British princess

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HRH The Princess Royal, daughter of the Queen. Princess Anne October 2015.jpg
HRH The Princess Royal, daughter of the Queen.
HRH The Duchess of Cornwall, daughter-in-law of the Queen. Duchess of Cornwall in 2014 (cropped).jpg
HRH The Duchess of Cornwall, daughter-in-law of the Queen.
HRH The Duchess of Cambridge, granddaughter-in-law of the Queen. Catherine Elizabeth Middleton (colorized).jpg
HRH The Duchess of Cambridge, granddaughter-in-law of the Queen.
HRH The Duchess of Sussex, granddaughter-in-law of the Queen. The Duchess of Sussex in NZ.jpg
HRH The Duchess of Sussex, granddaughter-in-law of the Queen.
HRH Princess Beatrice of York, granddaughter of the Queen. Prince Beatrice with Dave Clark crop.jpg
HRH Princess Beatrice of York, granddaughter of the Queen.
HRH Princess Eugenie of York, granddaughter of the Queen. Princess Eugenie, 2013 (cropped).jpg
HRH Princess Eugenie of York, granddaughter of the Queen.
HRH The Countess of Wessex, daughter-in-law of the Queen. Sophie, grevinna av Wessex.jpg
HRH The Countess of Wessex, daughter-in-law of the Queen.

This is a list of those who have held the title Princess of the United Kingdom from the accession of George I in 1714. This article deals with both princesses of the blood royal and women who become princesses upon marriage.

George I of Great Britain King of Great Britain, Elector of Hanover

George I was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 23 January 1698 until his death in 1727.

Contents

The use of the title of Princess of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is entirely at the will of the sovereign as expressed in letters patent. Individuals holding the title of princess are styled "Her Royal Highness" (HRH). On 18 April 1917, the newest granddaughter of Wilhelm II, German Emperor was styled a British Princess from birth even though Germany and Britain were fighting in WWI. George V wrote Letters Patent on 30 November 1917, [1] to restrict the automatic assignment of the title "Princess" and the use of the style "Royal Highness" to the following persons:

Princess is a regal rank and the feminine equivalent of prince. Most often, the term has been used for the consort of a prince, or for the daughter of a king or prince.

A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy. A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state, or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. Typically a monarch either personally inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch. Alternatively, an individual may become monarch by conquest, acclamation or a combination of means. A monarch usually reigns for life or until abdication.

Letters patent type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order

Letters patent are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, president, or other head of state, generally granting an office, right, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation. Letters patent can be used for the creation of corporations or government offices, or for the granting of city status or a coat of arms. Letters patent are issued for the appointment of representatives of the Crown, such as governors and governors-general of Commonwealth realms, as well as appointing a Royal Commission. In the United Kingdom they are also issued for the creation of peers of the realm. A particular form of letters patent has evolved into the modern patent granting exclusive rights in an invention. In this case it is essential that the written grant should be in the form of a public document so other inventors can consult it to avoid infringement and also to understand how to "practice" the invention, i.e., put it into practical use. In the Holy Roman Empire, Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, imperial patent was also the highest form of generally binding legal regulations, e. g. Patent of Toleration, Serfdom Patent etc.

British prince royal title in the United Kingdom

Prince of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a royal title normally granted to sons and grandsons of reigning and past British monarchs. It is also held by the Duke of Edinburgh, husband of Queen Elizabeth II. The title is granted by the reigning monarch, who is the fount of all honours, through the issuing of letters patent as an expression of the royal will.

On 31 December 2012, Elizabeth II issued letters patent enabling all children of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales to enjoy the princely title and style of Royal Highness , as opposed to only the eldest son.

Elizabeth II Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms

Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.

Prince of Wales British Royal Family Title

Prince of Wales was a title granted to native Welsh princes before the 12th century; the term replaced the use of the word king. One of the last Welsh princes, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, was killed in battle in 1282 by Edward I, King of England, whose son Edward was invested as the first English Prince of Wales in 1301.

Royal Highness is a style used to address or refer to some members of royal families, usually princes or princesses. Monarchs and their consorts are usually styled Majesty. When used as a direct form of address, spoken or written, it takes the form "Your Royal Highness". When used as a third-person reference, it is gender-specific and, in plural, Their Royal Highnesses (TRH).

