Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

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Charles Edward
Duke of Albany
Carl Eduard Sachsen Coburg und Gotha.jpg
Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Reign30 July 1900 – 14 November 1918
Predecessor Alfred
Born(1884-07-19)19 July 1884
Claremont House, Surrey, England
Died6 March 1954(1954-03-06) (aged 69)
Coburg, West Germany
Burial
Spouse Princess Victoria Adelaide of Schleswig-Holstein
Issue
Full name
Leopold Charles Edward George Albert
German: Leopold Carl Eduard Georg Albert
House Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Father Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Mother Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont
Military career
Allegiance
Service/branch
Years of service1904–1918, 1933–1945
Rank
Unit 1st Foot Guards
Sturmabteilung
National Socialist Flyers Corps
Battles/wars
  • World War I
  • World War II
British Royalty
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
Victoria and Albert
Grandchildren
Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale
Prince Alexander John of Wales
Alfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Marie, Queen of the Romanians
Victoria Melita, Grand Duchess of Russia
Alexandra, Princess of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
Princess Beatrice, Duchess of Galliera
Margaret, Crown Princess of Sweden
Prince Arthur of Connaught
Princess Patricia, Lady Ramsay
Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone
Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Charles Edward (baptised Leopold Charles Edward George Albert, German : Leopold Carl Eduard Georg Albert; 19 July 1884 – 6 March 1954) was the last reigning duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha from 30 July 1900 until 1918. A male-line grandson of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, he was also until 1919 a Prince of the United Kingdom and held the British titles of Duke of Albany, Earl of Clarence and Baron Arklow from birth. [1]

German language West Germanic language

German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol (Italy), the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.

Saxe-Coburg and Gotha collective name for the duchies of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in Germany

Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, was an Ernestine duchy ruled by a branch of the House of Wettin, consisting of territories in the present-day states of Bavaria and Thuringia in Germany. It lasted from 1826 to 1918. In November 1918, Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, was forced to abdicate. Saxe (Gotha) was subsequently merged into Thuringia whereas Coburg merged into Bavaria.

Queen Victoria British monarch who reigned 1837–1901

Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India.

Contents

Charles Edward was a controversial figure in the United Kingdom due to his status as the sovereign Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, which was part of the German Empire, during World War I. On 14 November 1918, however, after a revolution in Germany, he was forced to abdicate as Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and lost his rights to the ducal throne. [2] [3]

United Kingdom Country in Europe

The United Kingdom (UK), officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world. It is also the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.

German Empire empire in Central Europe between 1871–1918

The German Empire, also known as Imperial Germany, was the German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918.

World War I 1914–1918 global war originating in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

In 1919, Charles Edward was deprived of his British peerages, his title of Prince and Royal Highness and his British honours for having fought in the German Army (eventually as a General) during WWI; [4] he was labelled a "traitor peer". [5] [6]

Titles Deprivation Act 1917 act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom authorising the removal of princely and noble titles from German and Austrian princes

The Titles Deprivation Act 1917 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom which authorised enemies of the United Kingdom during the First World War to be deprived of their British peerages and royal titles.

Royal Highness is a style used to address or refer to some members of royal families, usually princes or princesses. Monarchs and their consorts are usually styled Majesty. When used as a direct form of address, spoken or written, it takes the form "Your Royal Highness". When used as a third-person reference, it is gender-specific and, in plural, Their Royal Highnesses (TRH).

German Army (German Empire) 1871-1919 land warfare branch of the German military

The Imperial German Army was the unified ground and air force of the German Empire. The term Deutsches Heer is also used for the modern German Army, the land component of the Bundeswehr. The German Army was formed after the unification of Germany under Prussian leadership in 1871 and dissolved in 1919, after the defeat of the German Empire in World War I.

Charles Edward later joined the Nazi Party as well as the Sturmabteilung (SA, or Brownshirts), where he reached the position of Obergruppenführer. [7] Charles Edward served in a number of positions in Nazi Germany in the 1930s and 1940s, including President of the German Red Cross from 1933–45. [8] He was the maternal grandfather of King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden and the younger brother of Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone.

Nazi Party Fascist political party in Germany (1920-1945)

The National Socialist German Workers' Party, commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945, that created and supported the ideology of National Socialism. Its precursor, the German Workers' Party, existed from 1919 to 1920.

