|Long title||An Act for the better regulating the future Marriages of the Royal Family.|
|Citation||12 Geo 3 c. 11|
|Territorial extent||England and Wales; Scotland|
|Royal assent||1 April 1772|
|Amended by||Criminal Law Act 1967|
|Repealed by||Succession to the Crown Act 2013|
|Text of statute as originally enacted|
The Royal Marriages Act 1772 was an act of the Parliament of Great Britain, which prescribed the conditions under which members of the British royal family could contract a valid marriage, in order to guard against marriages that could diminish the status of the royal house. The right of veto vested in the sovereign by this act provoked severe adverse criticism at the time of its passage.It was repealed as a result of the 2011 Perth Agreement, which came into force on 26 March 2015. Under the Succession to the Crown Act 2013, the first six people in the line of succession (currently Prince Charles, Prince William, Prince George, Princess Charlotte, Prince Louis and Prince Harry) need permission to marry if they and their descendants are to remain in the line of succession.
An act of parliament, also called primary legislation, are statutes passed by a parliament (legislature). Act of the Oireachtas is an equivalent term used in the Republic of Ireland where the legislature is commonly known by its Irish name, Oireachtas. It is also comparable to an Act of Congress in the United States.
The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. The Acts created a new unified Kingdom of Great Britain and dissolved the separate English and Scottish parliaments in favour of a single parliament, located in the former home of the English parliament in the Palace of Westminster, near the City of London. This lasted nearly a century, until the Acts of Union 1800 merged the separate British and Irish Parliaments into a single Parliament of the United Kingdom with effect from 1 January 1801.
The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations. There is no strict legal or formal definition of who is or is not a member of the British royal family.
The Act said that no descendant of King George II, male or female, other than the issue of princesses who had married or might thereafter marry "into foreign families", could marry without the consent of the reigning monarch, "signified under the great seal and declared in council". That consent was to be set out in the licence and in the register of the marriage, and entered in the books of the Privy Council. Any marriage contracted without the consent of the monarch was to be null and void.
George II was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 (O.S.) until his death in 1760.
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories. The current monarch and head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who ascended the throne in 1952.
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords.
However, any member of the royal family over the age of 25 who had been refused the sovereign's consent could marry one year after giving notice to the Privy Council of their intention so to marry, unless both houses of Parliament expressly declared their disapproval. There is, however, no instance in which the sovereign's formal consent in Council was refused.
The Act further made it a crime to perform or participate in an illegal marriage of any member of the royal family. This provision was repealed by the Criminal Law Act 1967.
The Criminal Law Act 1967 (c.58) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. However, with some minor exceptions, it generally applies to only England and Wales. It made some major changes to English criminal law. Most of it is still in force.
The Act was proposed by George III as a direct result of the marriage of his brother, Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn, who in 1771 had married the commoner Anne Horton, the daughter of Simon Luttrell and the widow of Christopher Horton. Royal Assent was given to the Act on 1 April 1772,and it was only on 13 September following that the King learned that another brother, Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, had in 1766 secretly married Maria, the illegitimate daughter of Sir Edward Walpole and the widow of the 2nd Earl Waldegrave. Both alliances were considered highly unsuitable by the King, who "saw himself as having been forced to marry for purely dynastic reasons".
George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820. He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg ("Hanover") in the Holy Roman Empire before becoming King of Hanover on 12 October 1814. He was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, but unlike his two predecessors, he was born in Great Britain, spoke English as his first language, and never visited Hanover.
Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn was the sixth child and fourth son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, and a younger brother of George III. His 1771 marriage to a commoner against the King's wishes prompted the Royal Marriages Act of 1772.
Anne, Duchess of Cumberland and Strathearn was a member of the British Royal Family, the wife of Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn.
George IV was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover following the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later. From 1811 until his accession, he served as Prince Regent during his father's final mental illness.
The Act of Settlement is an Act of the Parliament of England that was passed in 1701 to settle the succession to the English and Irish crowns on Protestants only. The next Protestant in line to the throne was the Electress Sophia of Hanover, a granddaughter of James VI of Scotland and I of England. After her the crowns would descend only to her non-Roman Catholic heirs.
