American Red Cross

Last updated

American Red Cross
American Red Cross logo.svg
Headquarters building of the American Red Cross, Washington, D.C LCCN2011632232.tif
The American Red Cross headquarters in Washington D.C.
FormationMay 21, 1881;140 years ago (1881-05-21)
Founder Clara Barton
Legal statusInstrumentality of the United States and a body corporate and politic [1]
Purpose Humanitarian aid
Headquarters American Red Cross National Headquarters
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Region served
United States
President
Gail J. McGovern [2]
Main organ
Board of Governors
Revenue
US$2,714,189,000 (2017) [3]
Website www.redcross.org

The American Red Cross (ARC), also known as The American National Red Cross, [4] is a non-profit humanitarian organization that provides emergency assistance, disaster relief, and disaster preparedness education in the United States. It is the designated US affiliate of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and the United States movement to the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.

Contents

The organization offers services and development programs. [5]

History and organization

Founders

The American Red Cross National Headquarters in Washington, D.C. is a National Historic Landmark. American Red Cross headquarters.JPG
The American Red Cross National Headquarters in Washington, D.C. is a National Historic Landmark.

Clara Barton established American Red Cross in Dansville, NY, on May 21, 1881. She became its first president. Barton organized a meeting on May 12 of that year at the house of Senator Omar D. Conger (R, MI). [6] Fifteen people were at the meeting, including Barton, Conger and Representative William Lawrence (R, OH) (who became the first vice president). [7] [8] The first local chapter was established in 1881 at the English Evangelical Lutheran Church of Dansville. [9]

Jane Delano (1862–1919) founded the American Red Cross Nursing Service on January 20, 1910. [10]

Clara Barton

Barton founded the American chapter after learning of the Red Cross in Geneva, Switzerland. In 1869, she went to Europe and became involved in the work of the International Red Cross during the Franco-Prussian War. She was determined to bring the organization to America. [11]

Clara Barton, founder of the American Red Cross Clara Barton1.jpg
Clara Barton, founder of the American Red Cross

Barton became President of the American branch of the society, known as the American National Red Cross in May 1881 in Washington. The first chapters opened in upstate New York, where she had connections. [12] John D. Rockefeller and four others donated money to help create a national headquarters near the White House. [13] The abolitionist Frederick Douglass, a friend of Barton's, offered advice and support as she sought to establish the American chapter of Red Cross. As Register of Deeds for the District of Columbia, Douglass also signed the American Red Cross's original Articles of Incorporation.

American Red Cross Administrative Headquarters in Washington, D.C. American Red Cross Administrative Headquarters.JPG
American Red Cross Administrative Headquarters in Washington, D.C.
American National Red Cross USA-American National Red Cross0.jpg
American National Red Cross

Barton led one of the group's first major relief efforts, a response to the 1881 Thumb Fire in Michigan's Thumb region. Over 5,000 people were left homeless. The next major disaster was the Johnstown Flood on May 31, 1889. Over 2,209 people died and thousands more were injured in or near Johnstown, Pennsylvania, in one of the worst disasters in U.S. history.

Progressive reform

Barton was unable to build up a staff she trusted and her fundraising was lackluster. She was forced out in 1904. Professional social work experts took control and made the group a model of Progressive Era scientific reform. [14] New leader Mabel Thorp Boardman consulted with senior government officials, military officers, social workers, and financiers. William Howard Taft was especially influential. They imposed an ethos of "managerialism", transforming the agency from Barton's cult of personality to an "organizational humanitarianism" ready for expansion. [15]

Among the notable disasters of the Progressive Era that featured American Red Cross involvement was the sinking of the RMS Titanic in 1912. The New York City chapter joined with the Charity Organization Society to provide funds to survivors and the dependents of those who perished. [16]

Board of Governors Chairpersons

Leadership

Recent presidents and CEOs include Gail McGovern, Elizabeth Dole, Bernadine Healy, Mary S. Elcano, Mark W. Everson and John F. McGuire. [2] In 2007, U.S. legislation clarified the role for the Board of Governors and that of the senior management in the wake of difficulties following Hurricane Katrina. [17] Members of the board of governors other than the chairman are elected at the annual meeting of chapter delegates. The board appoints the chief executive officer. [18]