<i lang="de" title="German language text">Sturmabteilung</i> original Nazi paramilitary

The Sturmabteilung, literally Storm Detachment, was the Nazi Party's original paramilitary. It played a significant role in Adolf Hitler's rise to power in the 1920s and 1930s. Its primary purposes were providing protection for Nazi rallies and assemblies, disrupting the meetings of opposing parties, fighting against the paramilitary units of the opposing parties, especially the Red Front Fighters League of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD), and intimidating Romanis, trade unionists, and, especially, Jews – for instance, during the Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses.

<i><i lang="de" title="German language text">Obergruppenführer</i></i> Nazi party paramilitary rank

Obergruppenführer was one of the Third Reich's paramilitary ranks, first created in 1932 as a rank of the Sturmabteilung (SA), and adopted by the Schutzstaffel (SS) one year later. Until April 1942, it was the highest commissioned SS rank, inferior only to then Reichsführer-SS Translated as "senior group leader", the rank of Obergruppenführer was senior to Gruppenführer. A similarly named rank of Untergruppenführer existed in the SA from 1929 to 1930 and as a title until 1933. In April 1942, the new rank of SS-Oberst-Gruppenführer was created which was above Obergruppenführer and below Reichsführer-SS.

After paying the fines imposed by the denazification court and losing properties to the Soviet army, he died in poverty in 1954. [6]

Denazification process carried out after World War II

Denazification was an Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary, and politics of the National Socialist ideology (Nazism). It was carried out by removing those who had been Nazi Party or SS members from positions of power and influence and by disbanding or rendering impotent the organizations associated with Nazism. The program of denazification was launched after the end of the Second World War and was solidified by the Potsdam Agreement.

Early life in Great Britain

Prince Charles Edward was born at Claremont House near Esher, Surrey. His father was Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, the fourth son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. His mother was Princess Helena, Duchess of Albany (née Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont), the fourth daughter of George Victor of Waldeck and Pyrmont and of his first wife Princess Helena of Nassau. [9] As his father had died before his birth, Prince Charles Edward succeeded to his titles at birth and was styled His Royal Highness the Duke of Albany.

Claremont (country house) English country house and gardens in Surrey

Claremont, also known historically as 'Clermont', is an 18th-century Palladian mansion less than a mile south of the centre of Esher in Surrey, England. The buildings are now occupied by Claremont Fan Court School, and its landscaped gardens are owned and managed by the National Trust. Claremont House is a Grade I listed building.

Esher town in Surrey

Esher is a town in Surrey, England, to the east of the River Mole.

Surrey County of England

Surrey is a subdivision of the English region of South East England in the United Kingdom. A historic and ceremonial county, Surrey is also one of the home counties. The county borders Kent to the east, East Sussex and West Sussex to the south, Hampshire to the west, Berkshire to the northwest, and Greater London to the northeast.

After falling ill, the young Duke was baptised privately at Claremont on 4 August 1884, two weeks after his birth, and publicly in Esher Parish Church on 4 December 1884 four months later. His godparents were Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom (his paternal grandmother), the Prince of Wales (his paternal uncle), Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein (his paternal aunt) the Marchioness of Lorne (his paternal aunt), Princess Frederica of Hanover (his father's second cousin), Alexis, Prince of Bentheim and Steinfurt (his uncle; could not attend) and George Victor, Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont (his maternal grandfather; could not attend). [10]

Charles Edward was educated as a Prince of the United Kingdom for his first 15 years. [9] He attended Eton College. As a grandson of Queen Victoria, the Duke was a first cousin of King George V and of the following European royals: Queen Maud of Norway, Grand Duke Ernest Louis of Hesse, Empress Alexandra of Russia, Queen Marie of Romania, Crown Princess Margaret of Sweden, Queen Victoria Eugenia of Spain, Queen Sophia of Greece, Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands, Josias, Hereditary Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont (the last two through his mother) and Wilhelm II, German Emperor. Such was the interest Wilhelm showed in his young cousin's upbringing that Charles Edward was known amongst the Imperial Court as "the Emperor's seventh son". [11] His mother drummed into him endlessly the importance of "becoming a good man, so you bring no shame on Papa's name". [12]

Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Charles Edward on a 5 Mark coin from 1907 1907 Sachsen Coburg-Gotha Carl Eduard 5 Mk.JPG
Charles Edward on a 5 Mark coin from 1907

In 1899 the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, urged by Kaiser Wilhelm II, decided on how to deal with the succession of Duke Alfred, who was in ill health. His only son, Prince Alfred ("Young Affie"), had died in February 1899. The Duke of Connaught, the Queen's third son, served in the British military, causing Wilhelm II to oppose him as a ruling prince of Germany. His son, Prince Arthur of Connaught attended Eton with Charles Edward. Wilhelm II demanded a German education for the boy, but this was unacceptable to the Duke of Connaught. Thus young Arthur also renounced his claims to the Duchy. Next in line was sixteen-year-old Charles Edward, who thus inherited the ducal throne of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, when his uncle Alfred died in July 1900. [9] [13]

His sister Alice wrote: "It was a very great heartbreak for my mother that my brother had to succeed to Coburg. 'I have always tried to bring Charlie up as a good Englishman,' she once said, 'and now I have to turn him into a good German.'" [14] The Duchess of Albany "reluctantly" [14] decided that "Charlie should accept – and he was too young to resist." [14]

With his mother and sister Charles Edward moved to Germany. Following an education plan by Wilhelm II, he attended the Preußische Hauptkadettenanstalt  [ de ] at Lichterfelde, studied in Bonn and became a member of Corps Borussia Bonn. He also joined the 1st Garderegiment zu Fuß at Potsdam and spent some time at the German court in Berlin. [9] [13] His uncle, Edward VII, made him a Knight of the Garter on 15 July 1902, just prior to his 18th birthday. [15] He was unable to speak German at the time. Kaiser Wilhelm sent him to the Bavarian equivalent of Sandhurst for training. [16]

From 1900 to 1905 Charles Edward reigned through the regency of Ernst, Hereditary Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, the husband of Duke Alfred's third daughter Alexandra. The regent acted under the strict guidance of Emperor Wilhelm II.

Upon coming of age on 19 July 1905, he assumed full constitutional powers. He proved loyal to the Emperor and was deemed a constitutionally-minded prince. However, he soon deviated from his early liberal views and gave in to autocratic impulses, also becoming dependent on advisers at his two courts at Gotha and Coburg, between which political differences and rivalries had developed. He liberally supported the court theatres in both towns. Taking an interest in Zeppelin and aeroplane technology, Charles Edward supported the newly created aircraft industry at Gotha (see Gothaer Waggonfabrik ). Like all Dukes of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, he divided his time between the two towns. Among his residences Schloss Friedenstein, Ehrenburg Palace, and Schloss Callenberg, he favoured the last. He also took great interest in the renovation of Veste Coburg which had been abandoned as a ducal residence in the 17th century. This work, which strained the ducal finances, was ongoing from 1908 until 1924. [9]

On 14 November 1918, after the revolution, Charles Edward was forced to abdicate as Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and lost his rights to the ducal throne. [2] [3]

Marriage and family

The Duke and Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, 11 October 1905. Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2007-0193, Herzogspaar von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha.jpg
The Duke and Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, 11 October 1905.

Wilhelm II picked out Princess Victoria Adelaide of Schleswig-Holstein, the niece of his wife, Empress Augusta Victoria, as Charles Edward's bride. She was the eldest daughter of Friedrich Ferdinand, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein, and Princess Karoline Mathilde of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg. They married on 11 October 1905, at Glücksburg Castle, Schleswig-Holstein, and had five children, [9] including Sibylla, the mother of Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden.

World War I

World War I caused a conflict of loyalties for Charles Edward, but he finally decided to support the German Empire. He broke off relations with his family at the British and Belgian courts. This did not suffice to overcome doubts about his loyalties in Germany. Charles Edward served on the staff of an infantry division of the German army at the beginning of the war, fighting Russians in Prussia. [16] In 1915, he had to stop due to rheumatism. Although he never held a command, he visited both the western and eastern fronts numerous times. Soldiers from his duchies were awarded the Carl-Eduard-Kriegskreuz . [9] [13] In 1915, King George V ordered his name removed from the register of the Most Noble Order of the Garter. [17] [15]