Princesses of the blood royal and princesses by marriage

Under the current practice, princesses of the blood royal are the legitimate daughters and the legitimate male line granddaughters of a British Sovereign. They are dynasts, that is potential successors to the throne. For these individuals, the title "Princess of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" and the style "Her Royal Highness" is an entitlement for life. The title Princess and the style Royal Highness is prefixed to the Christian name, before another title of honour. From 1714 until 1917, the male-line great granddaughters of the Sovereign were titled "Princess of Great Britain and Ireland" with the style "Highness". Since 1917, [1] the male-line great granddaughters of the Sovereign have held "the style and title enjoyed by the children of dukes". For example, the daughters of the current Duke of Gloucester, a male line grandson of George V, are styled The Lady Davina Lewis and The Lady Rose Gilman.

Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester Youngest grandchild of King George V and Queen Mary

Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester, is the youngest grandchild of King George V and Queen Mary. He practised as an architect until the death of his elder brother placed him in direct line to inherit his father's dukedom of Gloucester, which he inherited, as the second duke, in 1974. He is a paternal cousin of Queen Elizabeth II, and currently 27th in the line of succession to the British throne as well as the first in line not descended from King George VI. He is also the senior male line descendant of three British monarchs: Victoria, Edward VII and George V.

Princesses by marriage are the recognised wives of the Sovereign's sons and male-line grandsons. [1] Generally, these women are entitled to the style "Royal Highness" by virtue of marriage, and retain the style if widowed. However, Queen Elizabeth II issued Letters Patent dated 21 August 1996 stating that any woman divorced from a Prince of the United Kingdom would no longer be entitled to the style "Royal Highness". This has so far applied to Diana, Princess of Wales, and Sarah, Duchess of York.

Diana, Princess of Wales member of the British royal family

Diana, Princess of Wales, was a member of the British royal family. She was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, and the mother of Prince William and Prince Harry. Diana's activism and glamour made her an international icon and earned her an enduring popularity as well as an unprecedented public scrutiny, exacerbated by her tumultuous private life.

Sarah, Duchess of York British writer, charity patron, public speaker, film producer and television personality

Sarah, Duchess of York, is a British writer, charity patron, film producer, and television personality. She is the former wife of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, the second son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Sarah is the younger daughter of Major Ronald Ferguson and Susan Barrantes. She has two daughters, Princesses Beatrice and Eugenie, who are respectively ninth and tenth in the line of succession to the British throne.

Since the passage of the Royal Marriages Act 1772, there have been several instances in which princes of the blood contracted marriages in contravention of that act (which meant they were not legally married) and several instances in which the Sovereign withheld the style "Her Royal Highness" from a prince's wife deemed to be unsuitable. For example, Prince George, Duke of Cambridge, a male-line grandson of George III, married Sarah Louisa Fairbrother, in contravention of the Royal Marriages Act. Although morganatic marriage did not exist in British law, the duke's wife was never titled the Duchess of Cambridge or accorded the style "Her Royal Highness". Instead, she was known as "Mrs FitzGeorge". Most famously, George VI issued Letters Patent dated 27 May 1937 that entitled The Duke of Windsor "to hold and enjoy for himself only the title style or attribute of Royal Highness so however that his wife and descendants if any shall not hold the said title style or attribute".

The wife of a prince of the blood takes her husband's Christian name [4] [5] in her title as do all married royal women. For example, upon her marriage to Prince Michael of Kent in 1978, Baroness Marie-Christine von Reibnitz assumed the title and style of "Her Royal Highness Princess Michael of Kent". Similarly, upon her marriage to then Prince Richard of Gloucester, the former Birgitte van Deurs assumed the title and style of "Her Royal Highness Princess Richard of Gloucester".

The situation is slightly different when a woman is married to a prince who happens to be a peer or the Prince of Wales.[ citation needed ] Upon marriage, the wife of the Prince of Wales becomes "Her Royal Highness The Princess of Wales". Upon marriage, the wife of a royal duke (or earl) becomes "Her Royal Highness The Duchess (or Countess) of X". When Prince Richard of Gloucester succeeded to his father's dukedom in 1974, his wife became "Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Gloucester".

