Act of Settlement 1701

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Act of Settlement [1]
Coat of Arms of England (1702-1707).svg
Long title An Act for the further Limitation of the Crown and better securing the Rights and Liberties of the Subject
Citation 12 and 13 Will 3 c. 2
Territorial extent
England and Ireland initially
Dates
Royal assent 1701
Commencement 1701
Other legislation
Amended by
Relates to Bill of Rights 1689
Status: Amended
Text of statute as originally enacted
Revised text of statute as amended

The Act of Settlement is an Act of the Parliament of England that was passed in 1701 [5] to settle the succession to the English and Irish crowns on Protestants only. This had the effect of deposing the descendants of Charles I (other than his Protestant granddaughter Princess (later Queen) Anne) as the next Protestant in line to the throne was the Electress Sophia of Hanover, a granddaughter of James VI and I. After her, the crowns would descend only to her non-Catholic heirs.

Contents

The Act of Supremacy 1558 had confirmed the Church of England's independence from Roman Catholicism under the English monarch. One of the principal factors causing the political crisis known as the Glorious Revolution of 1688 was the perceived assaults made on the Church of England by King James II, a Roman Catholic. James was deposed in favour of his Protestant elder daughter Mary II and her husband William III. The need for the Act of Settlement was prompted by the failure of William and Mary, as well as that of Mary's Protestant sister the future Queen Anne   to produce any surviving children, and by the perceived threat posed by the pretensions to the throne by remaining Roman Catholic members of the House of Stuart. The line founded by Sophia of Hanover was the most junior surviving one amongst the descendants of King James I, [6] but consisted of convinced Protestants willing to uphold the Church of England. As Sophia died on 8 June 1714, less than two months before the death of Queen Anne on 1 August 1714, it was Sophia's son who duly succeeded to the throne, as King George I, and started the Hanoverian dynasty in Britain.

Facsimile of the Act of Settlement sent to Electress Sophia of Hanover Act of Settlement 3323.jpg
Facsimile of the Act of Settlement sent to Electress Sophia of Hanover

The act played a key role in the formation of the Kingdom of Great Britain. England and Scotland had shared a monarch since 1603, but had remained separately governed countries. The Scottish parliament was more reluctant than the English to abandon the House of Stuart, members of which had been Scottish monarchs long before they became English ones.

Under the Act of Settlement anyone who became a Roman Catholic, or who married one, became disqualified to inherit the throne. The act also placed limits on both the role of foreigners in the British government and the power of the monarch with respect to the Parliament of England. Some of those provisions have been altered by subsequent legislation.

Along with the Bill of Rights 1689, the Act of Settlement remains today one of the main constitutional laws governing the succession not only to the throne of the United Kingdom, but to those of the other Commonwealth realms, whether by assumption or by patriation. [7] The Act of Settlement cannot be altered in any realm except by that realm's own parliament and, by convention, only with the consent of all the other realms, as it touches on the succession to the shared crown. [8]

Following the Perth Agreement in 2011, legislation amending the act came into effect across the Commonwealth realms on 26 March 2015, and removed the disqualification arising from marriage to a Roman Catholic. Other provisions of the amended act remain in effect.

Original context

Princess Anne with Prince William, Duke of Gloucester, whose 1700 death was the predicate for the Act Queen Anne and William, Duke of Gloucester by studio of Sir Godfrey Kneller.jpg
Princess Anne with Prince William, Duke of Gloucester, whose 1700 death was the predicate for the Act

Following the Glorious Revolution, the line of succession to the English throne was governed by the Bill of Rights 1689, which declared that the flight of James II from England to France during the revolution amounted to an abdication of the throne and that James's daughter Mary II and her husband/cousin, William III (who was also James's nephew), were James's successors. The Bill of Rights also provided that the line of succession would go through Mary's Protestant descendants by William and any future Protestant husband, then through Mary's sister Anne and her Protestant descendants, and then to the descendants of William III by a possible later Protestant marriage. During the debate, the House of Lords had attempted to append Sophia and her descendants to the line of succession, but the amendment failed in the Commons. [9]

Mary II died childless in 1694, after which William III did not remarry. In 1700, Prince William, Duke of Gloucester, who was Anne's only child to survive infancy, died of smallpox at the age of 11. [10] Thus, Anne was left as the only person in line to the throne. The Bill of Rights excluded Catholics from the throne, which ruled out James II and his descendants sired post-conversion. However, it did not provide for the further succession after Anne. Parliament thus saw the need to settle the succession on Sophia and her descendants, and thereby guarantee the continuity of the Crown in the Protestant line.