In March 1917, the Landtag of Coburg excluded members of the ducal family from the succession if their country was hostile to (i.e. at war with) Germany. [13] In July 1917, still unaware of the change in law at Coburg, in an effort to distance his dynasty from its German origins, George V changed the name of the British Royal House from the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to the House of Windsor as an anti-German gesture. [18] That year, the UK Parliament passed the Titles Deprivation Act which empowered the Privy Council to investigate "any persons enjoying any dignity or title as a peer or British prince who have, during the present war, borne arms against His Majesty or His Allies, or who have adhered to His Majesty's enemies." [19]

Under the terms of that act, an Order in Council on 28 March 1919 formally removed Charles Edward's British peerages. [15] He and his children also lost their entitlement to the titles of Prince and Princess of the United Kingdom and the styles Royal Highness and Highness . [20] Nevertheless, they retained the style of Highness as members of a sovereign ducal house in Germany.

Private citizen and Nazi politician

Charles Edward in 1933, as SA-Gruppenfuhrer Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2007-0184, Karl-Eduard von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha.jpg
Charles Edward in 1933, as SA-Gruppenführer
Charles Edward (left) meeting the British Ambassador to Germany, Sir Neville Henderson, in 1939. He had been at Eton with Henderson and this photograph may have been taken at a meeting of the Anglo-German Fellowship that Henderson addressed in May 1937, shortly after his appointment as British Ambassador. Bundesarchiv Bild 183-2007-1022-501, Jehresfest der Deustch-Englischen Gesellschaft.jpg
Charles Edward (left) meeting the British Ambassador to Germany, Sir Neville Henderson, in 1939. He had been at Eton with Henderson and this photograph may have been taken at a meeting of the Anglo-German Fellowship that Henderson addressed in May 1937, shortly after his appointment as British Ambassador.

The Russian Revolution of 1917 caused Charles much concern and he watched anxiously during the ensuing power struggles between the left- and right-wing parties in Germany. On the morning of 9 November 1918, during the German Revolution the Workers' and Soldiers' Council of Gotha declared him deposed. On 11 November, his abdication was demanded in Coburg. Only on 14 November, later than most other ruling princes, did he formally announce that he had "ceased to rule" in both Gotha and Coburg. He did not explicitly renounce his throne [9] but no longer had a right to rule. [2] [3]

Effectively exiled from the United Kingdom and fearful of the communist threat, he started looking for a new political home. He also worked towards the restoration of the monarchy, thus supporting the nationalistic-conservative and völkisch right. [22] [9]

His properties and collections in Coburg were transferred in 1919 to the Coburger Landesstiftung  [ de ], a foundation that still exists today. A similar solution for Gotha took longer and only after legal struggles with the Free State of Thuringia was it set up in 1928/34. The Gotha foundation was expropriated by the Soviet authorities after 1945. [9] After 1919, the family retained Schloss Callenberg, some other properties (including those in Austria) and a right to live at Veste Coburg and received substantial financial compensation for lost possessions. Some additional real estate in Thuringia was restored to the ducal family in 1925. [13]

Now a private citizen, [23] he became associated with various right-wing paramilitary and political organisations. He supported Hermann Ehrhardt both morally and financially after the Freikorps' commander's participation in the failed Kapp Putsch. Until 1922, Charles Edward was the head of the Preußenbund  [ de ]. [9]

He met Adolf Hitler for the first time on 14 October 1922 (at the Nazis' second Deutscher Tag  [ de ] held at Coburg). In 1923, he joined the Bund Wiking  [ de ] as Oberbereichsleiter in Thuringia. When the Wiking joined the Stahlhelm, Bund der Frontsoldaten , Charles Edward became a member of the Stahlhelm's national board. [9] [13]

In 1932, Charles Edward's daughter Sybilla married Prince Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten, the eldest son of the Crown Prince of Sweden and second-in-line to the Swedish throne. The marriage meant that Sibylla would, in the normal course, become Queen of Sweden. The engagement was announced on 16 June 1932 and the wedding was celebrated on 19 October 1932. That same year (1932), Charles Edward took part in the creation of the Harzburg Front, through which the German National People's Party became associated with the Nazi Party. He also publicly called on voters to support Hitler in the presidential election of 1932. Charles Edward formally joined the Nazi Party in March 1933 and that same year became a member of the SA (Brownshirts), rising to the rank of Obergruppenführer by 1936. [24] He also served as a member of the Reichstag representing the Nazi Party from 1936–45 and as president of the German Red Cross from December 1933–45. By the time he took over this position, the German Red Cross had already been under the Nazis' control. [9] [13]