It has been traditional, and is still technically the case,[ citation needed ] that a princess by marriage cannot be called Princess followed by her first name. Diana, Princess of Wales, was consistently referred to as "Princess Diana" by fans and the media, but the use of this title is completely erroneous, as she was not the child of a monarch nor the child of a son of a monarch. However, this tradition was broken once in the past century with Queen Elizabeth's aunt, Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester, being referred to—with permission from the sovereign—in official sources as such following the death of her husband. [6]

History

The use of the titles prince and princess and the styles of Highness and Royal Highness for members of the Royal Family is of fairly recent usage in the British Isles. Before 1714, [1] there was no settled practice regarding the use of the titles prince and princess other than the heir apparent and his wife. From 1301 onward, the eldest sons of the Kings of England (and later Great Britain and the United Kingdom) have generally been created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester. Their wives were titled Princess of Wales.

The title Princess Royal came into being in 1642[ citation needed ] when Queen Henrietta Maria, the French-born wife of Charles I, wished to imitate the way the eldest daughter of the French King was styled (Madame Royale). However, there was no settled practice on the use of the title princess for the Sovereign's younger daughters or male-line granddaughters. For example, as late as the time of Charles II, the daughters of his brother James, Duke of York, both of whom became Queens regnant, were called simply "The Lady Mary" and "The Lady Anne". The future Queen Anne was styled princess in her marriage treaty to Prince George of Denmark and then styled "Princess Anne of Denmark" once married. However, in exile at Saint-Germain-en-Laye the deposed James II gave the title of Princess Royal to his last daughter, Louisa Maria (1692–1712).

After the accession of George I of Hanover, the princely titles were changed to follow the German practice.[ citation needed ] The children, grandchildren, and male line great grandchildren of the British Sovereign were automatically titled "Prince or Princess of Great Britain and Ireland" and styled "Royal Highness" (in the case of children and grandchildren) or "Highness" (in the case of male line great grandchildren). Queen Victoria confirmed this practice in Letters Patent dated 30 January 1864 (the first Act of the Prerogative dealing with the princely title in general terms). [7]

On 31 December 2012, Elizabeth II issued letters patent enabling all children of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales to enjoy the princely title and style of Royal Highness , as opposed to only the eldest son. [8] [9]

Styling of princesses

Princesses of the blood royal

When a princess marries, she still takes on her husband's title. If the title is higher than (or equal to) the one she possesses, she will normally be styled using the female equivalent.[ citation needed ] If her husband has a lower title or style, her style as a princess remains in use, although it may then be combined with her style by marriage, e.g. HRH The Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll or HRH Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone  – if that princess had a territorial designation, she may cease its use. However, some of the lowest styles are not utilised by senior royals — Princess Anne remains HRH The Princess Royal rather than HRH The Princess Royal, Lady Laurence.

Use of the title Princess by virtue of marriage

A woman who marries a Prince does not become a Princess in her own right, but rather is permitted to use the substantive title "Princess Husband's name"; this is akin to a woman being referred to as "Mrs. John Smith". [1] The only recent time this has broken tradition is with the Sovereign's express consent. Namely, with Queen Elizabeth's aunts Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester, and Princess Marina, Duchess of Kent. The former was not a princess by birth, while the latter was born a princess of Greece and Denmark. Both women asked the Queen to use their given names to avoid confusion with their daughters-in-law's titles after their husbands' deaths. [6]

Exceptions

There have been several exceptions in recent history to these rules, but all have come by order of the Sovereign, mostly through letters patent.