With religion and lineage initially decided, the ascendancy of William of Orange in 1689 would also bring his partiality to his foreign favourites that followed. By 1701 English jealousy of foreigners was rampant, and action was considered necessary. [11]

Provisions

The Act of Settlement provided that the throne would pass to the Electress Sophia of Hanover  – a granddaughter of James VI and I and a niece of King Charles I  – and her descendants, but it excluded "for ever" "all and every Person and Persons who ... is are or shall be reconciled to or shall hold Communion with the See or Church of Rome or shall profess the Popish Religion or shall marry a Papist". Thus, those who were Roman Catholics, and those who married Roman Catholics, were barred from ascending the throne. The Act did not even mention the concept of marriages involving heirs who were members of non-Christian faiths, because that would have been unthinkable in eighteenth century Great Britain.

The Act contained eight additional provisions that were to only come into effect upon the death of both William and Anne: [12]

House of Stuart.png
Relationship of Electress Sophia of Hanover and George I with the House of Stuart.

Opposition

The Tory administration that replaced the Whig Junto in 1699 took responsibility for steering the Act through Parliament. As a result, it passed with little opposition, although five peers voted against it in the House of Lords, including the Earl of Huntingdon, his brother-in-law the Earl of Scarsdale and three others. [15] While many shared their opposition to a 'foreign' king, the general feeling was summed up as 'better a German prince than a French one.' [16]

Effects

For different reasons, various constitutionalists have praised the Act of Settlement: Henry Hallam called the Act "the seal of our constitutional laws" and David Lindsay Keir placed its importance above the Bill of Rights of 1689. [17] Naamani Tarkow wrote: "If one is to make sweeping statements, one may say that, save Magna Carta (more truly, its implications), the Act of Settlement is probably the most significant statute in English history". [18] [ further explanation needed ]

Union of Scotland with England and Wales

Sophia, Electress of Hanover Kurfuerstin Sophie.JPG
Sophia, Electress of Hanover

The Act of Settlement was, in many ways, the major cause of the union of Scotland with England and Wales to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. The Parliament of Scotland was not happy with the Act of Settlement and, in response, passed the Act of Security in 1704, through which Scotland reserved the right to choose its own successor to Queen Anne. Stemming from this, the Parliament of England decided that, to ensure the stability and future prosperity of Great Britain, full union of the two parliaments and nations was essential before Anne's death.

It used a combination of exclusionary legislation (the Alien Act 1705), politics, and bribery to achieve this within three years under the Act of Union 1707. This success was in marked contrast to the four attempts at political union between 1606 and 1689, which all failed owing to a lack of political will in both kingdoms. By virtue of Article II of the Treaty of Union, which defined the succession to the throne of Great Britain, the Act of Settlement became part of Scots Law as well.

Succession to the Crown

In addition to excluding James II (who died a few months after the act received royal assent) and his Roman Catholic children (Prince James (The Old Pretender) and the Princess Royal), the Act also excluded the descendants of Princess Henrietta, the youngest sister of James II. Henrietta's daughter was Anne, Queen of Sardinia, a Roman Catholic, from whom descend all Jacobite pretenders after 1807.

With the legitimate descendants of Charles I either childless (in the case of his two grand-daughters the late Queen Mary II and her successor Queen Anne) or Roman Catholic, Parliament's choice was limited to Sophia of Hanover, the Protestant daughter of the late Elizabeth of Bohemia, the only other child of King James I to have survived childhood. Elizabeth had borne nine children who reached adulthood, of whom Sophia was the youngest daughter. However in 1701 Sophia was the senior Protestant one, therefore with a legitimate claim to the English throne; Parliament passed over her Roman Catholic siblings, namely her sister Louise Hollandine of the Palatinate, and their descendants, who included Elizabeth Charlotte, Duchess of Orléans; Louis Otto, Prince of Salm, and his sisters; Anne Henriette, Princess of Condé and Benedicta Henrietta, Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg.

Removal from the succession due to Catholicism

Since the Act's passing the most senior living member of the royal family to have married a Roman Catholic, and thereby to have been removed from the line of succession, is Prince Michael of Kent, who married Baroness Marie-Christine von Reibnitz in 1978; he was fifteenth in the line of succession at the time. He was restored to the line of succession in 2015 when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 came into force, and became 34th in line. [19]

The next most senior living descendant of the Electress Sophia who had been ineligible to succeed on this ground is George Windsor, Earl of St Andrews, the elder son of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, who married the Roman Catholic Sylvana Palma Tomaselli in 1988. His son, Lord Downpatrick, converted to Roman Catholicism in 2003 and is the most senior descendant of Sophia to be barred as a result of his religion. In 2008 his daughter, Lady Marina Windsor, also converted to Catholicism and was removed from the line of succession. More recently, Peter Phillips, the son of Anne, Princess Royal, and eleventh in line to the throne, married Autumn Kelly; Kelly had been brought up as a Roman Catholic, but she converted to Anglicanism prior to the wedding. Had she not done so, Phillips would have forfeited his place in the succession upon their marriage, only to have it restored in 2015.