In 1934, he visited Japan where he attended a conference on the protection of civilians during war and delivered Hitler's birthday greeting to the Emperor. [13] By 1936, he had agreed to be a spy for Hitler, while attending the funeral of George V at Sandringham, for example [25] but he was unreliable, according to a historian, "telling them what they wanted to hear". [26] Hitler also used him to encourage pro-Nazi sentiment among the Duke of Windsor and his wife. [27] Records indicate that Charles Edward received a monthly payment of 4,000 Reichsmark (worth about £16,000 in 2015) from the Führer. [28] Hitler sent Charles Edward to Britain as president of the Anglo-German Friendship Society. His mission was to improve Anglo-German relations and to explore the possibility of a pact between the two countries. He attended the funeral of his first cousin George V as Hitler's representative [29] in the uniform of a Stormtrooper (SA) general [30] of the German army, complete with a metal helmet; [31] (his British uniforms had been taken away when he was stripped of his British titles). [32] The Prince sent Hitler encouraging reports about the strength of pro-German sentiment among the British aristocracy and about the possibility of a Britain-Germany pact. [6] After the Abdication Crisis, he played host to the Duke and Duchess of Windsor, the former King-Emperor and his wife, during their private tour of Germany in 1937.

In 1940, Charles Edward travelled via Moscow and Japan to the US, where he met President Roosevelt at the White House. In 1943, at Hitler's behest, Charles Edward asked the International Red Cross to investigate the Katyn massacre. [13]

World War II

Burial site near Schloss Callenberg Callenberg Friedhof 1.jpg
Burial site near Schloss Callenberg

Although Charles Edward was too old for active service during World War II, his three sons served in the Wehrmacht . [2] His second son, Hubertus, was killed in action in 1943 in a plane crash near Mosty.

When World War II ended, the American Military Government in Bavaria, under the command of General George S. Patton, placed Charles Edward under house arrest at his home, the vast Veste Coburg , because of his Nazi sympathies, which had been made obvious when he joined the SS. [33] As well, "Carl Edward's British network was very useful for Hitler," according to the German historian Karina Urbach, a senior fellow of the Institute of Historical Research. In a discussion with a journalist, Urbach said that she found evidence of Carl Edward donating generously to the Nazi party for years, financing political murders and being aware of the death camps in Buchenwald. [34] In 1945, the Führer ordered that he not be allowed to be captured because of the great deal of inside information that he possessed. [28] According to The Guardian he was aware of the death camps' work [16] and the programme that killed 100,000 disabled people. [35]

He was later imprisoned with other Nazi officials. His sister, Princess Alice, learning of his incarceration, came to Germany with her husband, the Earl of Athlone (then Governor General of Canada), to plead for his release with his American captors. They dined with the American generals holding her brother, who declined to release him. In spite of being a cousin of King George VI, he was held in the harshest internment camps. [36]

Charles Edward was imprisoned until 1946. He was originally charged with Crimes against humanity and the trial was held. Though he was exonerated of complicity in actual war crimes, he was judged to have been "an important Nazi". Only his failing health saved him from remaining in prison. [36] Another factor for leniency towards him was the fact that in April 1946, his daughter Sybilla had given birth to a son, the future King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, who became, upon birth, third-in-line to the Swedish throne. In January 1947, Sybilla's husband died in a plane crash, and in October 1950, King Gustaf V of Sweden died, at which point Charles Edward's grandson became the Crown Prince of Sweden. In that same year 1950 (or August 1949, according to his ODNB entry), after several appeals, Charles Edward was sentenced by a denazification court as a Mitläufer and Minderbelasteter (roughly: follower and of lesser guilt), [13] fined (DM 5,000) and almost bankrupted. Had he been convicted for the greater charge of "crimes against humanity," he would have been liable for a death sentence, and even otherwise, to criminalize the future king's grandfather for "crimes against humanity" would lead to major embarrassment in the immediate term and could have ramifications in years to come. The lesser sentence was therefore handed out.