Ranking

As of November 2017, the American Red Cross scores three out of four stars at Charity Navigator [19] and B+ at CharityWatch. [20]

In 1996, the Chronicle of Philanthropy , an industry magazine, released the results of the largest study of charitable and nonprofit organization popularity and credibility. The study showed that ARC was ranked as the third "most popular charity/non-profit in America" of over 100 charities researched, with 48% of Americans over age 12 choosing "Love" or "Like A lot" to describe it. [21]

Notable members

Blood services

Blood donation

ARC supplies roughly 35% of the donated blood in the United States, which it sells to hospitals and regional suppliers. [30] Community-based blood centers supply nearly 60% and approximately 5% is collected directly by hospitals. [31] In December 2004, ARC completed its largest blood processing facility in the United States in Pomona, California, on the campus grounds of California State Polytechnic University, Pomona.

Tissue services

For more than 50 years, ARC provided allograft tissue for transplant through sales in its Tissue Services Program. It cared for thousands of donor families who donated tissue and sold the tissue to more than 1 million transplant recipients. At the end of January 2005, ARC ended its Tissue Services program to focus on its primary missions of Disaster Relief and Blood Services.

Plasma services

A leader in the plasma industry, ARC provides more than one quarter of the nation's plasma products. Red Cross Plasma Services provides plasma products that are reliable, cost-effective and as safe as possible.

In February 1999, ARC completed its "Transformation", a $287 million program that reengineered Red Cross Blood Services' processing, testing, and distribution system and established a new management structure.

As of 2011, ARC was no longer in the Plasma Services industry. It supplies Baxter BioSciences with items for manufacturing plasma products. [32]

Nucleic acid testing

On March 1, 1999, ARC became the first U.S. blood bank to implement a nucleic acid testing (NAT) study. This process is different from traditional testing because it looks for the genetic material of HIV and hepatitis C (HCV), rather than the body's response to the disease.

The NAT tests for HIV and HCV has been licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). These tests detect the genetic material of a transfusion-transmitted virus like HIV without waiting for the body to form antibodies, potentially offering an important time advantage over current techniques.

Leukoreduction

Leukocytes (white blood cells) help fight off foreign substances such as bacteria, viruses, and abnormal cells. In fact, these foreign leukocytes in transfused red blood cells and platelets are often not well tolerated and have been associated with some types of transfusion complications. Leukocytes in stored blood products can have a variety of biological effects, including depression of immune function, which can result in organ failure and death. [33] Because whole blood is rarely used for transfusion and not kept in routine inventory, leukoreduced red blood supplies are critical. After collection, the whole blood is separated into red cells and plasma by centrifugation. A preservative solution is mixed with the red cells and the component is filtered with a leukoreduction filter. The shelf life of this product is 42 days.

ARC is moving toward system-wide universal prestorage leukocyte reduction to improve patient care. From 1976 to 1985, the FDA received reports of 355 fatalities associated with transfusion, 99 of which were excluded from further review because they were unrelated to transfusion or involved hepatitis or HIV/AIDS. [34] While the FDA has not yet made leukoreduction a requirement, ARC took a leading role in implementing this procedure with a goal of leukoreducing all blood products. More than 70% of ARC red blood cell components undergo prestorage leukoreduction, a filtering process performed soon after blood is donated.

Research

ARC operates the Jerome H. Holland blood laboratory in Rockville, Maryland. Each year,[ when? ] it invests more than $25 million in research activities at the Holland Laboratory and in the field.

Cellular therapies

ARC offers cellular therapies; this treatment involves collecting and treating blood cells from a patient or other blood donor. The treated cells are introduced into a patient to help revive normal cell function, replace cells that are lost as a result of disease, accidents or aging, or to prevent illnesses from appearing.