Excluding those princesses who have married into Roman Catholic royal families, such as Marie of Edinburgh, Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg and Princess Beatrice of Edinburgh, one member of the Royal Family (that is, with the style of Royal Highness ) has converted to Roman Catholicism since the passage of the Act: the Duchess of Kent, wife of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, who converted on 14 January 1994, but her husband did not lose his place in the succession because she was an Anglican at the time of their marriage. [20]

Present status

As well as being part of the law of the United Kingdom, the Act of Settlement was received into the laws of all the countries and territories over which the British monarch reigned. It remains part of the laws of the 16 Commonwealth realms and the relevant jurisdictions within those realms. In accordance with established convention, the Statute of Westminster 1931 and later laws, the Act of Settlement (along with the other laws governing the succession of the Commonwealth realms) may only be changed with the agreement of all the realms (and, in some federal realms, the constituent members of those federations).

Amendment proposals

Challenges have been made against the Act of Settlement, especially its provisions regarding Roman Catholics and preference for males. However, changing the Act is a complex process, since the Act governs the shared succession of all the Commonwealth realms. The Statute of Westminster 1931 acknowledges by established convention that any changes to the rules of succession may be made only with the agreement of all of the states involved, with concurrent amendments to be made by each state's parliament or parliaments. Further, as the current monarch's eldest child and, in turn, his eldest child, are Anglican males, any change to the succession laws would have no immediate implications. Consequently, there was little public concern with the issues and debate had been confined largely to academic circles until the November 2010 announcement that Prince William was to marry. This raised the question of what would happen if he were to produce first a daughter and then a son.

The Times reported on 6 November 1995 that Prince Charles had said on that day to Tony Blair and Paddy Ashdown that "Catholics should be able to ascend to the British throne". Ashdown claimed the Prince said: "I really can't think why we can't have Catholics on the throne". [21] In 1998, during debate on a Succession to the Crown Bill, Junior Home Office Minister Lord Williams of Mostyn informed the House of Lords that the Queen had "no objection to the Government's view that in determining the line of succession to the throne, daughters and sons should be treated in the same way." [22]

Australia

In October 2011 the Australian federal government was reported to have reached an agreement with all of the states on potential changes to their laws in the wake of amendments to the Act of Settlement. [23] The practice of the Australian states—for example, New South Wales and Victoria [24] [25] —has been, when legislating to repeal some imperial statutes so far as they still applied in Australia, to provide that imperial statutes concerning the royal succession remain in force.

The legal process required at the federal level remains, theoretically, unclear. The Australian constitution, as was noted during the crisis of 1936, contains no power for the federal parliament to legislate with respect to the monarchy. [26] Everything thus turns upon the status and meaning of clause 2 in the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1900, which provides: "The provisions of this Act referring to the Queen shall extend to Her Majesty's heirs and successors in the sovereignty of the United Kingdom." [27]

Anne Twomey reviews three possible interpretations of the clause. [26]

However, Twomey expresses confidence that, if the High Court of Australia were to be faced with the problems of covering clause 2, it would find some way to conclude that, with regard to Australia, the clause is subject solely to Australian law. [28] Canadian scholar Richard Toporoski theorised in 1998 that "if, let us say, an alteration were to be made in the United Kingdom to the Act of Settlement 1701, providing for the succession of the Crown... [i]t is my opinion that the domestic constitutional law of Australia or Papua New Guinea, for example, would provide for the succession in those countries of the same person who became Sovereign of the United Kingdom." [7]

In practice, when legislating for the Perth Agreement (see below), the Australian governments took the approach of the states requesting, and referring power to, the federal government to enact the legislation on behalf of the states (under paragraph 51(xxxviii) of the Australian Constitution) and the Commonwealth of Australia.