Apart from being fined DM 5,000, Charles Edward also lost significant property as a result of his participation in World War II. Gotha was part of Thuringia and was therefore situated in the Soviet occupation zone. The Soviet Army confiscated much of the family's property in Gotha. However, Coburg had become part of Bavaria in 1920 and was occupied by American forces. The family were able to retain the substantial property located there and in other parts of Germany and abroad.

Late life and death

He spent the last years of his life in seclusion, forced into poverty by the fines he had been required to pay by the denazification tribunal [37] and because much of his property had been seized by the Russians. [6] [38] In 1953, he watched the coronation of his cousin's granddaughter, Elizabeth II, at a local cinema. [12]

Charles Edward died of cancer in Coburg in his flat in Elsässer Straße on 6 March 1954 [38] as a "penniless criminal" according to one report. [16] He was the second-to-last ruling prince of the German Reich to die (only Ernst II of Saxe-Altenburg outlived him, see List of Princes of the German Empire (German). He is buried at the Waldfriedhof Cemetery (Waldfriedhof Beiersdorf) near Schloss Callenberg, in Beiersdorf near Coburg. [39]

More than twenty years after his death in indigent circumstances, his grandson became King of Sweden as King Carl XVI Gustaf.

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Royal Monogram of Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Royal Monogram of Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.svg
Royal Monogram of Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Titles and styles

Honours

Arms

Charles Edward was never granted arms in the United Kingdom. Also, he did not inherit the arms of his father since royal arms, as a differenced version of Arms of Dominion, are granted individually and not inherited. On his accession as Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, he used the arms of that duchy, both the greater and lesser versions.

One variant that he used was a shield of the arms of Saxony, with a differenced version of the arms of the United Kingdom, charged with the label borne by his father on his father's arms (essentially, the arms of his father in reverse). [47] This was similar to the arms borne by his uncle, Alfred, as Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, which can be seen on his stall plate as a Knight of the Swedish Order of the Seraphim. [48]

Coat of Arms of Charles Edward Coat of Arms of Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.svg
Coat of Arms of Charles Edward

In the media

In December 2007, British Channel 4 aired an hour-length documentary about Charles Edward called Hitler's Favourite Royal, [16] including re-coloured original footage and photos from all stages of his private and public life, his troubled conversion to the National-Socialist regime and other aspects. [49] Various international historians commented on the events and issues revolving around his life, reminding the public of his existence and reviving public debate. [50]

Issue

NameBirthDeathMarriages
Johann Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha 2 August
1906
4 May
1972
(1) unequally, renouncing his rights to the headship of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha), 9 March 1932, Baroness Feodora von der Horst; divorced 1962; had issue
(2), 5 May 1963, Maria Theresia Reindl; no issue
Princess Sibylla of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha 18 January
1908
28 November
1972
20 October 1932, Prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden, Duke of Västerbotten, and had issue, including Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden.
Prince Hubertus of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha 24 August
1909
26 November
1943
killed near Mosty, no children
Princess Caroline Mathilde of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha 22 June
1912
5 September
1983
married Friedrich Wolfgang Otto, Count of Castell-Rüdenhausen (27 June 1906 – 11 June 1940) on 14 December 1931, divorced on 2 May 1938, and had issue.

She married Flight Captain Max Schnirring (20 May 1895 – 7 July 1944) on 22 June 1938, and had issue.

She remarried Karl Otto Andree (10 February 1912 – 1984) on 23 December 1946 and divorced on 10 October 1949.

Friedrich Josias, Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha 29 November
1918
23 January
1998
(1), 25 January 1942, Countess Viktoria-Luise of Solms-Baruth; divorced 19 September 1947; had issue
(2), 14 February 1948, Denyse Henrietta de Muralt; divorced 17 September 1964; had issue
(3), 30 October 1964, Katrin Bremme; no issue

Ancestry

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Princess Alexandra of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Fourth child and third daughter of Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh and Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia

Princess Alexandra of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, VA, CI,, was the fourth child and third daughter of Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia. She was a granddaughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom as well as of Tsar Alexander II of Russia.

Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1800–1831) German princess

Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg was the wife of Ernst I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and the mother of Duke Ernst II and Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria. She was the paternal grandmother of King Edward VII of the United Kingdom. She is also the paternal great-great-great grandmother of Elizabeth II.