List of princesses of the blood royal since 1714

Princess of Great Britain from birth
Princess of the United Kingdom from birth
Created Princess of Great Britain by the sovereign
Created Princess of the United Kingdom by the sovereign
Title at birthBirthDeathLineageComments
Sophia Dorothea 16871757Only daughter of King George I Gained title in 1714 upon accession of her father as King George I.
Queen-consort of Prussia 1713–1740.
Anne 170917591st daughter of King George II Gained title in 1714 upon accession of her grandfather as King George I. Princess of Orange.
Amelia Sophia Eleanor 171117862nd daughter of King George IIGained title in 1714 upon accession of her grandfather as King George I.
Caroline Elizabeth 171317573rd daughter of King George IIGained title in 1714 upon accession of her grandfather as King George I.
Mary 172317724th daughter of King George IILandgravine of Hesse-Kassel
Louise 172417515th daughter of King George II Queen of Denmark 1746-1751.
Augusta Frederica 173718131st daughter of Frederick
& Granddaughter of King George II
Duchess of Brunswick 1780–1806.
Elizabeth Caroline 174117592nd daughter of Frederick
& Granddaughter of King George II
Louise Anne 174917683rd daughter of Frederick
& Granddaughter of King George II
Caroline Matilda 175117754th daughter of Frederick
& Granddaughter of King George II
Queen of Denmark and Norway 1767–1775.
Charlotte Augusta Matilda 176618281st daughter of King George III Held the title 'The Princess Charlotte' from birth and formally styled Princess Royal in 1789. Queen of Württemberg 1806–1816.
Augusta Sophia 176818402nd daughter of King George III
Elizabeth 177018403rd daughter of King George IIILandgravine of Hesse-Homburg
Mary 177618574th daughter of King George IIIDuchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh
Sophia Matilda 177718485th daughter of King George III
Amelia 178318106th daughter of King George III
Sophia Matilda 177318341st daughter of Prince William Henry
& Great-Granddaughter of King George II
Granted style of Royal Highness in 1816. [13]
Caroline Augusta Maria 177417752nd daughter of Prince William Henry
& Great-Granddaughter of King George II
Charlotte Augusta 17961817Only daughter of King George IV Death in childbirth left Kingdom without direct line heir. Princess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.
Charlotte Augusta Louisa181918191st daughter of King William IV
Elizabeth Georgiana Adelaide 182018212nd daughter of King William IV
Alexandrina Victoria 18191901Only daughter of Prince Edward
& Granddaughter of King George III
Succeeded as Queen Victoria, reigned 1837–1901.
Title held until her accession in 1837 as Queen Victoria.
Augusta Caroline Charlotte Elizabeth Mary Sophia Louise 18221916Granddaughter of George IIIDaughter of Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge; Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 1860–1904.
Mary Adelaide Wilhemina Elizabeth 18331897Granddaughter of George IIIDaughter of Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge; mother of Queen Mary. Duchess of Teck
Victoria Adelaide Mary Louisa 18401901Daughter of Queen VictoriaHeld the title 'The Princess Victoria' from birth and styled 'The Princess Royal' in 1841.
German Empress and Queen of Prussia 1888 and mother of William II, German Emperor and King of Prussia.
Alice Maud Mary 18431878Daughter of Queen Victoria Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine 1877–1878.
Helena Augusta Victoria 18461923Daughter of Queen Victoria
Frederica Sophie Marie Henrietta Amelia Theresa 18481926Great-granddaughter of George IIITitle from birth until 1917, [1] daughter of George V of Hanover.
Louise Caroline Alberta 18481939Daughter of Queen Victoria
Marie Ernestine Josephine Adolphine Henrietta Theresa Elisabeth Alexandrina 18491904Great-granddaughter of George IIIDaughter of George V of Hanover.
Beatrice Mary Victoria Feodore 18571944Daughter of Queen VictoriaPrincess Henry of Battenberg
Louise Victoria Alexandra Dagmar 18671931Daughter of Edward VII Held the title 'Princess Louise of Wales' from birth, 'The Princess Louise' from her father's accession in 1901 and styled 'The Princess Royal' in 1905.
Victoria Alexandra Olga Mary 18681935Daughter of Edward VIIHeld the title 'Princess Victoria of Wales' from birth, 'The Princess Victoria' from her father's accession in 1901, held title until death.
Maud Charlotte Mary Victoria 18691938Daughter of Edward VII Queen of Norway 1905–1938.