Training Services

Training Services is one of the five divisions of the American Red Cross, responsible for providing health and safety training to the general public as well as the workforce. In fiscal year 2017 the American Red Cross trained 2.28 million people how to save lives through their First Aid, CPR or AED courses, water safety and caregiving programs. There are a wide variety of course offerings available: [35]

In addition to basic level certifications in the above courses the American Red Cross also offers Instructor level courses and Instructor Trainer (IT) level courses. Instructor level courses are designed to teach participants how to become instructors for American Red Cross courses, whereas Instructor Trainer courses (also known as Instructor Trainer Academies) are designed to certify current instructors to become Instructor Trainers, or people who can teach Instructor level courses.

Training Services has an online store where you can purchase supplies including First Aid Kits, CPR keychains, flashlights, and emergency radios. [36]

2018 Manikin Change

In early 2018 all courses offered by the American Red Cross switched to BigRed manikin. The investment cost $1.8M and increased participants' understanding of the purpose of compressions during CPR.

Course Offerings

There are three entities that can run American Red Cross courses; The American Red Cross, Authorized Providers, and Licensed Training Providers. [37] The American Red Cross runs many of its own courses that can be conducted on land such as First Aid/CPR/AED and Basic Life Support for Healthcare Providers. There are a number of courses that require aquatic facilities to run, such as Lifeguarding and Water Safety Instructor. These courses are generally left to Authorized Providers (colleges, government agencies, fire departments, community centers) and to Licensed Training Providers (LLC. or Inc.).

Scientific Advisory Council

The Scientific Advisory Council is a panel including over 50 nationally recognized medical, scientific, aquatics, and academic experts from across the United States. [38]

Disasters service

American Red Cross providing assistance during the 1994 Northridge earthquake FEMA - 2332 - Photograph by Robert A. Eplett taken on 01-17-1994 in California.jpg
American Red Cross providing assistance during the 1994 Northridge earthquake
An American Red Cross vehicle distributing food to Grand Forks, North Dakota victims of the 1997 Red River flood GF1997RedCross.jpg
An American Red Cross vehicle distributing food to Grand Forks, North Dakota victims of the 1997 Red River flood
Satellite communications after tropical storm Debby in Lake City, Florida, 2012 FEMA - 58087 - Photo by George Armstrong taken on 07-09-2012 in Florida.jpg
Satellite communications after tropical storm Debby in Lake City, Florida, 2012

Each year, ARC responds to more than 60,000 disasters, including house or apartment fires (making up the majority), hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, tornadoes, hazardous materials spills, transportation accidents, explosions and other natural and man-made disasters.

Although ARC is not a government agency, its authority to provide disaster relief was formalized when, in 1905, it was granted a congressional charter to "carry on a system of national and international relief in time of peace and apply the same in mitigating the sufferings caused by pestilence, famine, fire, floods, and other great national calamities, and to devise and carry on measures for preventing the same." The charter is not only a grant of power but also an imposition of duties and obligations to the nation, to disaster victims and to the people who support its work with their donations.

Disaster relief focuses on emergency disaster-caused needs. When a disaster threatens or strikes, ARC provides shelter, food and health and mental health services (Psychological First Aid) to address basic human needs. The core of American Red Cross disaster relief is assistance to individuals and families to enable them to resume their normal daily activities. The organization provides translation and interpretation when necessary, and maintains a database of multilingual volunteers. [39]

At the local level, ARC chapters operate volunteer-staffed Disaster Action Teams.

ARC feeds emergency workers of other agencies, handles inquiries from concerned family members outside the disaster area, provides blood and blood products to disaster victims and helps those affected by a disaster to access other resources. It is a member of National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster (VOAD) and works closely with other agencies such as Salvation Army and Amateur Radio Emergency Service with whom it has memorandums of understanding.

ARC works to encourage preparedness by providing important literature on readiness. Many chapters also offer free classes to the general public.

A major misconception among the general public is that ARC provides medical facilities, engages in search and rescue operations or deploys ambulances. Instead, first responder roles are left to government agencies as dictated by the National Response Framework. Red Cross societies outside the U.S. may provide such functions; for example, the Cruz Roja Mexicana (Mexican Red Cross) runs a national ambulance service. Furthermore, American Red Cross Emergency Response Vehicles (ERVs) look similar to ambulances. [40] These ERVs instead are designed for bulk distribution of relief supplies, such as meals, drinks and other relief supplies. Although ARC shelters usually assign a nurse to the facility, they are not equipped to provide medical care beyond first aid.