Princess Sibylla of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Swedish princess

Princess Sibylla of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was the mother of the current King of Sweden, Carl XVI Gustaf. A member of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Sibylla became a Swedish princess by marrying Prince Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten, who did not live to ascend the Swedish throne.

House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha German dynasty

The House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha is a German dynasty that ruled the duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, which was one of the Ernestine duchies. It is a cadet branch of the Saxon House of Wettin.

Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha German princess

Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was the daughter of Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Maria Antonia Koháry de Csábrág. Her father was the second son of Francis Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and Augusta Reuss-Ebersdorf.

Friedrich Josias, Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha British prince

Friedrich Josias, Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was the head of the Ducal Family of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and titular Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha from 1954 until his death.

Andreas, Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Andreas, Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Saxony has been the head of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha since 1998. He is the grandson of Charles Edward, the last ruling duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

Princess Victoria Adelaide of Schleswig-Holstein German princess

Princess Victoria Adelaide of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg was the consort of Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and is the maternal grandmother of Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden.

Johann Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was the eldest son of Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, and Princess Victoria Adelaide of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg.

Coat of arms of Saxony coat of arms

The coat of arms of the present-day German free state of Saxony shows a tenfold horizontally-partitioned field of black (sable) and gold/yellow (or) stripes, charged with a green (vert) crancelin running from the viewer's top-left to bottom-right. Although the crancelin is sometimes shown bent (embowed) like a crown, this is due to artistic license. The coat of arms is also displayed on the state flag of Saxony.

Princess Dorothea of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha German princess

Princess Dorothea Maria Henriette Auguste Louise of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was a princess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha by birth and the duchess of Schleswig-Holstein through her marriage to Ernst Gunther, duke of Schleswig-Holstein. Dorothea was born in Vienna, Austria, the second child and only daughter of Prince Philipp of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Princess Louise of Belgium.

Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1756–1808)

Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, German: Luise, Prinzessin von Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg was Duchess consort of Mecklenburg-Schwerin through her marriage to Frederick Francis I, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg, Louise was also a member of the House of Mecklenburg.

Ernst Leopold, Prinz of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was a Prince, and the elder son of Johann Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Baroness Feodora von der Horst.

Prince Hubertus of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was a German courier pilot and a member of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, which reigned over the eponymous duchy in the German Empire. Born a prince of Great Britain and Ireland as the great-grandson of Queen Victoria, Hubertus lost this title during the First World War. He became heir apparent to the headship of his house in 1932, and he never married. Hubertus joined the Nazi Party upon the outbreak of the Second World War despite his opposition to Adolf Hitler and Nazism. He served in the German Army on the Eastern Front until he was killed in action. He is the maternal uncle of King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden.

Schloss Rosenau, Coburg château

Schloss Rosenau, called in English The Rosenau or Rosenau Palace, is a former castle, converted into a ducal country house, between the towns of Coburg and Rödental, formerly in Saxe-Coburg, now lying in Bavaria, Germany.

Princess Helena of Nassau Princess of Nassau-Weilburg

Princess Helena of Nassau was a daughter of William, Duke of Nassau, and consort of George Victor, Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont.

Saxe-Ernestine House Order order

The Saxe-Ernestine House Order was an order of merit instituted by Duke Friedrich of Saxe-Altenburg, Duke Ernst I of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, and Duke Bernhard II of Saxe-Meiningen on 25 December 1833 as a joint award of the Saxon duchies.

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Sources

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha at Wikimedia Commons

Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Cadet branch of the House of Wettin
Born: 19 July 1884 Died: 6 March 1954
German nobility
Preceded by
Alfred
Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
30 July 1900 – 14 November 1918
Abolished
Peerage of the United Kingdom
Vacant
Title last held by
Prince Leopold
Duke of Albany
(creation of 1881)
1884–1919
Deprived
Titles in pretence
Loss of titles TITULAR 
Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
14 November 1918 – 6 March 1954
Reason for succession failure:
German Revolution of 1918–19
Succeeded by
Prince Friedrich Josias
 TITULAR 
Duke of Albany
28 March 1919 – 6 March 1954
Reason for succession failure:
Titles Deprivation Act 1917
Succeeded by
Prince Johann Leopold