Canada

In Canada, where the Act of Settlement (French : Acte d'établissement) is now a part of Canadian constitutional law, Tony O'Donohue, a Canadian civic politician, took issue with the provisions that exclude Roman Catholics from the throne, and which make the monarch of Canada the Supreme Governor of the Church of England, requiring him or her to be an Anglican. This, he claimed, discriminated against non-Anglicans, including Catholics, who are the largest faith group in Canada. [29] In 2002, O'Donohue launched a court action that argued the Act of Settlement violated the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms , but, the case was dismissed by the court. [30] It found that, as the Act of Settlement is part of the Canadian constitution, the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, as another part of the same constitution, does not have supremacy over it. Also, the court noted that, while Canada has the power to amend the line of succession to the Canadian throne, the Statute of Westminster stipulates that the agreement of the governments of the fifteen other Commonwealth realms that share the Crown would first have to be sought if Canada wished to continue its relationship with these countries. An appeal of the decision was dismissed on 16 March 2005. [31] Some commentators state that, as a result of this, any single provincial legislature could hinder any attempts to change this Act, and by extension, to the line of succession for the shared crown of all 16 Commonwealth realms. [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] Others contend that that is not the case, and changes to the succession instituted by an Act of the Parliament of Canada "[in accord] with the convention of symmetry that preserves the personal unity of the British and Dominion Crowns". [37]

With the announcement in 2007 of the engagement of Peter Phillips to Autumn Kelly, a Roman Catholic and a Canadian, discussion about the Act of Settlement was revived. Norman Spector called in The Globe and Mail for Prime Minister Stephen Harper to address the issue of the act's bar on Catholics, saying Phillips' marriage to Kelly would be the first time the provisions of the act would bear directly on Canada—Phillips would be barred from acceding to the Canadian throne because he married a Roman Catholic Canadian. [29] (In fact, Lord St Andrews had already lost his place in the line of succession when he married the Roman Catholic Canadian Sylvana Palma Tomaselli in 1988. But St Andrews' place in the line of succession was significantly lower than Phillips'.) Criticism of the Act of Settlement due to the Phillips–Kelly marriage was muted when Autumn Kelly converted to Anglicanism shortly before her marriage, thus preserving her husband's place in the line of succession.

United Kingdom

From time to time there has been debate over repealing the clause that prevents Roman Catholics, or those who marry one, from ascending to the British throne. Proponents of repeal argue that the clause is a bigoted anachronism; Cardinal Winning, who was leader of the Roman Catholic Church in Scotland, called the act an "insult" to Catholics. Cardinal Murphy-O'Connor, the leader of the Roman Catholic Church in England, pointed out that Prince William (later the Duke of Cambridge) "can marry by law a Hindu, a Buddhist, anyone, but not a Roman Catholic." [38] Opponents of repeal, such as Enoch Powell and Adrian Hilton, believe that it would lead to the disestablishment of the Church of England as the state religion if a Roman Catholic were to come to the throne. They also note that the monarch must swear to defend the faith and be a member of the Anglican Communion, but that a Roman Catholic monarch would, like all Roman Catholics, owe allegiance to the Pope. This would, according to opponents of repeal, amount to a loss of sovereignty for the Anglican Church.

When in December 1978 there was media speculation that Prince Charles might marry a Roman Catholic, Powell defended the provision that excludes Roman Catholics from ascending the throne, stating his objection was not rooted in religious bigotry but in political considerations. He said a Roman Catholic monarch would mean the acceptance of a source of authority external to the realm and "in the literal sense, foreign to the Crown-in-Parliament ... Between Roman Catholicism and royal supremacy there is, as Saint Thomas More concluded, no reconciliation." Powell concluded that a Roman Catholic crown would be the destruction of the Church of England because "it would contradict the essential character of that church."

He continued:

When Thomas Hobbes wrote that "the Papacy is no other than the ghost of the deceased Roman Empire sitting crowned upon the grave thereof", he was promulgating an enormously important truth. Authority in the Roman Church is the exertion of that imperium from which England in the 16th century finally and decisively declared its national independence as the alter imperium, the "other empire", of which Henry VIII declared "This realm of England is an empire" ... It would signal the beginning of the end of the British monarchy. It would portend the eventual surrender of everything that has made us, and keeps us still, a nation. [39]

The Scottish Parliament unanimously passed a motion in 1999 calling for the complete removal of any discrimination linked to the monarchy and the repeal of the Act of Settlement. [40] The following year, The Guardian challenged the succession law in court, [41] claiming that it violated the European Convention on Human Rights, which provides,

The enjoyment of the rights and freedoms set forth in this Convention shall be secured without discrimination on any ground such as sex, race, colour, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, association with a national minority, property, birth, or other status.

As the Convention nowhere lists the right to succeed to the Crown as a human right, the challenge was rejected.