Disaster Services Workforce

The Disaster Services Workforce (DSW) system enrolls volunteers from ARC chapters into a national database of responders, classified by their ability to serve in one or more activities within groups. Services include feeding and sheltering ("mass care") to warehousing, damage assessment, accounting, communications, public affairs and counseling. Responders complete training requirements specific to the services they want to offer, backgrounds, and first aid training.

National Response Framework

As a National Response Framework support agency, ARC shelters, feeds and provides other types of emergency relief to victims of disasters. ARC is a co-lead with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) for the mass care portion of Emergency Support Function 6. ARC and FEMA share responsibility for planning and coordinating mass care services with FEMA. ARC has responsibilities for other Emergency Support Functions, such as providing health and mental health services. [41] [42]

Disaster responses

1908 Messina Earthquake

In 1908 an Earthquake and Tsunami devastated the area surround the Strait of Messina. The American public donated nearly $1 million to the American Red Cross which was sent to Italy via the State Department, alongside $800,000 in public funds. [43] The decision to use the State Department to distribute funds, rather than sending them directly to the Italian Red Cross, was indicative of the organization's shift away from the International Red Cross movement and towards US interests. [44] This was the ARC's first major response to an international civilian disaster. [43]

Before 1908, the U.S. Congress had only rarely allocated funds for natural disasters; likewise, the level of funding given to Italy was also unprecedented. [45] The ARC's aid to Italy carried important diplomatic meaning for the U.S. due to the large number of Italian emigrants who left for the U.S. every year, and Italy's growing importance within Europe. [46] ARC leaders viewed relief efforts in Italy as a way to demonstrate U.S. care for the nation. Alongside this, disaster relief was seen as a tool for social reform. A fundamental goal of the ARC's assistance was to address the perceived threat of pauperization within an area that a large proportion of U.S. immigrants came from. [47]

Role in the United States Occupation of Nicaragua

As a response to the Nicaraguan resentment of the United States Occupation of Nicaragua, U.S. officials employed the use of humanitarian relief in attempt to improve relations. $10,000 dollars was given to the ARC by Philander Knox to provide relief in the form of blankets, clothing, and food to captured soldiers from José Santos Zelaya’s army. [48] ARC leaders believed that humanitarian relief would be more effective in fostering goodwill and creating stability than any other action. In 1912 the State and War Department became concerned with increasing reports of hunger within the country. As a result, Knox asked the ARC to supply food for non-combatants as well. American forces worked with the ARC to open railroads to distribute humanitarian supplies to Managua, Granada, Léon, and other key cities. [49]

Although the ARC was a non-governmental agency, its humanitarian efforts lined up with American foreign policy, becoming a useful diplomatic mechanism for softening the effects of American military intervention and securing its political interests. [50]

Role in World War One

Prior to the United States entry into World War One, the American Red Cross was a neutral organization aiding both the allied and central powers. [51] However, when the United States joined the allied powers, the American Red Cross aid to the central powers ended immediately. On May 10, 1917, President Wilson created the American Red Cross War Council to aid funding initiatives and direct the activities of the organization. Throughout the war the Council raised $400 million.

The American Red Cross in the war was a quasi state organization, but it is best described as a Non Governmental Organizational as it was not officially part of the United States Government. The American Red Cross in the war focussed principally on overseas civilian aid and not domestic disaster relief. The American Red Cross spent "less than one million dollars on domestic disaster relief, in comparison to the $120 million devoted to relief overseas. [52] The American Red Cross during the war provided food, employment, housing and medical assistance to millions of civilians displaced by the war. During the course of the war over one third of the population of the United States joined the organization and in 1917 and 1918 alone around $400 million was raised. [53] Amongst its initiatives was the Pisa Village in Italy, a humanitarian housing project begun in 1918.

