Anne, Princess Royal

Last updated

Anne
Princess Royal (more)
Princess Anne October 2015.jpg
The Princess Royal, October 2015
Born (1950-08-15) 15 August 1950 (age 68)
Clarence House, London, England
Spouse
Issue
Full name
Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise [lower-alpha 1]
House Windsor
Father Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Mother Elizabeth II

Anne, Princess Royal, KG , KT , GCVO , GCStJ , QSO , CD [2] [3] [4] (Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise; born 15 August 1950) is the second child and only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. At the time of her birth, she was third in the line of succession to the British throne, behind her mother – then Princess Elizabeth – and elder brother, Charles. She rose to second after her mother's accession, but is 14th in line as of May 2019. [lower-alpha 2]

Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh Member of the British Royal Family, consort to Queen Elizabeth II

Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, is the husband of Queen Elizabeth II.

Charles, Prince of Wales Son of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom

Charles, Prince of Wales is the heir apparent to the British throne as the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II. He has been Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay since 1952, and is the oldest and longest-serving heir apparent in British history. He is also the longest-serving Prince of Wales, having held that title since 1958.

Contents

Anne is known for her charitable work, and is a patron of over 200 organisations. She is also known for equestrian talents; she won two silver medals (1975) and one gold medal (1971) at the European Eventing Championships, [5] and is the first member of the British Royal Family to have competed in the Olympic Games. Princess Anne has held the title of Princess Royal since 1987 and is its seventh holder.

Equestrianism The use of horses for sport or work

Equestrianism, more often known as horse riding or horseback riding, refers to the skill and sport of riding, driving, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses. This broad description includes the use of horses for practical working purposes, transportation, recreational activities, artistic or cultural exercises, and competitive sport.

The European Eventing Championships, like most other European Championships, is held every two years. Today it is a three star eventing competition. A three star event is one step down from the grand slam which consists of three four star events.

Olympic Games Major international sport event

The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating. The Olympic Games are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart.

Anne was married to Captain Mark Phillips in 1973; they divorced in 1992. They have two children and four grandchildren. In 1992, within months of her divorce, Anne married Commander (now Vice Admiral) Sir Timothy Laurence, whom she had met while he served as her mother's equerry between 1986 and 1989. Since 2012, she has held the rank of Admiral and Chief Commandant of Women in the Royal Navy.

Mark Phillips equestrian

Captain Mark Anthony Peter Phillips is an English Olympic gold-medal-winning horseman for Great Britain and the first husband of Anne, Princess Royal, with whom he has two children. He remains a leading figure in British equestrian circles, a noted eventing course designer, and a columnist in Horse & Hound magazine.

Vice Admiral Sir Timothy James Hamilton Laurence, is a retired Royal Navy officer and the second husband of Princess Anne, the only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip. Laurence was Equerry to the Queen from 1986 to 1989.

An equerry is an officer of honour. Historically, it was a senior attendant with responsibilities for the horses of a person of rank. In contemporary use, it is a personal attendant, usually upon a sovereign, a member of a royal family, or a national representative. The role is equivalent to an aide-de-camp, but the term is now prevalent only in the Commonwealth of Nations.

Early life and education

Princess Anne with her parents and elder brother in October 1957 Elizabeth, Philip, Charles and Anne.jpg
Princess Anne with her parents and elder brother in October 1957

Anne was born in the reign of her maternal grandfather George VI at Clarence House on 15 August 1950 at 11:50 am, [6] as the second child and only daughter of Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh, and Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. A 21-gun salute signalled the birth in Hyde Park. [7] Anne was baptised in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace on 21 October 1950, by Archbishop of York, Cyril Garbett. [lower-alpha 3]

George VI King of the United Kingdom

George VI was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death on 6 February 1952. He was the last Emperor of India and the first Head of the Commonwealth.

Clarence House royal residence in London, situated on The Mall, in the City of Westminster

Clarence House is a British royal residence on The Mall in the City of Westminster, London. It is attached to St James's Palace and shares the palace's garden. From 1953 until 2002, it was home to Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother. It has since been the official residence of Charles, Prince of Wales, and his wife Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall.