The Act rendered void any marriage wherever contracted or solemnised in contravention of it. A member of the royal family who contracted a marriage that violated the Act did not thereby lose his or her place in the line of succession,but the offspring of such a union were made illegitimate by the voiding of the marriage and thus lost any right to succeed.
The Act applied to Catholics, even though they are ineligible to succeed to the throne.It did not apply to descendants of Sophia of Hanover who are not also descendants of George II, even though they are still eligible to succeed to the throne.
It had been claimed that the marriage of Prince Augustus had been legal in Ireland and Hanover, but the Committee of Privileges of the House of Lords ruled (in the Sussex Peerage Case, 9 July 1844) that the Act incapacitated the descendants of George II from contracting a legal marriage without the consent of the Crown, either within the British dominions or elsewhere.
The effects of the law were not always foreseen. An example is seen in the royal House of Hanover, which descends from Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, a younger son of King George III, who inherited the crown of Hanover according to its semi-Salic order of succession when the British crown went to his niece, Queen Victoria. Although his descendants lost their royal crown in 1866, and their British titles in 1919, as male-line descendants of George II they continued to seek permission for their marriages from the British monarch. Thus, on 11 January 1999, Elizabeth II issued the following Declaration in Council: "My Lords, I do hereby declare My Consent to a Contract of Matrimony between His Royal Highness Prince Ernst August Albert of Hanover, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Her Serene Highness Princess Caroline Louise Marguerite of Monaco...". Without this consent, the marriage would have been void in Britain, where the groom's family continues to own substantial property and retains the right to petition for resumption of the dukedom of Cumberland and Teviotdale, suspended since World War I. (However, as Ernst August married a Roman Catholic, he lost his place in the succession to the British throne under a different piece of legislation, the Act of Settlement 1701.)
All European monarchies, and many non-European realms, have laws or traditions requiring prior approval of the monarch for members of the reigning dynasty to marry. But Britain's was unusual because it was never modified between its original enactment and its repeal 243 years later, so that its ambit grew rather wide, affecting not only British royal family, but more distant relatives of the monarch.
In the 1950s, Charles d'Olivier Farran, Lecturer in Constitutional Law at Liverpool University, theorised that the Act could no longer apply to anyone living, because all the members of the immediate royal family were descended from British princesses who had married into foreign families. The loophole is due to the Act's wording, whereby if a person is, through one line, a descendant of George II subject to the Act's restriction, but is also, separately through another line, a descendant of a British princess married into a foreign family, the exemption for the latter reads as if it trumps the former.
Many of George II's descendants in female lines have married back into the British royal family. In particular, the Queen and other members of the House of Windsor descend (through Queen Alexandra) from two daughters of George II — (Mary, Landgravine of Hesse and Louise, Queen of Denmark) — who married foreign rulers (respectively Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, and King Frederick V of Denmark), and through Queen Mary from a third (Anne, Princess of Orange, consort of William IV, Prince of Orange). Queen Mary herself was a product of such a marriage; her parents were Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, a granddaughter of George III and Francis, Duke of Teck, a minor German prince of the House of Württemberg. Moreover, Charles, Prince of Wales, his issue, siblings, and their issue descend from yet another such marriage, that of Princess Alice, a daughter of Queen Victoria, to Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse, through their great-grandson Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.
This so-called "Farran exemption" met with wide publicity, but arguments against it were put forward by Clive Parry, Fellow of Downing College, Cambridge,and Farran's interpretation has since been ignored. Consent to marriages in the royal family (including the distantly related House of Hanover) continued to be sought and granted as if none of the agnatic descendants of George II were also his cognatic descendants.
Parry argued that the "Farran exemption" theory was complicated by the fact that all the Protestant descendants of the Electress Sophia of Hanover, ancestress of the United Kingdom's monarchs since 1714, had been entitled to British citizenship under the Sophia Naturalization Act 1705 (if born prior to 1949, when the act was repealed). Thus, some marriages of British princesses to continental monarchs and princes were not, in law, marriages to foreigners. For example, the 1947 marriage of Princess Elizabeth to Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, by birth a Greek and Danish prince but descended from the Electress Sophia, was a marriage to a British subject even if he had not been previously naturalised in Britain. This would also mean theoretically, for example, that the present royal family of Norway was bound by the Act, for the marriage of Princess Maud, a daughter of King Edward VII, to the future King Haakon VII of Norway, was a marriage to a "British subject", since Haakon descended from the Electress Sophia.