The power of the American Red Cross was soon recognized by the Government which began to see "the value of overseas aid as a tool of statecraft". [54] The American Red Cross was increasingly being used as an arm of the state to facilitate the realization of American foreign policy objects. Principally the American Red Cross enhanced America's image abroad while also disseminating American practices and values throughout Europe. [54] It intervened in European health and welfare practices by introducing American methods. Moreover, after the Bolsheviks seized power in Russia President Wilson used the American Red Cross as a diplomacy tool to aid the White forces. Wilson believed that food was the "real thing" to combat Bolshevism and ordered the American Red Cross to distribute food and material relief to Bolshevik opponents in the Russian civil war. [55] The American Red Cross, therefore, served the dual functions of assisting the realization of United States foreign policy objectives and promoting international humanitarianism.

At the end of the war the League of Red Cross Societies was created. This international society of national Red Cross organizations was spearheaded by the United States and sought the "improvement of health, the prevention of disease, and the mitigation of suffering throughout the world." [56]

Interwar European Reconstruction

Unlike European relief organization, which had to invest much of their time in fund-raising efforts, the American Red Cross's collaboration with Herbert Hoover’s American Relief Administration had funding on a different scale and well as popular and governmental support at its disposal. [57] With its membership of over 33 million Americans in 1918 (20% of the U.S. population) and its designation as the official U.S. organization for foreign relief by the Geneva Treaty and Congressional mandate, the ARC was neither wholly private nor an official governmental organization. [58] This quasi-governmental support allowed the ARC to secure credibility and support that was unattainable for other relief organizations such as the YMCA or Knights of Columbus.

The ARC’s private funding allowed for more flexibility than government organizations, its leaders chose to support U.S. foreign policy in many ways but also often pursued aims that differed from that of the military or political policymakers. [59] Hundreds of ARC workers pursued permanent reform of Italian social politics, rather than emergency relief they founded nursing schools, developed child welfare projects and waged anti-tuberculosis crusades. [60] In introducing these American ideas about public health and social welfare, the ARC acted as what historian Daniel T. Rodgers had referred to as ‘brokers of ideas’, who facilitated transatlantic exchange on the methods and philosophies of social reform. [61] Work in the ARC allowed American citizens to contribute to transatlantic social reform discourse. ARC workers built upon and expanded the already existing Italian efforts for social reform. ARC reformers embraced a strategic cultural sensitivity as they attempted to work with Italians and help them to take control of their own social institutions. By presenting their reforms as mutual exchange rather than imposed change, ARC workers hoped Italians would willingly accept them. [62] U.S. reformers in the ARC continued to believe in the necessity of American intervention in ‘reforming’ Italy.

Russian revolution

In July 1918 the ARC established a hospital at the entrance of Vladivostok harbor, and during the year 8 more hospitals. Vladivostok Refugee hospital was opened in early 1919 in former naval barracks and had up to 250 beds. The ARC provided drugs and medical supplies to Russian hospitals during the civil war. [63]

2005 hurricanes

Volunteers assist Hurricane victims at the Houston Astrodome, following Hurricane Katrina. FEMA - 15337 - Photograph by Andrea Booher taken on 09-10-2005 in Texas.jpg
Volunteers assist Hurricane victims at the Houston Astrodome, following Hurricane Katrina.

Forecasting a major disaster before the landfall of Hurricane Katrina, ARC enlisted 2,000 volunteers to be on a "stand by" deployment list.

According to ARC, during and after hurricanes Katrina, Wilma and Rita, they opened 1,470 shelters and registered 3. 8 million overnight stays. 300,000 American Red Cross workers (82% unpaid) provided sheltering, casework, communication and assessment services throughout these events. In addition, 346,980 comfort kits (which contain hygiene essentials such as toothpaste, soap, washcloths and toys for children) and 205,360 cleanup kits (containing brooms, mops and bleach) were distributed. The organization served 68 million snacks and meals. Disaster Health services provided 596,810 contacts, and Disaster Mental Health services 826,590 contacts. Emergency financial assistance was provided to 1.4 million families, including 4 million people. Katrina was the first natural disaster in the United States that ARC utilized their "Safe and Well" family location website. [64] [65]