21-gun salute 21 shot gun salute

A 21-gun salute is the most commonly recognized of the customary gun salutes that are performed by the firing of cannons or artillery as a military honor.

A governess, Catherine Peebles, was appointed to look after Anne and was responsible for her early education at Buckingham Palace; [10] Peebles also served as early governess for Anne's older brother, Charles. After the death of George VI, Anne's mother ascended the throne as Queen Elizabeth II. Given her young age at the time, she did not attend the coronation.

Governess woman employed to teach and train children in a private household

A governess is a woman employed to teach and train children in a private household. In contrast to a nanny, she concentrates on teaching children instead of meeting their physical needs. Her charges are of school age rather than babies.

Anne and Charles at the White House with Tricia Nixon and Julie and David Eisenhower in 1970 1970s royal visit to the USA.jpg
Anne and Charles at the White House with Tricia Nixon and Julie and David Eisenhower in 1970

A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company to include the Holy Trinity Brompton Brownie pack, was re-formed in May 1959, specifically so that, as her mother and aunt had done as children, Anne could socialise with girls her own age. The Company was active until 1963, when Anne went to boarding school. [11] Anne enrolled at Benenden School in 1963. In 1968, she left school with six GCE O-Levels and two A-Levels. [10]

Girl Guides

Girl Guides or Girl Scouts is a movement found worldwide, which was originally and still largely designed for girls and women only. This organisation was introduced in 1909, because girls demanded to take part in the then grassroots Boy Scout Movement.

Benenden School independent boarding school for girls in Kent, England

Benenden School is an independent boarding school for girls in Kent, England. It is located in Hemsted Park at Benenden in the Kentish countryside, between Cranbrook and Tenterden.

The General Certificate of Education (GCE) is a subject-specific family of academic qualifications that awarding bodies in England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Crown dependencies and a few Commonwealth countries, notably Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Malaysia and Singapore, confer on students..

In the next couple of years, Anne started dating. In 1970, her first boyfriend was Andrew Parker Bowles, who later became the first husband of Camilla Shand (subsequently the mistress and second wife of her brother, Prince Charles). [12]

First marriage

Princess Anne at Massawa, Ethiopia, in February 1973 Anne, Princess Royal in Ethiopia 1973.jpg
Princess Anne at Massawa, Ethiopia, in February 1973

Anne first met her future husband Mark Phillips at a party for horse enthusiasts in 1968. [13] Their engagement was announced on 29 May 1973. [14] [15] On 14 November 1973, Princess Anne married Mark Phillips, a lieutenant in the 1st Queen's Dragoon Guards, at Westminster Abbey in a ceremony that was televised around the world, with an estimated audience of 100 million. [16] Following the wedding, Anne and her husband lived at Gatcombe Park. He was made acting captain by the start of 1974 when he was appointed a personal aide-de-camp to Queen Elizabeth II. As was customary for untitled men marrying into the royal family, Phillips was offered an earldom. He declined this offer leading to their children being born without courtesy titles. [17] The couple would have two children, Peter (born 1977) and Zara Phillips (born 1981). [18]

On 31 August 1989, Princess Anne and Mark Phillips announced their intention to separate, as the marriage had been under strain for a number of years. [13] [19] The couple had been rarely seen in the public together, and both were romantically linked with other people. [13] [20] They continued to share the custody of their children, and initially announced that "there were no plans for divorce." [21] [22] They eventually divorced on 23 April 1992. [23] Anne and Phillips have four grandchildren.

Kidnapping attempt

Princess Anne in a visit to Washington, Tyne and Wear, 1974 Visit of Princess Anne to Washington, 1974 (9713931669).jpg
Princess Anne in a visit to Washington, Tyne and Wear, 1974

