
Age: 68 years, 178 days
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha [9]
George V
George Frederick Ernest Albert
6 May 1910 [lower-alpha 9]

20 January 1936
(25 years, 260 days)
King George V 1911.jpg Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg 3 June 1865
Marlborough House
Son of Edward VII
and Alexandra of Denmark
Mary of Teck
St James's Palace
6 July 1893
6 children
20 January 1936
Sandringham House
Age: 70 years, 231 days
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1865–1917) and Windsor (1917–1936) [lower-roman 2] [11]
Edward VIII
Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David
20 January 1936 [lower-alpha 10]

Abdicated 11 December 1936
(327 days)
Edward VIII Portrait - 1936.jpg Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg 23 June 1894
White Lodge
Son of George V
and Mary of Teck
Wallis Simpson
Château de Candé
3 June 1937
No children
28 May 1972
Neuilly-sur-Seine
Age: 77 years, 340 days
Windsor [12]
George VI
Albert Frederick Arthur George
11 December 1936 [lower-alpha 11]

6 February 1952
(15 years, 58 days)
King George VI.jpg Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg 14 December 1895
Sandringham House
Son of George V
and Mary of Teck
Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Westminster Abbey
26 April 1923
2 daughters
6 February 1952
Sandringham House
Age: 56 years, 54 days
[13]
Elizabeth II
Elizabeth Alexandra Mary
6 February 1952 [lower-alpha 12]

Present
(68 years, 108 days)
QEII.png Arms of the United Kingdom.svg 21 April 1926
Mayfair
Daughter of George VI
and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark
Westminster Abbey
20 November 1947
4 children
Living
Age: 94 years, 33 days [lower-roman 3]
[14]

Timeline

Elizabeth IIGeorge VIEdward VIIIGeorge VEdward VIIQueen VictoriaWilliam IV of the United KingdomGeorge IV of the United KingdomGeorge III of the United KingdomGeorge II of Great BritainGeorge I of Great BritainAnne, Queen of Great BritainHouse of WindsorHouse of Saxe-Coburg and GothaHouse of HanoverHouse of StuartList of British monarchs

See also

Notes

  1. Dates of start of reign and coronation given in Old Style calendar; date of death in New Style. (Duration of reign takes this into account.)
  2. King George V changed the name of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to the House of Windsor on 17 July 1917. [10] This change was made in response to anti-German sentiment in the British Empire during World War I.
  3. Updated daily according to UTC

Coronations

Related Research Articles

Monarchy of the United Kingdom Function and history of the British monarchy

The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories. The current monarch and head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who ascended the throne in 1952.

Kingdom of Great Britain Constitutional monarchy in Western Europe between 1707 and 1801

The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called Great Britain, was a sovereign state in Western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 1 January 1801. The state came into being following the Treaty of Union in 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united the kingdoms of England and Scotland to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. The unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government that was based in Westminster. The former kingdoms had been in personal union since James VI of Scotland became King of England and King of Ireland in 1603 following the death of Elizabeth I, bringing about the "Union of the Crowns". Since its inception, the kingdom was in legislative and personal union with the Kingdom of Ireland. Following the accession of George I to the throne of Great Britain in 1714, the kingdom was in a personal union with the Electorate of Hanover.

House of Hanover German royal dynasty

The House of Hanover, whose members are known as Hanoverians, is a German royal house that ruled Hanover, Great Britain, and Ireland at various times during the 17th through 20th centuries. The house originated in 1635 as a cadet branch of the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg, growing in prestige until Hanover became an Electorate in 1692. George I became the first Hanoverian monarch of Great Britain and Ireland in 1714. At Victoria's death in 1901, the throne of the United Kingdom passed to her eldest son Edward VII, a member of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. The last reigning members of the House lost the Duchy of Brunswick in 1918 when Germany became a republic.

Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom Official coat of arms of the British monarch

The royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, or the Royal Arms for short, is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. These arms are used by the Queen in her official capacity as monarch of the United Kingdom. Variants of the Royal Arms are used by other members of the British royal family, by the British Government in connection with the administration and government of the country, and some courts and legislatures in a number of Commonwealth realms. In Scotland, there exists a separate version of the Royal Arms, a variant of which is used by the Scotland Office and the Judiciary. The arms in banner form serve as basis for the monarch's official flag, known as the Royal Standard.

Royal Standard of the United Kingdom Flags used by the British Monarchy

The Royal Standards of the United Kingdom refers to either one of two similar flags used by Queen Elizabeth II in her capacity as Sovereign of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories. Two versions of the flag exist, one for general use in England, Northern Ireland, Wales and overseas; and the other for use in Scotland.