Comair Flight 5191

Following the crash of commuter aircraft Comair Flight 5191, the Bluegrass Area Chapter and ARC Critical Response Team (CRT) members were dispatched. This was the worst air disaster in the United States since American Airlines Flight 587. Family and Friends reception centers were established near the arrival and departure airports and in Cincinnati, site of the Comair headquarters. Local chapters in Georgia, Alabama, Kentucky and California provided health and mental health services to family and friends not present in Lexington. Volunteers also staffed the local Emergency Operations Center (EOC) in Lexington, Kentucky. [66]

2007 tornadoes

ARC is set up in a community hard hit by the tornadoes, Florida, 2007 FEMA - 28112 - Photograph by Mark Wolfe taken on 02-06-2007 in Florida.jpg
ARC is set up in a community hard hit by the tornadoes, Florida, 2007

Florida

In response to the Central Florida Tornado of February 2007, ARC began a large scale disaster relief operation. At least seven shelters were opened. 40,000 pre-packaged meals were sent by ARC, and across the nation, almost 400 American Red Cross volunteers were deployed to assist with local relief efforts. The organization deployed more than 30 Emergency Response Vehicles for community food and supply distribution. [67] [68]

Kansas

ARC immediately responded to the May 2007 Tornado Outbreak in central Kansas by setting up emergency shelters for displaced residents and started the distribution of food, water and relief supplies. [69]

Minneapolis bridge collapse

Following the collapse of the I-35W Mississippi River bridge, the Twin Cities Area Chapter responded with their Disaster Action Team to provide food, information and comfort. A family service center was set up, and mental health counselors deployed to numerous locations. [70] Donations contributed for this cause totaled US$138,368 and covered the cost of services [71] but not $65,000 in unexpected expenses. [72] Weather and the collapse placed 70% of Minnesota counties in federal primary or contiguous disaster areas during that August. [73]

International services

ARC, as part of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and its nearly 100 million volunteers, educates and mobilizes communities to overcome life-threatening vulnerabilities. ARC International Services Department focuses on global health, disaster preparedness and response, Restoring Family Links and international humanitarian law dissemination. ARC is involved with international projects such as the measles Initiative, malaria programs in Africa, disaster response and relief efforts in response to the 2004 South Asia tsunami.

Disaster preparedness and response

ARC international disaster response and preparedness programs provide relief and development assistance to millions of people annually who suffer as a result of natural and human-made disasters. To respond quickly and effectively, ARC has pre-positioned emergency relief supplies in three warehouses managed by the International Federation in Dubai, Malaysia, and Panama that are used to respond to disasters. An Emergency Response Unit (ERU) is another method with which ARC responds to international emergencies. An ERU is made up of trained personnel and pre-packaged equipment that is crucial in responding to sudden, large-scale disasters and emergencies in remote locations. American Red Cross ERUs specialize in providing emergency relief supplies and IT and Telecommunications for American Red Cross response operations. [74]

Flood Prevention in the Huai River Valley

In 1911, the ARC initiated its first international disaster-prevention project in the Huai River Valley. The ARC hired engineers to redirect the Huai River to prevent the yearly flooding that ruined crops and caused famine. [75] Key engineer within the project, C.D. Jameson, recommended a financial commitment to drainage, flood prevention, and land reclamation which he promised would result in ‘the elimination of the suffering, starvation, and degeneration of several millions of people’, which would substantially reduce ‘unrest and lawlessness’. [76] The plan's ambition to re-engineer the Chinese landscape was representative of the increasingly global ambitions of the ARC and the new direction the organization was taking prior to World War I.

Haiti

On January 12, 2010, a magnitude 7.0 Mw earthquake struck the Haitian coast 10 miles from the capital of Port-au-Prince, causing massive damage, more than 200,000 deaths and displacing nearly 2 million people.