Adrian Hilton, writing in The Spectator in 2003, defended the Act of Settlement as not "irrational prejudice or blind bigotry", but claimed that it was passed because "the nation had learnt that when a Roman Catholic monarch is upon the throne, religious and civil liberty is lost." He points to the Pope's claiming universal jurisdiction, and Hilton argues that "it would be intolerable to have, as the sovereign of a Protestant and free country, one who owes any allegiance to the head of any other state" and contends that, if such situation came about, "we will have undone centuries of common law." He said that because the Roman Catholic Church does not recognise the Church of England as an apostolic church, a Roman Catholic monarch who abided by their faith's doctrine would be obliged to view Anglican and Church of Scotland archbishops, bishops, and clergy as part of the laity and therefore "lacking the ordained authority to preach and celebrate the sacraments." (Hilton noted that the Church of Scotland's Presbyterian polity does not include bishops or archbishops.) Hilton said a Roman Catholic monarch would be unable to be crowned by the Archbishop of Canterbury and notes that other European states have similar religious provisions for their monarchs: Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, whose constitutions compel their monarchs to be Lutherans; the Netherlands, which has a constitution requiring its monarchs be members of the Protestant House of Orange; and Belgium, which has a constitution that provides for the succession to be through Roman Catholic houses. [42]

In December 2004, a private member's bill—the Succession to the Crown Bill—was introduced in the House of Lords. The government, headed by Tony Blair, blocked all attempts to revise the succession laws, claiming it would raise too many constitutional issues and it was unnecessary at the time. In the British general election the following year, Michael Howard promised to work towards having the prohibition removed if the Conservative Party gained a majority of seats in the House of Commons, but the election was won by Blair's Labour Party. Four years later, plans drawn up by Chris Bryant were revealed that would end the exclusion of Catholics from the throne and end the doctrine of agnatic (male-preference) primogeniture in favour of absolute primogeniture, which governs succession solely on birth order and not on sex. [43] The issue was raised again in January 2009, when a private member's bill to amend the Act of Succession was introduced in parliament.

Across the realms

In early 2011 Keith Vaz, a Labour Member of Parliament, introduced to the House of Commons at Westminster a private member's bill which proposed that the Act of Settlement be amended to remove the provisions relating to Roman Catholicism and change the primogeniture governing the line of succession to the British throne from agnatic to absolute cognatic. Vaz sought support for his project from the Canadian Cabinet and Prime Minister Stephen Harper, but the Office of the Prime Minister of Canada responded that the issue was "not a priority for the government or for Canadians without further elaboration on the merits or drawbacks of the proposed reforms". Stephenson King, Prime Minister of Saint Lucia, said he supported the idea and it was reported that the government of New Zealand did, as well. [44] The Monarchist League of Canada said at the time to the media that it "supports amending the Act of Settlement in order to modernize the succession rules." [45]

Later the same year, the Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Nick Clegg, announced that the government was considering a change in the law. [46] [47] At approximately the same time, it was reported that British Prime Minister David Cameron had written to each of the prime ministers of the other fifteen Commonwealth realms, asking for their support in changing the succession to absolute primogeniture and notifying them he would raise his proposals at that year's Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) in Perth, Australia. [48] Cameron reportedly also proposed removing the restriction on successors being or marrying Roman Catholics; however, potential Roman Catholic successors would be required to convert to Anglicanism prior to acceding to the throne. In reaction to the letter and media coverage, Harper stated that, this time, he was "supportive" of what he saw as "reasonable modernizations". [49]

At CHOGM on 28 October 2011, the prime ministers of the other Commonwealth realms agreed to support Cameron's proposed changes to the Act. [50] [51] [52] The bill put before the Parliament of the United Kingdom would act as a model for the legislation required to be passed in at least some of the other realms, and any changes would only first take effect if the Duke of Cambridge were to have a daughter before a son. [23] [53] [54]

The British group Republic asserted that succession reform would not make the monarchy any less discriminatory. [50] As it welcomed the gender equality reforms, the British newspaper The Guardian criticized the lack of a proposal to remove the ban on Catholics sitting on the throne, [55] as did Alex Salmond, First Minister of Scotland, who pointed out that "It is deeply disappointing that the reform [of the Act of Settlement of 1701] has stopped short of removing the unjustifiable barrier on a Catholic becoming monarch." [40] On the subject, Cameron asserted: "Let me be clear, the monarch must be in communion with the Church of England because he or she is the head of that Church." [40]

The disqualification arising from marriage to a Roman Catholic was removed by the Succession to the Crown Act 2013. [56]