In 1936 the statute His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936 specifically excluded Edward VIII from the provisions of this Act upon his abdication, allowing him to marry the divorcee, Wallis Simpson. The wording of the statute also excluded any issue of the marriage both from being subject to the Act, and from the succession to the throne; no marriages or succession rights were ultimately affected by this language, as the Duke and Duchess of Windsor had no children.
In October 2011 David Cameron wrote to the leaders of the other Commonwealth realms proposing that the act be limited to the first six people in line to the throne.The leaders approved the proposed change at the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting held in Perth, Western Australia.
The legislation in a number of Commonwealth realms repeals the Royal Marriages Act 1772 in its entirety. It was, in the United Kingdom, replaced by the Succession to the Crown Act 2013, which stipulates a requirement for the first six people in the line of succession to obtain the sovereign's consent before marrying in order to remain eligible. Article 3(5) of the new act also provides that, except for succession purposes, any marriage that would have been void under the original act "is to be treated as never having been void" if it did not involve any of the first six people in the line of succession at the time of the marriage; royal consent was never sought or denied; "in all the circumstances it was reasonable for the person concerned not to have been aware at the time of the marriage that the Act applied to it"; and no one has acted on the basis that the marriage is void. New Zealand's Royal Succession Act 2013 repealed the Royal Marriages Act and provided for royal consent for the first six people in the line of succession to be granted by the monarch in right of the United Kingdom.
The Regency Act 1830, which provided for a regency in the event that Queen Victoria inherited the throne before she was eighteen, made it illegal for her to marry without the regent's consent. Her spouse and anyone involved in arranging or conducting the marriage without such consent would be guilty of high treason. This was more serious than the offence created by the Act of 1772, which was equivalent to praemunire. However, the Act never came into force, as Victoria was eighteen when she became queen.
Consents under the Act were entered in the Books of the Privy Council but have not been published. In 1857 it became customary to publish them in the London Gazette and notices appear of consents given in Council at Courts held on the following dates. Not all consents, however, were noted there and gaps in the list have been filled by reference to the Warrants for Royal Marriages in the Home Office papers (series HO 124) in The National Archives:
|28 September 1791||Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany||Princess Frederica of Prussia||"No. 13347". The London Gazette . 27 September 1791. p. 541. HO124/1.|
|17 December 1794||George, Prince of Wales||Princess Caroline Amelia of Brunswick||not gazetted; HO124/2.|
|3 May 1797||Charlotte, Princess Royal||Frederic, Hereditary Prince of Württemberg||not gazetted; HO124/3.|
|15 August 1814||Prince Ernest, Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale||Frederica, Dowager Princess of Solms||not gazetted; HO124/4.|
|9 March 1816||Princess Charlotte Augusta||Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld||not gazetted; HO124/5.|
|2 April 1816||Princess Mary||Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh||not gazetted; HO124/7|
|8 June 1816||Princess Elizabeth||Frederick VI, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg||not gazetted; HO124/6.|
|22 April 1818||Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge||Princess Augusta of Hesse-Kassel||not gazetted; HO124/8.|
|11 May 1818||Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn||Viktoria, Dowager Princess of Leiningen||not gazetted; HO124/9.|
|7 July 1818||Prince William, Duke of Clarence and St Andrews||Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen||not gazetted; HO124/10.|
|13 June 1842||George, Crown Prince of Hanover||Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg||copy in HO45/8927.|
|2 November 1842||Princess Augusta of Cambridge||Friedrich, Hereditary Grand Duke of Mecklenburg||HO124/11.|
