List of British monarchs

Last updated
Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (Both Realms).svg
There are two versions of the current Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom. The common version is on the left, while the Scottish version is on the right. In the shield of the common version, England is represented in the first and fourth quarters, Scotland is represented in the second quarter, and Northern Ireland is represented in the third quarter. In the shield of the Scottish version, the Royal Arms of England and the Royal Arms of Scotland are exchanged. [1]

There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland on 1 May 1707. England and Scotland had been in personal union since 24 March 1603. On 1 January 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland merged, which resulted in the creation of the United Kingdom.



Queen Anne had ruled the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Scotland, and the Kingdom of Ireland since 8 March 1702. She became monarch of the Kingdom of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland on 1 May 1707. Her total reign lasted for 12 years and 146 days. Queen Anne and King George I were second cousins as both were great-grandchildren of James I and VI. For a family tree that shows George I's relationship to Anne, see George I of Great Britain § Family tree.

Duration of reignPortrait
(Coronation, when available)
Date, location, parents
Anne Stuart
1 May 1707 [lower-alpha 1]

1 August 1714
7 years, 93 days Dahl, Michael - Queen Anne - NPG 6187.jpg Royal Arms of Great Britain (1707-1714).svg 6 February 1665
St James's Palace
Daughter of James II and VII
and Anne Hyde
George of Denmark
St James's Palace
28 July 1683
5 children
1 August 1714
Kensington Palace
49 years, 176 days Stuart [2]
George I
George Louis
1 August 1714 [lower-alpha 2]

11 June 1727
12 years, 315 days King George I by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt (3).jpg Royal Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg 28 May 1660
Son of Ernest Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg
and Sophia of Hanover
Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Celle
21 November 1682
2 children
11 June 1727
67 years, 14 days Hanover [3]
George II
George Augustus
11 June 1727 [lower-alpha 3] [lower-roman 1]

25 October 1760
33 years, 126 days George II by Thomas Hudson.jpg Royal Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg 30 October 1683
Herrenhausen Palace
Son of George I
and Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Celle
Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach
Herrenhausen Gardens
22 August 1705
8 children
25 October 1760
Kensington Palace
76 years, 350 days [4]
George III
George William Frederick
25 October 1760 [lower-alpha 4]

29 January 1820
59 years, 97 days Allan Ramsay - King George III in coronation robes - Google Art Project.jpg Royal Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg
until 1801
Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1801-1816).svg
Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg
from 1816
4 June 1738
Norfolk House
Son of Prince Frederick
and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
St James's Palace
8 September 1761
15 children
29 January 1820
Windsor Castle
81 years, 228 days [5]
George IV
George Augustus Frederick
29 January 1820 [lower-alpha 5]

26 June 1830
10 years, 149 days George IV 1821 color.jpg Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg 12 August 1762
St James's Palace
Son of George III
and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
St James's Palace
8 April 1795
1 daughter
26 June 1830
Windsor Castle
67 years, 318 days [6]
William IV
William Henry
26 June 1830 [lower-alpha 6]

20 June 1837
6 years, 360 days William IV.jpg Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg 21 August 1765
Buckingham Palace
Son of George III
and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
Kew Palace
13 July 1818
2 daughters
20 June 1837
Windsor Castle
71 years, 303 days [7]
Alexandrina Victoria
20 June 1837 [lower-alpha 7]

22 January 1901
63 years, 217 days Queen Victoria 1843.jpg Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace
Daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
and Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
St James's Palace
10 February 1840
9 children
22 January 1901
Osborne House
81 years, 243 days [8]
Edward VII
Albert Edward
22 January 1901 [lower-alpha 8]

6 May 1910
9 years, 105 days King Edward VII by Sir (Samuel) Luke Fildes.jpg Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg 9 November 1841
Buckingham Palace
Son of Victoria
and Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
Alexandra of Denmark
St George's Chapel
10 March 1863
6 children
6 May 1910
Buckingham Palace
68 years, 178 days Saxe-Coburg and Gotha [9]
George V
George Frederick Ernest Albert
6 May 1910 [lower-alpha 9]

20 January 1936
25 years, 260 days King George V 1911.jpg Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg 3 June 1865
Marlborough House
Son of Edward VII
and Alexandra of Denmark
Mary of Teck
St James's Palace
6 July 1893
6 children
20 January 1936
Sandringham House
70 years, 231 days Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
(1917–1936) [lower-roman 2]
Edward VIII
Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David
20 January 1936 [lower-alpha 10]