As Princess Anne and Mark Phillips were returning to Buckingham Palace on 20 March 1974, from a charity event on Pall Mall, their Princess IV car was forced to stop on the Mall by a Ford Escort. [24] The driver of the Escort, Ian Ball, jumped out and began firing a pistol. Inspector James Beaton, Anne's personal police officer, responded by getting out of the car in order to shield her and to attempt to disarm Ball. Beaton's firearm, a Walther PPK, jammed, and he was shot by the assailant, as was Anne's chauffeur, Alex Callender, when he tried to disarm Ball. [25] Brian McConnell, a nearby tabloid journalist, also intervened, and was shot in the chest. [26] Ball approached Anne's car and told her of his kidnapping plan, which was to hold her for ransom, the sum given by varying sources as £2 million [27] or £3 million, which he claimed he intended to give to the National Health Service. [24] Ball then directed Anne to get out of the car, to which she replied: "Not bloody likely!", and reportedly briefly considered hitting Ball. [28] Eventually, she exited the other side of the limousine as had her lady-in-waiting, Rowena Brassey. A passing pedestrian, a former boxer named Ron Russell, punched Ball in the back of the head and then led Anne away from the scene. At that point, Police Constable Michael Hills happened upon the situation; he too was shot by Ball, but not before he called for police backup. Detective Constable Peter Edmonds, who had been nearby, answered and gave chase, finally arresting Ball. [25]

Beaton, Hills, Callender and McConnell were hospitalised, and all recovered from their wounds. For his defence of Princess Anne, Beaton was awarded the George Cross by the Queen, who was visiting Indonesia when the incident occurred; [29] Hills and Russell were awarded the George Medal, and Callender, McConnell and Edmonds were awarded the Queen's Gallantry Medal. [24] [30] Anne later visited Beaton in hospital and thanked him for his assistance; she also spoke about the event on TV to Parkinson in 1974 saying she was 'scrupulously polite' to her would-be kidnapper as she thought it would be 'silly to be too rude at that stage'. [29]

Ball pleaded guilty to attempted murder and kidnapping. He was still detained under the Mental Health Act as of January 2011, at Broadmoor. [31] The incident was the closest in modern times that any individual has come to kidnapping a member of the Royal Family, and prompted higher security levels for the family. It also served as the focus of the 2006 Granada Television produced docu-drama To Kidnap a Princess and inspired story lines in the Tom Clancy novel Patriot Games . [32]

Second marriage

Anne met Timothy Laurence while he was serving on the Royal Yacht Britannia, and their relationship developed in early 1989, three years after he was appointed as an equerry to the Queen. [33] In 1989, the existence of private letters from Laurence to the Princess was revealed by The Sun newspaper. [20] Anne married Laurence, then a Commander in the Royal Navy, at Crathie Kirk, near Balmoral Castle, on 12 December 1992. [34] Around 30 guests were invited for the private marriage service. [35] The couple chose to marry in Scotland as the Church of England did not at that time allow divorced persons whose former spouses were still living to remarry in its churches. [36] [37] The Church of Scotland does not consider marriage to be a sacrament, and thus not binding forever, and has no moral objection to the remarriage of divorced persons. [38] In participating in this ceremony, Anne became the first royal divorcée to remarry since Victoria, Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine, granddaughter of Queen Victoria, married Grand Duke Cyril Vladimirovich of Russia in 1905. For the wedding ceremony, Anne wore a white jacket over a "demure, cropped-to-the-knee dress" and a spray of white flowers in her hair. [39] Her engagement ring is made of "a cabochon sapphire flanked by three small diamonds on each side". [40] Following the marriage service, the couple and guests headed to Craigowan Lodge for a private reception. [34] Like Phillips before him, Laurence received no peerage, and the couple leased a flat in Dolphin Square, London. They later gave up this city home and now reside between an apartment at St James's Palace and Gatcombe Park. [41] Anne has no children by Laurence.

Equestrianism

Medal record
Representing Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Equestrian
European Championships
Gold medal icon (G initial).svg 1971 Burghley Individual eventing
Silver medal icon (S initial).svg 1975 Luhmuhlen Team eventing
Silver medal icon (S initial).svg 1975 Luhmuhlen Individual eventing

At the age of 21, Anne won the individual title at the European Eventing Championship, [42] and was voted the BBC Sports Personality of the Year in 1971. [43] For more than five years, she also competed with the British eventing team, winning a silver medal in both individual and team disciplines in the 1975 European Eventing Championship, riding the home-bred Doublet. [44] The following year, Anne participated in the 1976 Olympic Games in Montreal as a member of the British team, riding the Queen's horse, Goodwill. [45] Anne assumed the Presidency of the Fédération Équestre Internationale from 1986 until 1994. [46] On 5 February 1987, she became the first member of the Royal Family to appear as a contestant on a television quiz-show when she competed on the BBC panel game A Question of Sport . [44]