|16 May 1857||Victoria, Princess Royal||Prince Frederick of Prussia||"No. 22003". The London Gazette . 19 May 1857. p. 1768.|
|30 April 1861||Princess Alice||Prince Ludwig of Hesse||"No. 22507". The London Gazette . 3 May 1861. p. 1889.|
|1 November 1862||Albert Edward, Prince of Wales||Princess Alexandra of Denmark||"No. 22677". The London Gazette . 4 November 1862. p. 5201.|
|5 December 1865||Princess Helena||Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein||"No. 23046". The London Gazette . 5 December 1865. p. 6451.|
|19 May 1866||Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge||Francis, Prince of Teck||"No. 23118". The London Gazette . 22 May 1866. p. 3065.|
|24 October 1870||Princess Louise||John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne||"No. 23682". The London Gazette . 25 November 1870. p. 5215., in substitution of "No. 23671". The London Gazette . 25 October 1870. p. 4593.|
|17 July 1873||Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh||Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia||"No. 24000". The London Gazette . 22 July 1873. p. 3449. in substitution of "No. 23999". The London Gazette . 18 July 1873. p. 3379.|
|16 May 1878||Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn||Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia||"No. 24583". The London Gazette . 21 May 1878. p. 3161. HO124/17.|
|27 November 1878||Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover||Princess Thyra of Denmark||"No. 24653". The London Gazette . 6 December 1878. p. 6987.|
|18 March 1880||Princess Frederica of Hanover||Baron Alfons von Pawel-Rammingen||"No. 24824". The London Gazette . 19 March 1880. p. 2133. HO124/19.|
|29 November 1881||Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany||Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont|| "No. 25043". The London Gazette . 29 November 1881. p. 6459.|
"No. 25044". The London Gazette . 2 December 1881. p. 6463.
|27 January 1885||Princess Beatrice||Prince Henry of Battenberg||"No. 25436". The London Gazette . 27 January 1885. p. 357.|
|5 July 1889||Princess Louise of Wales||Alexander Duff, 6th Earl Fife||"No. 25953". The London Gazette . 12 July 1889. p. 3765.|
|3 July 1891||Princess Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein||Prince Aribert of Anhalt|| "No. 26179". The London Gazette . 3 July 1891. p. 3593.|
"No. 26180". The London Gazette . 7 July 1891. p. 3595.
|12 December 1891||Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale||Princess Victoria Mary of Teck||"No. 26233". The London Gazette . 15 December 1891. p. 6911. He died before they could marry, and she later married his brother — see below|
|28 June 1892||Princess Marie of Edinburgh||Ferdinand, Crown Prince of Romania||"No. 26303". The London Gazette . 1 July 1892. p. 3784.|
|16 May 1893||Prince George, Duke of York||Princess Victoria Mary of Teck||"No. 26404". The London Gazette . 19 May 1893. p. 2897.|
|29 January 1894||Princess Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha||Ernest Louis, Grand Duke of Hesse||"No. 26480". The London Gazette . 30 January 1894. p. 584.|
|19 October 1894||Prince Adolphus of Teck||The Lady Margaret Grosvenor||"No. 26562". The London Gazette . 19 October 1894. p. 5859.|
|21 November 1895||Princess Maud of Wales||Prince Carl of Denmark||"No. 26692". The London Gazette . 24 December 1895. p. 7425., in substitution of consent dated 12 November 1895 published "No. 26691". The London Gazette . 20 December 1895. p. 7365.|
|12 December 1895||Princess Alexandra of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha||Ernst, Hereditary Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg||"No. 26692". The London Gazette . 24 December 1895. p. 7425., in substitution of notice published "No. 26691". The London Gazette . 20 December 1895. p. 7365.; HO124/30.|
|15 May 1900||Princess Marie Louise of Hanover||Prince Maximilian of Baden||"No. 27203". The London Gazette . 19 June 1900. p. 3811.|
|16 November 1903||Princess Alice of Albany||Prince Alexander of Teck|| "No. 27616". The London Gazette . 16 November 1903. p. 7013.|
"No. 27617". The London Gazette . 17 November 1903. p. 7015.
|7 March 1904||Princess Alexandra of Hanover||Frederick Francis IV, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg|| "No. 27654". The London Gazette . 4 March 1904. p. 1517.|
"No. 27655". The London Gazette . 8 March 1904. p. 1521.