See also

Notes

  1. The citation of this act by this short title was authorised by the Short Titles Act 1896, section 1 and first schedule. Due to the repeal of that provision it is now authorised by the Interpretation Act 1978, section 19(2). The short title of this Act is unusual in that it does not contain the year in which it was passed.
  2. Toffoli, Gary (9 February 2013), Is There a Canadian Law of Succession and Is There a Canadian Process of Amendment? (PDF), Canadian Royal Heritage Trust, pp. 3–4, archived from the original (PDF) on 27 November 2013, retrieved 12 February 2013
  3. Macgregor Dawson, Robert (1970). The Government of Canada (5th ed.). Toronto: University of Toronto Press. p.  63. ISBN   9780802020468.
  4. Anne Twomey (18 September 2014). Professor Anne Twomey - Succession to the Crown: foiled by Canada? (Digital video). London: University College London.
  5. The act received Royal Assent in 1701. However, it is formally dated as 1700 in official use, such as the listing for the act in the Chronological Table of the Statutes , because acts passed before the Acts of Parliament (Commencement) Act 1793 came into force are dated by the year in which the relevant parliamentary session began, which, in this case, was 1700 (OS).
  6. Her only younger sibling Gustavus Adolphus of the Palatinate had died as a 9 year-old boy in 1641
  7. 1 2 Toporoski, Richard (1998). "The Invisible Crown". Monarchy Canada. Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada (Summer 1998). Archived from the original on 9 February 2008. Retrieved 16 May 2009.
  8. "The Statute of Westminster 1931", legislation.gov.uk , The National Archives, 1931 c. 4
  9. Melville, Lewis (1908). The First George in Hanover and England. London: Isaac Pitman and Sons. pp.  130–131.
  10. Snowden, Frank M. (2019). Epidemics and Society: From the Black Death to the Present. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. p. 99. ISBN   978-0-300-19221-6.
  11. 1 2 Henriques, H. S. (January 1907). "The Political Rights of English Jews". The Jewish Quarterly Review . 19 (2): 311–312. JSTOR   1451130.
  12. "Act of Settlement 1700". BAILII . Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  13. 1 2 Naamani Tarkow 1943, pp. 537–561 at p. 547.
  14. "The Chiltern Hundreds" (PDF). House of Commons Information Office. 1 June 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 October 2008. Retrieved 12 June 2008.
  15. House of Lords Journal Volume 16: 22 May 1701, in https://www.british-history.ac.uk/lords-jrnl/vol16/pp698-699#h3-0009. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
  16. Somerset 2012, p. 165.
  17. Naamani Tarkow 1943, p. 537.
  18. Naamani Tarkow 1943, p. 561.
  19. "What do the new royal succession changes mean?". Royal Central. 26 March 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  20. Brown, Andrew (18 September 2011). "Catholics hail Duchess of Kent's conversion". The Independent. Retrieved 12 March 2021.
  21. "Article", The Times, 6 November 1995
  22. "Queen backs historic change to who may rule". BBC News. 27 February 1998. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  23. 1 2 Coorey, Phillip (29 October 2011). "Leaders abandon rule on male heir succession". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
  24. Elizabeth II (1969). "Imperial Acts Application Act 1969". 6. Sydney: New South Wales Government Printer. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  25. Elizabeth II (1980). "Imperial Acts Act 1980". 6. Melbourne: Government Printer. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  26. 1 2 Twomey, pp. 8–9
  27. Victoria (1901). "Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1900". 2. Westminster: Queen's Printer. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
  28. Twomey, pp. 14–16
  29. 1 2 Spector, Norman (30 August 2007). "Why Canada must take on Britain over the 1701 Act of Settlement". The Globe and Mail . Retrieved 29 October 2011.
  30. O’Donohue v. Canada , 2003 CanLII 41404 (26 June 2003), Superior Court of Justice (Ontario,Canada)
  31. O'Donohue v. Canada , 2005 CanLII 6369 (16 March 2005)
  32. "Changing the Rules of Succession and the Problem of the Realms". University College London. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
  33. "A few thoughts on the monarchy". On procedure and politics. 27 April 2011. Archived from the original on 11 October 2011. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
  34. "Royal Succession rules: view from the Realms". Constitution Unit Blog. 20 October 2011. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
  35. Bowden, James; Philippe, Lagassé (6 December 2012), "Succeeding to the Canadian throne", Ottawa Citizen, archived from the original on 10 January 2013, retrieved 6 December 2012
  36. Vatican Insider, 23 January 2013. Retrieved 2013-01-23
  37. Jackson, D. Michael (2013). "Reforming the Succession to the Throne". The Crown and Canadian Federalism. Toronto: Dundurn Press. ISBN   978-1-4597-0988-1.
  38. "Let monarchy marry Catholics". BBC News Online . 2 June 2002. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
  39. Heffer, Simon (1999). Like the Roman: The Life of Enoch Powell . London: Phoenix Giant. pp. 810–812. ISBN   0-7538-0820-X.
  40. 1 2 3 "Catholics still barred from throne despite law change". The Scotsman . 28 October 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
  41. Dyer, Clare (6 December 2000). "A Challenge to the Crown: now is the time for change". The Guardian . Retrieved 16 January 2010.
  42. Hilton, Adrian (8 November 2003). "The price of liberty". The Spectator . Archived from the original on 4 June 2007.
  43. Wintour, Patrick (25 September 2008). "End of the Anglican crown – 300 year bar to be lifted". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 26 September 2008. Retrieved 25 September 2008.
  44. Cecil, Nicholas (8 March 2011). "St Lucia backs change to laws of succession". London Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 28 May 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
  45. Boswell, Randy (21 January 2011). "Brit asks Canada for help rewriting the rules of the Crown". Vancouver Sun. Retrieved 22 January 2011.[ permanent dead link ]
  46. "Fresh bid to reform monarchy law". BBC News Online . 21 January 2009. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
  47. "Royal succession reform is being discussed, Clegg says". BBC News Online . 16 April 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
  48. "David Cameron proposes changes to royal succession". BBC. 12 October 2011. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  49. Cheadle, Bruce (14 October 2011). "Harper 'supportive' of updating royal succession rules". Toronto Star . Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  50. 1 2 "Girls equal in British throne succession". BBC News Online . 28 October 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
  51. Kennedy, Mark (29 October 2011). "Commonwealth leaders agree to change archaic succession rules". Montreal Gazette. Retrieved 29 October 2011.[ permanent dead link ]
  52. Office of the Prime Minister of Canada (28 October 2011). "PM welcomes proposal to amend rules governing the royal line of succession". Queen's Printer for Canada. Archived from the original on 30 October 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
  53. "Girls equal in British throne succession". BBC News. 28 October 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
  54. Watt, Nicholas (28 October 2011). "Royal succession gender equality approved by Commonwealth". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
  55. Editorial Board (28 October 2011). "Royal succession: Queen and country". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
  56. Succession to the Crown Act 2013, Explanatory Notes