Abdicated 11 December 1936
327 days Edward VIII Portrait - 1936.jpg Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg 23 June 1894
White Lodge
Son of George V
and Mary of Teck
Wallis Simpson
Château de Candé
3 June 1937
No children
28 May 1972
77 years, 340 days Windsor [12]
George VI
Albert Frederick Arthur George
11 December 1936 [lower-alpha 11]

6 February 1952
15 years, 58 days King George VI.jpg Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg 14 December 1895
Sandringham House
Son of George V
and Mary of Teck
Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Westminster Abbey
26 April 1923
2 daughters
6 February 1952
Sandringham House
56 years, 54 days [13]
Elizabeth II
Elizabeth Alexandra Mary
6 February 1952 [lower-alpha 12]

69 years, 291 days Elizabeth II & Philip after Coronation (cropped).JPG Arms of the United Kingdom.svg 21 April 1926
Daughter of George VI
and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Philip Mountbatten
Westminster Abbey
20 November 1947
4 children
Living95 years, 217 days [14]


Elizabeth IIGeorge VIEdward VIIIGeorge VEdward VIIQueen VictoriaWilliam IVGeorge IVGeorge IIIGeorge II of Great BritainGeorge I of Great BritainAnne, Queen of Great BritainHouse of WindsorHouse of Saxe-Coburg and GothaHouse of HanoverHouse of StuartList of British monarchs

See also


  1. Dates of start of reign and coronation given in Old Style calendar; date of death in New Style. (Duration of reign takes this into account.)
  2. King George V changed the name of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to the House of Windsor on 17 July 1917. [10] This change was made in response to anti-German sentiment in the British Empire during World War I.


Related Research Articles

George I of Great Britain King of Great Britain and Ireland (r. 1714-27), Elector of Hanover (r. 1698-1727)

George I was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) within the Holy Roman Empire from 23 January 1698 until his death in 1727. He was the first British monarch of the House of Hanover.

Monarchy of the United Kingdom Function and history of the British monarchy

The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional form of government by which a hereditary sovereign reigns as the head of state of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and the British Overseas Territories. The current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who ascended the throne in 1952.

James Francis Edward Stuart 18th-century British royal; Jacobite pretender to the throne

James Francis Edward Stuart, nicknamed the Old Pretender by Whigs, was the son of King James II and VII of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his second wife, Mary of Modena. He was Prince of Wales from July 1688 until, just months after his birth, his Catholic father was deposed and exiled in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. James II's Protestant elder daughter, Mary II, and her husband, William III, became co-monarchs and the Bill of Rights 1689 and Act of Settlement 1701 excluded Catholics from the English throne and, subsequently, the British throne.

Kingdom of Great Britain Constitutional monarchy in Western Europe between 1707 and 1800

The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called Great Britain, was a sovereign state in Western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. The state was created by the 1706 Treaty of Union and ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united the kingdoms of England and Scotland to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. The unitary state was governed by a single parliament at the Palace of Westminster, but distinct legal systems – English law and Scots law – remained in use. The union laid the foundation for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

The Five Guinea was a machine-struck gold coin produced from 1668–1753. Measuring 37 millimetres in diameter and weighing between 41 and 42 grams, it was the largest regularly produced gold coin in Britain. Although the coin is commonly known as the "Five guinea" piece, during the 17th and 18th centuries it was also known as a Five-pound piece, as the guinea was originally worth twenty shillings — until its value was fixed at twenty-one shillings by a Royal Proclamation in 1717 the value fluctuated rather in the way that bullion coins do today.

Guinea (coin) British gold coin minted between 1663 and 1814

The guinea was a coin, minted in Great Britain between 1663 and 1814, that contained approximately one-quarter of an ounce of gold. The name came from the Guinea region in West Africa, from where much of the gold used to make the coins was sourced. It was the first English machine-struck gold coin, originally worth one pound sterling, equal to twenty shillings, but rises in the price of gold relative to silver caused the value of the guinea to increase, at times to as high as thirty shillings. From 1717 to 1816, its value was officially fixed at twenty-one shillings.

The half guinea gold coin of the Kingdom of England and later of Great Britain was first produced in 1669, some years after the Guinea entered circulation. It was officially eliminated in the Great Recoinage of 1816, although, like the guinea, it was used in quoting prices until decimalisation.