|27 February 1905||Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha||Princess Victoria Adelaide of Schleswig-Holstein||"No. 27769". The London Gazette . 28 February 1905. p. 1493.|
|20 March 1905||Princess Margaret of Connaught||Prince Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Scania|| "No. 27776". The London Gazette . 17 March 1905. p. 2167.|
"No. 27777". The London Gazette . 21 March 1905. p. 2169.
|17 March 1913||Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover||Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia||"No. 28700". The London Gazette . 17 March 1913. p. 2053.|
|12 August 1913||Prince Arthur of Connaught||Princess Alexandra, 2nd Duchess of Fife||"No. 28745". The London Gazette . 12 August 1913. p. 5729.|
|11 February 1919||Princess Patricia of Connaught||Commander Alexander Ramsay||"No. 31174". The London Gazette . 11 February 1919. p. 2147. HO124/38 wanting, see C188/3 for Warrant for Royal Marriage.|
|22 November 1921||Princess Mary||Henry Lascelles, Viscount Lascelles||"No. 32529". The London Gazette . 25 November 1921. p. 9459.|
|12 February 1923||Prince Albert, Duke of York||The Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon||"No. 32795". The London Gazette . 13 February 1923. p. 1063.|
|26 June 1923||Princess Maud of Fife||Charles Carnegie, Lord Carnegie||"No. 32837". The London Gazette . 26 June 1923. p. 4417.|
|7 October 1931||The Lady May Cambridge||Captain Henry Abel Smith||"No. 33761". The London Gazette . 9 October 1931. p. 6451.|
|5 October 1934||The Prince George||Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark||"No. 34093". The London Gazette . 5 October 1934. p. 6241.|
|3 October 1935||Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester||The Lady Alice Montagu-Douglas-Scott||"No. 34204". The London Gazette . 4 October 1935. p. 6199.|
|26 December 1937||Frederica of Hanover||Prince Paul of Greece and Denmark||"No. 34468". The London Gazette . 31 December 1937. p. 8169.|
|29 January 1941||The Lady Iris Mountbatten||Hamilton Joseph Keyes O'Malley||not gazetted; HO124/46.|
|31 July 1947||Princess Elizabeth||Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten RN||"No. 38030". The London Gazette (2nd supplement). 29 July 1947. p. 3589.|
|28 July 1949||George Lascelles, 7th Earl of Harewood||Maria Stein||"No. 38677". The London Gazette . 29 July 1949. p. 3693.|
|1 August 1951||Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover||Princess Ortrud of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg||not gazetted; HO124/49.|
|27 June 1952||Gerald Lascelles||Angela Dowding||"No. 39584". The London Gazette . 27 June 1952. p. 3517.|
|1 June 1956||James Carnegie, Lord Carnegie||Caroline Dewar||"No. 40795". The London Gazette . 1 June 1956. p. 3227.|
|19 August 1956||Alexander Ramsay||Flora Fraser, Mistress of Saltoun||"No. 40860". The London Gazette . 21 August 1956. p. 4799.|
|31 July 1957||Anne Abel Smith||David Liddell-Grainger||"No. 41141". The London Gazette . 2 August 1957. p. 4563.|
|14 September 1959||Captain Richard Abel Smith||Marcia Kendrew||"No. 41816". The London Gazette . 15 September 1959. p. 5797.|
|16 March 1960||Princess Margaret||Antony Armstrong-Jones||"No. 41986". The London Gazette . 18 March 1960. p. 2025.|
|3 August 1960||Prince Welf Heinrich of Hanover||Princess Alexandra of Ysenburg and Budingen||not gazetted; HO124/55.|
|24 March 1961||Prince Edward, Duke of Kent||Katharine Worsley||"No. 42314". The London Gazette . 28 March 1961. p. 2345.|
|19 December 1962||Princess Alexandra of Kent||Angus Ogilvy||"No. 42864". The London Gazette . 21 December 1962. p. 9981.|
|26 February 1965||Elizabeth Abel Smith||Peter Wise||"No. 43590". The London Gazette . 2 March 1965. p. 2147.|