Marie Alexandra Victoria 18751938Granddaughter of Queen VictoriaDaughter of Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh; Queen of Romania 1914–1927.
Victoria Melita 18761936Granddaughter of Queen VictoriaDaughter of Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh; Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine 1894–1901; de jure Empress of All Russia 1924-1936.
Alexandra Louise Olga Victoria 18781942Granddaughter of Queen VictoriaDaughter of Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh.
Marie Louise Victoria Caroline Amelia Alexandra Augusta Frederica 18791948Great-great-granddaughter of George IIITitle from birth until 1917, daughter of Crown Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover.
Margaret Victoria Charlotte Augusta Norah 18821920Granddaughter of Queen VictoriaDaughter of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn; Crown Princess of Sweden 1907-1920.
Alexandra Marie Louise Olga Elizabeth Theresa Vera 18821963Great-great-granddaughter of George IIITitle from birth until 1917, daughter of Crown Prince Ernst Augustus of Hanover.
Alice Mary Victoria Augusta Pauline 18831981Granddaughter of Queen VictoriaDaughter of Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany.
Beatrice Leopoldine Victoria 18841966Granddaughter of Queen VictoriaDaughter of Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh.
Olga Adelaide Louise Marie Alexandrina Agnes 18841958Great-great-granddaughter of George IIITitle from birth until 1917, daughter of Crown Prince Ernst Augustus of Hanover.
Victoria Patricia Helena Elizabeth 18861974Granddaughter of Queen VictoriaTitle held from her birth until 1919 when she relinquished her title and style upon marriage, [14] Daughter of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn.
Alexandra Victoria Alberta Edwina Louise 18911959Granddaughter in female line of Edward VIITitle granted by Letters Patent of 1905, [15] Daughter of Princess Louise, Duchess of Fife.
Maud Alexandra Victoria Georgina Bertha 18931945Granddaughter in female line of Edward VIITitle granted by Letters Patent of 1905, [15] ceased use of title after her marriage in 1923 although it was never formally relinquished, daughter of Princess Louise, Duchess of Fife.
Victoria Alexandra Alice Mary 18971965Daughter of George V Held the title 'Princess Mary of York' from birth, 'The Princess Mary' on her father's accession in 1910, and styled 'The Princess Royal' in 1932.
Sibylla Calma Maria Alice Bathildis Feodora 19071972Great-granddaughter of VictoriaTitle from birth until 1917, daughter of Prince Charles Edward, Duke of Albany. Duchess of Västerbotten from 1932 to her death, mother of King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden.
Caroline Matilda Helen Louise Augusta Beatrice 19121983Great-granddaughter of VictoriaTitle from birth until 1917, daughter of Prince Charles Edward, Duke of Albany.
Frederica Louisa Thyra Victoria Margareta Olga Cécilie Isabella Christa 19171981Great-great-great-granddaughter of George IIITitle from birth until 1917, daughter of Ernest Augustus, Prince of Hanover and Duke of Brunswick.
Elizabeth Alexandra Mary 1926Daughter of George VIHeld the title 'Princess Elizabeth of York' from birth, 'The Princess Elizabeth' from her father's accession in 1936, until her succession in 1952 as Queen Elizabeth II.
Margaret Rose 19302002Daughter of George VIHeld the title 'Princess Margaret of York' from birth, 'The Princess Margaret' from her father's accession in 1936, and 'The Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon' after her marriage, title held title until death.
Alexandra Helen Elizabeth Olga Christabel 1936Granddaughter of George VDaughter of Prince George, Duke of Kent.
Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise 1950Daughter of Elizabeth IIHeld the title 'Princess Anne of Edinburgh' from birth, 'The Princess Anne' from her mother's accession, and styled 'The Princess Royal' in 1987.
Beatrice Elizabeth Mary 1988Granddaughter of Elizabeth IIDaughter of Prince Andrew, Duke of York.
Eugenie Victoria Helena 1990Granddaughter of Elizabeth IIDaughter of Prince Andrew, Duke of York. After wedding named Mrs Jack Brooksbank
Louise Alice Elizabeth Mary 2003Granddaughter of Elizabeth IIDaughter of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex; styled as an earl's daughter per her parents' wishes and the will of the Queen. (see her titles and styles).
Charlotte Elizabeth Diana 2015Great-granddaughter of Elizabeth IIDaughter of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, holds the title 'Princess Charlotte of Cambridge'.