Royal arms of England Royal arms of England

The royal arms of England are the arms first adopted in a fixed form at the start of the age of heraldry as personal arms by the Plantagenet kings who ruled England from 1154. In the popular mind they have come to symbolise the nation of England, although according to heraldic usage nations do not bear arms, only persons and corporations do. The blazon of the arms of Plantagenet is: Gules, three lions passant guardant in pale or armed and langued azure, signifying three identical gold lions with blue tongues and claws, walking past but facing the observer, arranged in a column on a red background. Although the tincture azure of tongue and claws is not cited in many blazons, they are historically a distinguishing feature of the arms of England. This coat, designed in the High Middle Ages, has been variously combined with those of the Kings of France, Scotland, a symbol of Ireland, the House of Nassau and the Kingdom of Hanover, according to dynastic and other political changes occurring in England, but has not altered since it took a fixed form in the reign of Richard I of England (1189–1199), the second Plantagenet king.

Parliament of Great Britain United English and Scottish parliament 1707–1800

The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in May 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. The Acts ratified the treaty of Union which created a new unified Kingdom of Great Britain and created the parliament of Great Britain located in the former home of the English parliament in the Palace of Westminster, near the City of London. This lasted nearly a century, until the Acts of Union 1800 merged the separate British and Irish Parliaments into a single Parliament of the United Kingdom with effect from 1 January 1801.

Half crown (British coin) Denomination of British money worth half of a crown

The half crown was a denomination of British money, equivalent to two shillings and sixpence, or one-eighth of a pound. The half crown was first issued in 1549, in the reign of Edward VI. No half crowns were issued in the reign of Mary, but from the reign of Elizabeth I half crowns were issued in every reign except Edward VIII, until the coins were discontinued in 1970.

Succession to the British throne Law governing who can become British monarch

Succession to the British throne is determined by descent, sex, legitimacy, and religion. Under common law, the Crown is inherited by a sovereign's children or by a childless sovereign's nearest collateral line. The Bill of Rights 1689 and the Act of Settlement 1701 restrict succession to the throne to the legitimate Protestant descendants of Sophia of Hanover who are in "communion with the Church of England". Spouses of Roman Catholics were disqualified from 1689 until the law was amended in 2015. Protestant descendants of those excluded for being Roman Catholics are eligible.

English claims to the French throne

From the 1340s to the 19th century, excluding two brief intervals in the 1360s and the 1420s, the kings and queens of England and Ireland also claimed the throne of France. The claim dates from Edward III, who claimed the French throne in 1340 as the sororal nephew of the last direct Capetian, Charles IV. Edward and his heirs fought the Hundred Years' War to enforce this claim, and were briefly successful in the 1420s under Henry V and Henry VI, but the House of Valois, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, was ultimately victorious and retained control of France. Despite this, English and British monarchs continued to prominently call themselves kings of France, and the French fleur-de-lis was included in the royal arms. This continued until 1801, by which time France no longer had any monarch, having become a republic. The Jacobite claimants, however, did not explicitly relinquish the claim.

Demise of the Crown British and Commonwealth legal term for transfer of Crown

Demise of the Crown is the legal term in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth realms for the transfer of the Crown upon the death of the monarch. The Crown transfers automatically to the monarch's heir. The concept evolved in the kingdom of England, and was continued in Great Britain and then the United Kingdom. The concept also became part of the constitutions of the British colonies, and was continued in the constitutions of the Commonwealth realms, until modified within those realms.

Succession to the Crown Act 1707 United Kingdom legislation

The Succession to the Crown Act 1707 is an Act of Parliament of the Parliament of Great Britain. It is still partly in force in Great Britain.

A list of events and people in Scotland in the 1700s:


  1. "Coats of arms". Archived from the original on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  2. "Anne (r. 1702–1714)". Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  3. "George I (r. 1714–1727)". Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  4. "George II (r. 1727–1760)". Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  5. "George III (r. 1760–1820)". Archived from the original on 20 May 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  6. "King George IV (r. 1820–1830)". Archived from the original on 19 August 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  7. "William IV (r. 1830–1837)". Archived from the original on 21 September 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  8. "Victoria ( r. 1837–1901)". Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  9. "Edward VII (r.1901–1910)". Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  10. "No. 30186". The London Gazette . 17 July 1917. p. 7119.
  11. "George V (r. 1910–1936)". Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  12. "Edward VIII (Jan–Dec 1936)". Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  13. "George VI (r.1936–1952)". Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  14. "Her Majesty The Queen". Archived from the original on 23 August 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.