|28 July 1967||George Lascelles, 7th Earl of Harewood||Patricia Tuckwell||"No. 44375". The London Gazette . 28 July 1967. p. 8327.|
|4 February 1972||Prince Richard of Gloucester||Birgitte van Deurs||"No. 45601". The London Gazette . 17 February 1972. p. 2005.|
|29 March 1973||James Lascelles||Fredericka Duhrssen||"No. 45947". The London Gazette . 6 April 1973. p. 4481.|
|24 July 1973||Princess Anne||Captain Mark Phillips||"No. 46036". The London Gazette . 26 July 1973. p. 8761.|
|1 August 1979||Prince Michael of Kent||Baroness Marie Christine von Reibnitz||not gazetted; HO124/62.|
|15 November 1978||Gerald Lascelles||Elizabeth Evelyn Collingwood||not gazetted; HO124/63 lost while on loan to government department.|
|6 February 1979||David Lascelles, Viscount Lascelles||Margaret Messenger||"No. 47770". The London Gazette . 13 February 1979. p. 1994.|
|26 June 1979||Henry Lascelles||Alexandra Morton||"No. 47892". The London Gazette . 28 June 1979. p. 8129.|
|13 February 1980||Katharine Fraser, Mistress of Saltoun||Captain Mark Nicholson||"No. 48099". The London Gazette . 18 February 1980. p. 2573.|
|28 July 1980||Katharine Abel Smith||Hubert Beaumont||"No. 48264". The London Gazette . 29 July 1980. p. 10715.|
|27 March 1981||Charles, Prince of Wales||The Lady Diana Spencer||Records of the Privy Council Office|
|10 June 1981||Prince Ernst August Georg of Brunswick-Luneburg||Countess Monika zu Solms-Laubach||"No. 48638". The London Gazette . 12 June 1981. p. 7956.|
|10 June 1981||Prince Ernst August Albert of Hanover||Chantal Hochuli||"No. 48638". The London Gazette . 12 June 1981. p. 7956.|
|16 May 1986||The Prince Andrew||Sarah Ferguson|| "No. 50524". The London Gazette . 22 May 1986. p. 6909.|
"No. 50533". The London Gazette . 30 May 1986. p. 7279.
|10 February 1987||David Carnegie, Earl Macduff||Caroline Bunting||"No. 50833". The London Gazette . 13 February 1987. p. 1951.|
|15 September 1987||Prince Ludwig Rudolph of Hanover||Countess Ysabelle of Thurn and Valassina-Como-Vercelli||"No. 51069". The London Gazette . 23 September 1987. p. 11789.|
|23 March 1988||James Ogilvy||Julia Rawlinson||"No. 51318". The London Gazette . 26 April 1988. p. 4957.|
|24 July 1990||Alice Ramsay of Mar||David Ramsey||"No. 52252". The London Gazette . 23 August 1990. p. 13701.|
|11 February 1992||The Lady Helen Windsor||Timothy Taylor||"No. 52856". The London Gazette . 9 March 1992. p. 4173.|
|1992 undated||Anne, Princess Royal||Commander Tim Laurence||"No. 53133". The London Gazette . 11 December 1992. p. 20898.|
|1993 undated||David Armstrong-Jones, Viscount Linley||Serena Stanhope||"No. 53385". The London Gazette . 28 July 1993. p. 12599.|
|22 June 1994||The Lady Sarah Armstrong-Jones||Daniel Chatto||"No. 53715". The London Gazette . 27 June 1994. p. 9221.|
|13 April 1999||The Prince Edward||Sophie Rhys-Jones||"No. 55474". The London Gazette . 4 May 1999. p. 4929.|
|11 April 2001||Lady Alexandra Carnegie||Mark Etherington||Privy Council Orders for 11 April 2001|
|11 December 2001||Charles Liddell-Grainger||Eugenie Campagne||Privy Council Orders for 11 December 2001|
|17 April 2002||Alexander Windsor, Earl of Ulster||Claire Booth|| "No. 56545". The London Gazette . 22 April 2002. p. 4888.|
Privy Council Orders for 17 April 2002
|10 December 2003||Henry Lascelles||Fiona Wilmott||Privy Council Orders for 10 December 2003|
|20 July 2004||The Lady Davina Windsor||Gary Lewis||Privy Council Orders for 20 July 2004|
|2 March 2005||Charles, Prince of Wales||Camilla Parker Bowles||Privy Council Orders for 2 March 2005|
|10 October 2006||Lord Nicholas Windsor||Paola Doimi de Lupis Frankopan||Privy Council Orders for 10 October 2006|
|2 May 2007||Amelia May Beaumont||Simon Peregrine Gauvain Murray||Privy Council Orders for 2 May 2007|
|12 December 2007||The Lady Rose Windsor||George Edward Gilman||Privy Council Orders for 12 December 2007|