Activities

Anne undertakes a number of duties and engagements on behalf of her mother, in support of her role as sovereign of the Commonwealth realms. Kevin S. MacLeod, the Canadian Secretary to the Queen, said of Anne in 2014: "Her credo is, 'Keep me busy. I'm here to work. I'm here to do good things. I'm here to meet as many people as possible'." [47] It was revealed in December 2017 that the Princess Royal had undertaken the most official engagements that year out of all the royal family, her mother included. [48] [49]

Anne began to undertake overseas visits upon leaving secondary school, [10] and accompanied her parents on a state visit to Austria in the same year. [50] She also travels abroad on behalf of the United Kingdom up to three times a year; she was the first member of the Royal Family to make an official visit to the Soviet Union when she went there as a guest of the government in 1990. [50]

Anne (left) with her parents during their tour of Australia in 1970 Elizabeth, Philip, and Anne, 1970.jpg
Anne (left) with her parents during their tour of Australia in 1970

Her first tour of Australia was with her parents in 1970, since which she has returned on numerous occasions to undertake official engagements as a colonel-in-chief of an Australian regiment, or to attend memorials and services, such as the National Memorial Service for victims of the Black Saturday bushfires in Melbourne, Australia, on 22 February 2009. [51]

Following the retirement of the Queen Mother in 1981, Anne was elected by graduates of the University of London as that institution's Chancellor. [52] Throughout May 1996, Anne served as Her Majesty's High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, and held the post again in 2017. [53] In 2007, she had the honour of being appointed by the Queen as Grand Master of the Royal Victorian Order, a position her grandmother had also held. [54]

Anne is involved with over 200 charities and organisations in an official capacity. She works extensively for Save the Children, of which she has been president since 1970, [55] and she initiated The Princess Royal Trust for Carers in 1991; [56] her work for the charity takes her all over the world, including many poverty stricken African nations. [55] Anne is the patron of Transaid, a charity founded by Save the Children and the Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport which aims to provide safe and sustainable transport in developing countries. [57] She is also the Royal Patron of WISE, an organisation that encourages young women to pursue careers in science, engineering and construction. [58] Her extensive work for St. John Ambulance as Commandant-in-Chief of St. John Ambulance Cadets has helped to develop many young people, as she annually attends the Grand Prior Award Reception. [59] [60] She is Patron of St. Andrew's First Aid. [61] [62] She is a British representative in the International Olympic Committee as an administrator, [63] and was a member of the London Organising Committee for the Olympic Games. [64] She was President of BAFTA from 1973 to 2001. [65] She maintains a relationship with student sport and is the Patron of British Universities and Colleges Sport. [66] She has been Patron of the Royal National Children's Foundation since 2002 [67] [68] and the industrial heritage museum, Aerospace Bristol, since 2016. [69]

The Princess Royal visits USNS Comfort on 11 July 2002, while the vessel docked at Southampton, UK Dean Bradford and Princess Anne.jpg
The Princess Royal visits USNS Comfort on 11 July 2002, while the vessel docked at Southampton, UK

She is also a Royal Fellow of the Royal Society [70] and the Academy of Medical Sciences. [71] Royal Fellows are members of the Monarchy who are recommended and elected by the Society's Council. The Royal Society has only five Royal Fellows, including the Princess Royal herself, the Duke of Edinburgh, the Prince of Wales, the Duke of Kent, and the Duke of Cambridge. [72] She is the Academy of Medical Sciences' first Royal Fellow. [71]

She was elected Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh effective 31 March 2011, succeeding her father, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, who stepped down from the role in 2010. [73]

Likewise, she accepted in 2011 the roles of President of City and Guilds of London Institute, [74] Master of the Corporation of Trinity House [75] [76] and President of the Royal Society of Arts, also in succession to her father. She is also Patron of the Royal College of Occupational Therapists, [77] Edinburgh University's Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, [78] Royal Holloway, University of London, [79] [80] International Students House, London, [81] [82] Acid Survivors Trust International, [83] and Townswomen's Guilds. [84]