Royal Arms of England English coat of arms

The Royal Arms of England are the arms first adopted in a fixed form at the start of the age of heraldry as personal arms by the Plantagenet kings who ruled England from 1154. In the popular mind they have come to symbolise the nation of England, although according to heraldic usage nations do not bear arms, only persons and corporations do. The blazon of the Arms of Plantagenet is: Gules, three lions passant guardant in pale or armed and langued azure, signifying three identical gold lions with blue tongues and claws, walking past but facing the observer, arranged in a column on a red background. Although the tincture azure of tongue and claws is not cited in many blazons, they are historically a distinguishing feature of the Arms of England. This coat, designed in the High Middle Ages, has been variously combined with those of the Kings of France, Scotland, a symbol of Ireland, the House of Nassau and the Kingdom of Hanover, according to dynastic and other political changes occurring in England, but has not altered since it took a fixed form in the reign of Richard I (1189–1199), the second Plantagenet king.

The title and style of the Canadian sovereign is the formal mode of address of the monarch of Canada. The form is based on those that were inherited from the United Kingdom and France, used in the colonies to refer to the reigning monarch in Europe. As various Canadian territories changed ownership and then the country gradually gained independence, the style and title of the monarchs changed almost as often as the kings and queens themselves. The mode of address currently employed is a combination of a style that originates in the early 17th century and a title established by Canadian law in 1953.

Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom British royal regalia

The Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom, originally the Crown Jewels of England, are 142 royal ceremonial objects kept in the Tower of London, which include the regalia and vestments worn at their coronations by British kings and queens.

Coronation of the British monarch Ceremony where the monarch of the United Kingdom is formally invested with regalia and crowned

The coronation of the British monarch is a ceremony in which the monarch of the United Kingdom is formally invested with regalia and crowned at Westminster Abbey. It corresponds to the coronations that formerly took place in other European monarchies, all of which have abandoned coronations in favour of inauguration or enthronement ceremonies.

Half crown (British coin) Denomination of British money worth half of a crown

The half crown was a denomination of British money, equivalent to two shillings and sixpence, or one-eighth of a pound. The half crown was first issued in 1549, in the reign of Edward VI. No half crowns were issued in the reign of Mary, but from the reign of Elizabeth I half crowns were issued in every reign except Edward VIII, until the coins were discontinued in 1970.

Head of the Commonwealth titular leader of the Commonwealth of Nations, currently coincident with the British monarch

The Head of the Commonwealth is the "symbol of the free association of independent member nations" of the Commonwealth of Nations, an intergovernmental organisation that currently comprises 54 sovereign states. There is no set term of office or term limit and the role itself involves no part in the day-to-day governance of any of the member states within the Commonwealth.

Succession to the British throne Law governing who can become British monarch

Succession to the British throne is determined by descent, sex, legitimacy, and religion. Under common law, the Crown is inherited by a sovereign's children or by a childless sovereign's nearest collateral line. The Bill of Rights 1689 and the Act of Settlement 1701 restrict succession to the throne to the legitimate Protestant descendants of Sophia of Hanover who are in "communion with the Church of England". Spouses of Roman Catholics were disqualified from 1689 until the law was amended in 2015. Protestant descendants of those excluded for being Roman Catholics are eligible.

English claims to the French throne Wikimedia list article

From the 1340s to the 19th century, excluding two brief intervals in the 1360s and the 1420s, the kings and queens of England also claimed the throne of France. The claim dates from Edward III, who claimed the French throne in 1340 as the sororal nephew of the last direct Capetian, Charles IV. Edward and his heirs fought the Hundred Years' War to enforce this claim, and were briefly successful in the 1420s under Henry V and Henry VI, but the House of Valois, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, was ultimately victorious and retained control of France. Despite this, English and British monarchs continued to prominently call themselves kings of France, and the French fleur-de-lis was included in the royal arms. This continued until 1801, by which time France no longer had any monarch, having become a republic. The Jacobite claimants, however, did not explicitly relinquish the claim.

State Crown of George I Crown of King George I

The State Crown of George I is the imperial and state crown manufactured in 1714 for King George I. It was modified and used by subsequent monarchs until 1838. The empty gold frame and its aquamarine monde which dates from the reign of King James II are both part of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom. They are on public display in the Martin Tower at the Tower of London.

Elizabeth IIs jewels Historic collection of jewels

The monarch of the Commonwealth realms, Queen Elizabeth II, owns a historic collection of jewels – some as monarch and others as a private individual. They are separate from the Gems and Jewels and the coronation and state regalia that make up the Crown Jewels.

References

  1. "Coats of arms". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  2. "Anne (r. 1702–1714)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  3. "George I (r. 1714–1727)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  4. "George II (r. 1727–1760)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  5. "George III (r. 1760–1820)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 20 May 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  6. "King George IV (r. 1820–1830)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 19 August 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  7. "William IV (r. 1830–1837)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 21 September 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  8. "Victoria ( r. 1837–1901)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  9. "Edward VII (r.1901–1910)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  10. "No. 30186". The London Gazette . 17 July 1917. p. 7119.
  11. "George V (r. 1910–1936)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  12. "Edward VIII (Jan–Dec 1936)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  13. "George VI (r.1936–1952)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  14. "Her Majesty The Queen". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 23 August 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.