List of princesses by marriage since 1714

Unless specified title held from marriage to death or present day
Title of Princess where spouses title was eliminated by Letters Patent issued 30 November 1917 or Order in Council in 1919
PrincessBirthDeathMarriageHusbandComments
Princess Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach 168317371705 George, Prince of Wales Gained title by accession of her father-in-law as George I in 1714 and held it until her husband's accession as George II in 1727.
Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha 171917721736 Frederick, Prince of Wales
Maria Walpole 173618071766 Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh
Anne Horton 174218081771 Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn Gained title by her second marriage.
Princess Frederica Charlotte of Prussia 176718201791 Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany
Duchess Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel 176818211795 George, Prince of Wales Held title until her husband's accession as George IV in 1820.
Duchess Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 177818411815 Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale Gained title by her third marriage and held title until her husband's accession as King Ernest Augustus of Hanover in 1837.
Princess Augusta of Hesse-Kassel 179718891818 Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld 178618611818 Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn Gained title by her second marriage.
Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen 179218491818 Prince William, Duke of Clarence and St Andrews Held title until her husband's accession as William IV in 1830.
Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg 181819071843 George, Crown Prince of Hanover Held title until her husband's accession as George V of Hanover in 1851.
Princess Alexandra of Denmark 184419251863 Albert Edward, Prince of Wales Held title until her husband's accession as Edward VII in 1901.
Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia 185319201874 Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh Held title until her husband's accession as Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1893.
Princess Thyra of Denmark 185319331878 Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover Husband lost British title of Prince in 1917.
Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia 186019171879 Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont 186119221882 Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Princess Mary of Teck 186719531893 Prince George, Duke of York Held title until her husband's accession as George V in 1910.
Princess Victoria Adelaide of Schleswig-Holstein 188519701905 Prince Charles Edward, Duke of Albany Husband lost British title of Prince in 1919.
Princess Viktoria Luise of Prussia 189219801913 Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick Husband lost British title of Prince in 1917. Princess Viktoria Luise was born Princess of Prussia being the only daughter of the German Kaiser Wilhelm II.
Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon 190020021923 Prince Albert, Duke of York Held title until her husband's accession as George VI in 1936.
Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark 190619681934 Prince George, Duke of Kent Princess of Greece and Denmark by birth. However, when she was widowed she reverted her title to Princess Marina, Duchess of Kent, styling herself as a princess suo jure in the UK.
Lady Alice Montagu-Douglas-Scott 190120041935 Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester When she was widowed in 1974 she was granted special permission to style herself as a princess suo jure .
Katharine Worsley 19331961 Prince Edward, Duke of Kent
Birgitte van Deurs 19461972 Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester
Baroness Marie Christine von Reibnitz 19451978 Prince Michael of Kent Gained title by her second marriage.
Lady Diana Spencer 196119971981 Charles, Prince of Wales On marriage she became: Her Royal Highness The Princess of Wales. She lost style of Her Royal Highness upon divorce, and was restyled as "Diana, Princess of Wales". She was also a "Lady" (as a daughter of an earl) in her own right prior to marriage. [16]
Sarah Ferguson 19591986 Prince Andrew, Duke of York On marriage she became: Her Royal Highness The Duchess of York. She lost style of Her Royal Highness and her position as a Princess upon divorce, and was restyled as "Sarah, Duchess of York". [17]
Sophie Rhys-Jones 19651999 Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex On marriage she became: Her Royal Highness The Countess of Wessex and Viscountess Severn. [18]
Camilla Parker Bowles 19472005 Charles, Prince of Wales By her second marriage she became: Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Cornwall, Duchess of Rothesay, Countess of Chester. She also holds the title of Princess of Wales but does not use it. [19]
Catherine Middleton 19822011 Prince William, Duke of Cambridge On marriage she became: Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Cambridge, Countess of Strathearn and Lady Carrickfergus. [20] [21] [22]
Meghan Markle 19812018 Prince Henry, Duke of Sussex By her second marriage she became: Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Sussex, Countess of Dumbarton and Lady Kilkeel.

Notes

Each of the following women married a royal prince but as their marriages were invalid under the Royal Marriages Act 1772, they did not become princesses:[ citation needed ]

Although Wallis Simpson married the Duke of Windsor in 1937, and he was a British prince with the style His Royal Highness, having been confirmed as such by letters patent 27 May 1937 from his brother, George VI, Wallis and her descendants from the marriage were expressly denied the style of "Royal Highness" by the same letters patent [23] before she married him. As a duke's wife, she was always styled Her Grace The Duchess of Windsor. Her husband, the Duke of Windsor, insisted that staff and friends should refer to her as Her Royal Highness, and honor her with bows and curtsies. [24]

There have been two instances where a British princess married a British prince:[ citation needed ] first The Princess Mary, daughter of George III, who married her first cousin Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh; and secondly Princess Alexandra, Duchess of Fife, granddaughter of Edward VII, who married her first cousin once removed Prince Arthur of Connaught. In the first instance Princess Mary was of higher rank and the Duke of Gloucester and his sister were elevated from the style His/Her Highness to His/Her Royal Highness. In the second instance Princess Alexandra had been granted the style Her Highness by her grandfather the King; as the wife of a Prince she received the style Her Royal Highness.