She represented Great Britain in the International Olympic Committee at the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics in Russia. [85] In September 2016, the Princess suffered from chest infection and was required to cancel official engagements. [86] In late October 2016, Princess Anne visited the Malaysian state of Sarawak for a two-day study tour. [87] In 2017, she became Prime Warden of the Worshipful Company of Fishmongers and a Governor of Gresham's School. [88]

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

Royal Monogram Royal Monogram of Princess Anne of Great Britain.svg
Royal Monogram

Anne is the seventh Princess Royal, [91] an appellation given only to the eldest daughter of the sovereign, the previous holder being George V's daughter, Princess Mary, Countess of Harewood.

Honours

The Princess Royal processing at the Garter Service, Windsor, with her brothers, Charles, Andrew and Edward on 19 June 2006 Royal Knights of the Garter.jpg
The Princess Royal processing at the Garter Service, Windsor, with her brothers, Charles, Andrew and Edward on 19 June 2006

Commonwealth

Foreign

Appointments

Fellowships
Civic
Academic
Honorary academic degrees

Honorary military appointments

As with other senior royals, Princess Anne holds a number of honorary appointments in the armed forces of several Commonwealth realms:

Flag of Australia (converted).svg Australia
The Princess Royal at a parade on the 75th anniversary of the Royal Australian Corps of Signals, 5 July 2000. PrincessAnneRASigs1.jpg
The Princess Royal at a parade on the 75th anniversary of the Royal Australian Corps of Signals, 5 July 2000.
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canada
Flag of New Zealand.svg New Zealand
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom

Arms

Personal flag for Canada

Flag of the Princess Royal for use in Canada Personal Flag of the Princess Royal for use in Canada.svg
Flag of the Princess Royal for use in Canada

Since 2013, the Princess Royal has a personal heraldic flag for use in Canada. It is the Royal Arms of Canada in banner form defaced with a blue roundel surrounded by a wreath of gold maple leaves, within which is a depiction of an "A" surmounted by a coronet. Above the roundel is a white label of three points, the centre one charged with a red heart and the other two with red crosses. [127] [128]

Other honours

In February 2015, the Princess Royal became one of the first female honorary members of the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews. [129]

Issue

NameBirthMarriageIssue
Peter Phillips 15 November 197717 May 2008 Autumn Kelly Savannah Phillips
Isla Phillips
Zara Phillips 15 May 198130 July 2011 Mike Tindall Mia Tindall
Lena Tindall

Ancestry

The Princess Royal's ancestry can be traced as far back as Cerdic, King of Wessex (519–534). [130]

Notes

  1. As a British princess, Anne does not usually use a maiden surname; but when one is needed, it is Mountbatten-Windsor. [1]
  2. The Perth Agreement and the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 reformed the line of succession to the British throne to absolute primogeniture. However this was applied only to those born after the Agreement, so neither the Princess Royal nor her descendants at the time were moved ahead in the line.
  3. Her godparents were the Queen (later Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother; her maternal grandmother); the Princess Margarita, Hereditary Princess of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (her paternal aunt); Princess Andrew of Greece and Denmark (her paternal grandmother); Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (her paternal great-uncle); and Andrew Elphinstone (her first cousin once removed). [8] [9]

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Anne, Princess Royal
Born: 15 August 1950
Lines of succession
Preceded by
Lady Louise Windsor
Line of succession to the British throne
14th position
Followed by
Peter Phillips
British royalty
Vacant
Title last held by
Princess Mary, Countess of Harewood
Princess Royal
1987–present
Incumbent
Academic offices
Preceded by
Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother
Chancellor of the University of London
1981–present
Incumbent
Preceded by
The Duke of Edinburgh
Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh
2011–present
New creation Chancellor of the University of the Highlands and Islands
2012–present
Chancellor of Harper Adams University
2013–present
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother
Grand Master of the Royal Victorian Order
2007–present
Incumbent
Preceded by
Henry Cooper
BBC Sports Personality of the Year
1971
Succeeded by
Mary Peters
Orders of precedence in the United Kingdom
Preceded by
The Countess of Wessex
Ladies
HRH The Princess Royal
Followed by
The Duchess of Cambridge