|12 February 2008||Emily Lascelles||Matthew Shard||Privy Council Orders for 12 February 2008|
|9 April 2008||Peter Phillips||Autumn Kelly|| "No. 58674". The London Gazette . 21 April 2008. p. 6078.|
Privy Council Orders for 9 April 2008
|9 October 2008||Charles Montagu Liddell-Grainger||Martha Margaretha de Klerk||Privy Council Orders for 9 October 2008|
|11 February 2009||Benjamin George Lascelles||Carolina Velez||Privy Council Orders for 11 February 2009|
|10 June 2009||Lord Frederick Windsor||Sophie Winkleman||Privy Council Orders for 10 June 2009|
|9 February 2011||Prince William of Wales||Catherine Middleton||Privy Council Orders for 9 February 2011|
|10 May 2011||Zara Phillips||Mike Tindall||Privy Council Orders for 10 May 2011|
|10 May 2011||Mark Lascelles||Judith Kilburn||Privy Council Orders for 10 May 2011|
|12 December 2012||Louise Nicolson||Charles Morshead||Privy Council Orders for 12 December 2012|
|11 February 2014||Edward Lascelles||Sophie Cartlidge||Privy Council Orders for 11 February 2014|
|11 February 2015||Juliet Victoria Catharine Nicolson||Simon Alexander Rood||Privy Council Orders for 11 February 2015|
Sophia of Hanover was the Electress of Hanover from 1692 to 1698. As a Protestant granddaughter of James I, she became heir presumptive to the crowns of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Ireland under the Act of Settlement 1701. After the Acts of Union 1707, she became heir presumptive to the unified throne of the Kingdom of Great Britain. She died less than two months before she would have become queen succeeding her first cousin once removed, Queen Anne, and her claim to the throne passed on to her eldest son, George Louis, Elector of Hanover, who ascended as George I on 1 August 1714.
The House of Windsor is the reigning royal house of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. The dynasty is originally of German paternal descent and was a branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, itself derived from the House of Wettin, which succeeded the House of Hanover to the British monarchy following the death of Queen Victoria, wife of Albert, Prince Consort.
The House of Hanover, whose members are known as Hanoverians, is a German royal house that ruled Hanover, Great Britain, and Ireland at various times during the 17th through 20th centuries. The house originated in 1635 as a cadet branch of the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg, growing in prestige until Hanover became an Electorate in 1692. George I became the first Hanoverian monarch of Great Britain and Ireland in 1714. At Victoria's death in 1901, the throne of the United Kingdom passed to her eldest son Edward VII, a member of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. The last reigning members of the House lost the Duchy of Brunswick in 1918 when Germany became a republic.
The 1810 Act of Succession is one of four Fundamental Laws of the Realm and thus forms part of the Swedish Constitution. The Act regulates the line of succession to the Swedish Throne and the conditions which eligible members of the Swedish Royal Family must abide by in order to remain in it.
Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge was a member of the British royal family, a granddaughter of George III, grandmother of Edward VIII and George VI and great-grandmother of Elizabeth II. She held the title of Duchess of Teck through marriage.
Ernst August, Prince of Hanover, is head of the royal House of Hanover which held the thrones of the United Kingdom until 1901, of the former Kingdom of Hanover until 1866, and of the sovereign Duchy of Brunswick from 1913 to 1918. As the husband of Princess Caroline of Monaco, he is the brother-in-law of Albert II, Prince of Monaco.