Sources

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The Statute of Westminster 1931 is an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that sets the basis for the relationship between the Commonwealth realms and the Crown.

Monarchy of the United Kingdom Function and history of the British monarchy

The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional form of government by which a hereditary sovereign reigns as the head of state of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and the British Overseas Territories. The current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who ascended the throne in 1952.

Commonwealth realm Sovereign state headed by Elizabeth II

A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state that has Elizabeth II as its monarch and head of state. Each realm functions as an independent state, equal with the other realms.

Royal Marriages Act 1772 United Kingdom legislation

The Royal Marriages Act 1772 was an act of the Parliament of Great Britain which prescribed the conditions under which members of the British royal family could contract a valid marriage, in order to guard against marriages that could diminish the status of the royal house. The right of veto vested in the sovereign by this act provoked severe adverse criticism at the time of its passage.

Succession to the British throne Law governing who can become British monarch

Succession to the British throne is determined by descent, sex, legitimacy, and religion. Under common law, the Crown is inherited by a sovereign's children or by a childless sovereign's nearest collateral line. The Bill of Rights 1689 and the Act of Settlement 1701 restrict succession to the throne to the legitimate Protestant descendants of Sophia of Hanover who are in "communion with the Church of England". Spouses of Roman Catholics were disqualified from 1689 until the law was amended in 2015. Protestant descendants of those excluded for being Roman Catholics are eligible.

Jacobite succession Post-1688 claim of succession of the British crowns

The Jacobite succession is the line through which Jacobites believed that the crowns of England, Scotland, and Ireland should have descended, applying primogeniture, since the deposition of James II and VII in 1688 and his death in 1701. It is in opposition to the line of succession to the British throne in law since that time.

Demise of the Crown British and Commonwealth legal term for transfer of Crown

Demise of the Crown is the legal term in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth realms for the transfer of the Crown upon the death of the monarch. The Crown transfers automatically to the monarch's heir. The concept evolved in the kingdom of England, and was continued in Great Britain and then the United Kingdom. The concept also became part of the constitutions of the British colonies, and was continued in the constitutions of the Commonwealth realms, until modified within those realms.

Monarchy of Antigua and Barbuda

The monarchy of Antigua and Barbuda is a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II as the reigning monarch and head of state of Antigua and Barbuda since 1 November 1981. As such she is Antigua and Barbuda's sovereign and officially called Queen of Antigua and Barbuda.

Monarchy of Belize Head of state

The monarchy of Belize is a system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign and head of state of Belize. The incumbent Queen of Belize is Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 21 September 1981. The heir apparent is Elizabeth's eldest son, Prince Charles, though the Queen is the only member of the royal family with any constitutional role. She and the rest of the royal family undertake various public ceremonial functions across Belize and on behalf of Belize abroad.