There is also the curious case of Princess Victoria Eugénie of Battenberg, later Queen Victoria Eugenia of Spain (the daughter of Princess Beatrice and Prince Henry of Battenberg). Prior to her marriage to Alfonso XIII of Spain in May 1906, she was styled Her Highness Princess Victoria Eugénie of Battenberg. On 3 April 1906 Edward VII, in order to elevate her standing prior to her wedding, raised her status to Royal Highness per royal declaration which read: "Whitehall April 3, 1906. The KING has been graciously pleased to declare and ordain that His Majesty's niece, Her Highness Princess Victoria Eugenie Julia Ena, daughter of Her Royal Highness the Princess Beatrice Mary Victoria Feodore (Princess Henry of Battenberg), shall henceforth be styled and called "Her Royal Highness"; And to command that the said Royal concession and declaration be registered in His Majesty's College of Arms." [25] Edward VII concurrently issued a Royal Warrant on the elevation which read: "Our Will and Pleasure is and we do hereby declare and ordain that from and after the date of this Warrant our most Dear Niece Princess Victoria Eugénie Julia Ena, only daughter of Our most Dear Sister Beatrice Mary Victoria Feodore (Princess Henry of Battenberg) shall be styled entitled and called "Her Royal Highness" before her name and such Titles and Appellations which to her belong in all Deeds Records Instruments or Documents whatsoever wherein she may at any time hereafter be named or described. And We do hereby authorize and empower Our said most Dear Niece henceforth at all times to assume and use and to be called and named by the Style, Title and Appellation of "Her Royal Highness" accordingly. Given at Our Court of Saint James's, the Third day of April 1906: in the Sixth Year of Our Reign. By His Majesty's Command. M Gladstone" [26] Whether this made her a British Royal Princess is the subject of debate.

The former Lady Diana Spencer lost the prefix of Her Royal Highness upon her divorce in August 1996, and was restyled as "Diana, Princess of Wales". Buckingham Palace issued a press release on the day the decree absolute of divorce was issued, announcing Diana's change of title, but made it clear that Diana continued to be a member of the British Royal Family. This was confirmed by the deputy coroner of the Queen's Household, Baroness Butler-Sloss, after a pre-hearing on 8 January 2007: "I am satisfied that at her death, Diana, Princess of Wales continued to be a member of the Royal Household." [27] This appears to have been confirmed in the High Court judicial review matter of Al Fayed & Ors v Butler-Sloss. [28] In that case, three High Court judges accepted submissions that the "very name 'Coroner to the Queen's Household' gave the appearance of partiality in the context of inquests into the deaths of two people, one of whom was a member of the Family and the other was not." [28]

Common names

Of the above named princesses, there are a great number of shared names:

See also

Sources

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  2. "Styles of the members of the British royal family".
  3. "British titles, etc: the rules ARE Hard and Fast".
  4. Countess of Wessex official page Archived March 27, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  5. Photo.
  6. 1 2 "Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester – Marriage and family". The British Monarchy. Archived from the original on 19 May 2018. Retrieved 18 May 2015.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  7. Royal Styles and Titles – 1864 Letters Patent.
  8. "No. 60384". The London Gazette . 8 January 2013. p. 213.
  9. "Royal baby girl 'would be princess'". BBC News. 9 January 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
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  11. Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels, Fürstliche Häuser Band III. "Fife". C.A. Starke Verlag, 1955, pp. 336–337. (German).
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  22. Rayner, Gordon (2 August 2013). "Duchess Kate: Princess of the United Kingdom (but you can call me mummy)". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 20 August 2013. Although she has never used the name, the Duchess is entitled to refer to herself as Princess William of Wales, as well as being Countess of Strathearn and Lady Carrickfergus.
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