Ernest Augustus was the reigning Duke of Brunswick from 2 November 1913 to 8 November 1918. He was a grandson of George V of Hanover, whom the Prussians had deposed from the Hanoverian throne in 1866, and Christian IX of Denmark.
The Danish Act of Succession, adopted on 27 March 1953, restricts the throne to those descended from Christian X and his wife, Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, through approved marriages. Succession is governed by absolute primogeniture.
The line of succession to the Swedish throne is determined by the Act of Succession, originally approved jointly by the Riksdag of the Estates assembled in Örebro and King Charles XIII in 1810.
Prince of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a royal title normally granted to sons and grandsons of reigning and past British monarchs. It is also held by the Duke of Edinburgh, husband of Queen Elizabeth II. The title is granted by the reigning monarch, who is the fount of all honours, through the issuing of letters patent as an expression of the royal will.
Succession to the British throne is determined by descent, sex, legitimacy, and religion. Under common law, the Crown is inherited by a sovereign's children or by a childless sovereign's nearest collateral line. The Bill of Rights 1689 and the Act of Settlement 1701 restrict succession to the throne to the legitimate Protestant descendants of Sophia of Hanover who are in "communion with the Church of England". Spouses of Roman Catholics were disqualified from 1689 until the law was amended in 2015. Protestant descendants of those excluded for being Roman Catholics are eligible.
The Regency Acts are Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed at various times, to provide a regent in the event of the reigning monarch being incapacitated or a minor. Prior to 1937, Regency Acts were passed only when necessary to deal with a specific situation. In 1937, the Regency Act 1937 made general provision for a regent, and established the office of Counsellor of State, several of whom would act on the monarch's behalf when the monarch was temporarily absent from the realm. This Act forms the main law relating to regency in the United Kingdom today.
The Danish royal family is the dynastic family of the monarch. All members of the Danish royal family except Queen Margrethe II hold the title of Prince/Princess of Denmark. Dynastic children of the monarch and of the heir apparent are accorded the style of His/Her Royal Highness, while other members of the dynasty are addressed as His/Her Highness. The Queen is styled Her Majesty.
The Greek monarchy was abolished by the then-ruling military regime on 1 June 1973, an act that was confirmed by plebiscite on 8 December 1974 after the regime's fall. The title of king is used by the last reigning monarch, Constantine II. His son, the Crown Prince Pavlos, who was born in 1967, is the heir apparent to the pretended title.
Princess Sophie of Greece and Denmark was the fourth child and youngest daughter of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark and Princess Alice of Battenberg. The Duke of Edinburgh is her younger brother. Sophie was born at Villa Mon Repos on the island of Corfu in Greece.
Prince George William of Hanover was the second eldest son of Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick and his wife Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia, the only daughter of Wilhelm II, German Emperor and Augusta Viktoria of Schleswig-Holstein.
The Succession to the Crown Act 2013 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which altered the laws of succession to the British throne in accordance with the 2011 Perth Agreement. The act repealed the Royal Marriages Act 1772, replacing male-preference primogeniture with absolute primogeniture for those born in the line of succession after 28 October 2011, which meant the eldest child, regardless of sex, would precede his or her brothers and sisters. The act also ended the historical disqualification of a person who married a Roman Catholic from the line of succession, and removed the requirement of those outside the first six persons in line to the throne to seek the Sovereign's approval to marry. It came into force on 26 March 2015, at the same time as the other Commonwealth realms implemented the Perth Agreement in their own laws.
The Succession to the Crown Act 2015 is the name of an act of the Commonwealth Parliament of Australia, enacted at the request of all six Australian states under section 51(xxxvii) of the Australian Constitution. The Australian acts were the final part of the Perth Agreement's legislative program agreed by the prime ministers of the Commonwealth realms to modernise the succession to the crowns of the sixteen Commonwealth realms, while continuing to have in common the same monarch and royal line of succession. as was the case at the time of the Statute of Westminster 1931.
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|