Monarchy of Barbados

The monarchy of Barbados is a system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign and head of state of Barbados. The current Barbadian monarch and head of state, since the independence of Barbados on 30 November 1966, is Queen Elizabeth II. As the sovereign, she is the personal embodiment of the Barbadian Crown. Although the person of the sovereign is equally shared with 15 other independent countries within the Commonwealth of Nations, each country's monarchy is separate and legally distinct. As a result, the current monarch is officially titled Queen of Barbados and, in this capacity, she and other members of the Royal Family undertake public and private functions domestically and abroad as representatives of the Barbadian state. However, the Queen is the only member of the Royal Family with any constitutional role. While some powers are exercisable only by the sovereign, most of the monarch's operational and ceremonial duties are exercised by her representative, the Governor-General of Barbados.

Monarchy of the Bahamas Commonwealth Monarchy applied in the Bahamas

The monarchy of the Bahamas is a system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas. The current monarch and head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since the country became independent on 10 July 1973. The Bahamas share the Sovereign with the other Commonwealth realms. The Queen does not personally reside in the islands, and most of her constitutional roles are therefore delegated to her representative in the country, the Governor-General of the Bahamas. Royal succession is governed by the English Act of Settlement of 1701, as amended by the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, with the latter statute reflecting the Perth Agreement, to which the Bahamas government acceded. The two acts are part of constitutional law.

Monarchy of Grenada Constitutional monarchy as a system of government in Grenada

The monarchy of Grenada is a system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign and head of state of Grenada. The present monarch is Elizabeth II, who is also Sovereign of a number of the other Commonwealth realms. The Queen's constitutional roles are mostly delegated to the Governor-General of Grenada. Royal succession is governed by the English Act of Settlement of 1701, which is part of constitutional law.

Monarchy of Saint Lucia Sovereign of Saint Lucia

The monarchy of Saint Lucia is a system of government in which a hereditary, constitutional monarch is the sovereign and head of state of Saint Lucia. The present monarch of Saint Lucia is Elizabeth II, who is also the sovereign of the other Commonwealth realms. Her constitutional roles are mostly delegated to the governor-general of Saint Lucia.

The Perth Agreement was made in 2011 by the prime ministers of the sixteen states known as Commonwealth realms, which at the time all recognized Elizabeth II as their head of state. The document agreed that the governments of the realms would amend their laws concerning the succession to their shared throne and related matters. The changes, in summary, comprised:

Succession to the Crown Act 2013 United Kingdom legislation

The Succession to the Crown Act 2013 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that altered the laws of succession to the British throne in accordance with the 2011 Perth Agreement. The Act replaced male-preference primogeniture with absolute primogeniture for those in the line of succession born after 28 October 2011, which means the eldest child, regardless of sex, precedes any siblings. The Act also repealed the Royal Marriages Act 1772, ended disqualification of a person who married a Roman Catholic from succession, and removed the requirement for those outside the first six persons in line to the throne to seek the Sovereign's approval to marry. It came into force on 26 March 2015, at the same time as the other Commonwealth realms implemented the Perth Agreement in their own laws.

Royal Succession Bills and Acts

Royal Succession Bills and Acts are pieces of (proposed) legislation to determine the legal line of succession to the Monarchy of the United Kingdom.

<i>Succession to the Throne Act, 2013</i>

The Succession to the Throne Act, 2013, which has the long title An Act to assent to alterations in the law touching the Succession to the Throne, was passed by the Parliament of Canada to give assent to the Succession to the Crown Bill, which was intended to change the line of succession to the Canadian throne and was passed with amendments by the UK parliament on 25 April 2013. Bill C-53 was presented and received its first reading in the House of Commons on 31 January 2013 and received Royal Assent on 27 March of the same year. The Act was brought into force by the Governor General-in-Council on 26 March 2015.

Royal Succession Act 2013

The Royal Succession Act is an act of the New Zealand parliament to alter the laws of succession to the New Zealand throne.

<i>Succession to the Crown Act 2015</i> Act of the Parliament of Australia, currently registered as C2015A00023

The Succession to the Crown Act 2015 is the name of an act of the Commonwealth Parliament of Australia, enacted at the request of all six Australian states under section 51(xxxviii) of the Australian Constitution. The Australian acts were the final part of the Perth Agreement's legislative program agreed by the prime ministers of the Commonwealth realms to modernise the succession to the crowns of the sixteen Commonwealth realms, while continuing to have in common the same monarch and royal line of succession. as was the case at the time of the Statute of Westminster 1931.