As of March 2011, ARC announced it had allocated $314 million for Haiti earthquake relief and recovery. ARC funded recovery projects to provide transitional homes, health services, disaster preparedness, water and sanitation improvements and livelihoods development. It provided funds for school fees for affected families. As of June 2011, ARC had raised approximately $484 million for Haiti relief and recovery efforts. [77]

A series of reports by NPR and ProPublica found that much of the money Americans donated never made it to help people in Haiti and promises to rebuild neighborhoods were never met. [78] [79]

Global health

ARC International Services global health initiatives focus on preventing and combating infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS and measles on a large scale. Through cost-effective, community-based health interventions, ARC targets people in need and focuses on accessibility and equity of care, community participation, and integration with other community development initiatives, such as water and sanitation projects and food and nutrition programs.

An example of ARC International Services health programming is the Measles Initiative, launched in 2001, as a partnership committed to reducing measles deaths globally. The initiative provides technical and financial support to governments and communities on vaccination campaigns and disease surveillance worldwide. Leading these efforts are ARC, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the United Nations Foundation, UNICEF and the World Health Organization. The Measles Initiative has supported vaccination campaigns in more than 60 countries, mostly in Africa and Asia. Since 2001, the initiative has helped vaccinate one billion children in more than 60 developing countries. [80] The initiative supported the distribution of more than 37 million insecticide-treated mosquito nets for malaria prevention, 81 million doses of de-worming medicine, 95 million doses of polio vaccine, and 186 million doses of Vitamin A.

In December 2006, ARC became a founding partner of the Malaria No More campaign. The campaign was formed by leading non-governmental organizations to inspire individuals, institutions, and organizations in the private sector to support a comprehensive approach to end malaria, a devastating but preventable disease. ARC supported local Red Cross and Red Crescent volunteers in Africa who educated families and communities about malaria prevention and treatment, such as the proper and consistent use of insecticide-treated bed nets. ARC provided technical assistance and capacity-building support to its partners in difficult-to-reach communities.

International tracing requests

ARC handles international tracing requests and searches for families who have been separated. This service attempts to re-establish contact between separated family members. Restoring Family Links services provide the exchange of hand-written Red Cross Messages between individuals and their relatives who may be refugees or prisoners of war. At any given time, ARC Restoring Family Links program is handling the aftermath of 20–30 wars and conflicts. The worldwide structure of Red Cross and Red Crescent National Societies and the International Committee of the Red Cross make this service possible. When new information from former Soviet Union archives became available in the 1990s, a special unit was created to handle World War II and Holocaust tracing services.

International humanitarian law

ARC International Services educates the American public about the guiding principles of international humanitarian law (IHL) for conduct in warfare as set forth by the Geneva Conventions of 1949. In doing so, ARC International Services provides support to ARC chapters in their IHL dissemination efforts, offering courses and providing instructor training.

Service to the Armed Forces

A World War II-era poster encouraged American women to volunteer for the Red Cross as part of the war effort. Poster-red-cross-volunteer-for-victory.jpg
A World War II-era poster encouraged American women to volunteer for the Red Cross as part of the war effort.

ARC provides emergency and non-emergency services to the United States military. The most notable service is emergency family communications, where families can contact the Red Cross to send important family messages (such as a death in the family, or new birth). ARC can also act as a verifying agency. [81] The agency operates call centers to provide these services. [82] ARC works closely with other military societies, such as the Department of Veterans Affairs, to provide other services to service members and their families. ARC is not involved with prisoners of war; these are monitored by the International Committee of the Red Cross, the international body.

Carney Airfield, Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands Red Cross girl, August 1944 Carney Airfield, Solomon Islands, Red Cross girl. August 1944.jpg
Carney Airfield, Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands Red Cross girl, August 1944

One criticism of American Red Cross services to the military stems from stories about ARC charging troops during the Second World War and Korean War token fees for "comfort items" such as toothpaste, coffee, donuts, and cigarettes and for off-base food and lodging. The fee suggestion had been made in a letter dated March 1942 from the Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson to Norman H. Davis, the chairman of ARC. The suggestion was that Allied soldiers were being charged money so Americans should be charged too so as to "ensure an equitable distribution among all service personnel of American Red Cross resources". [83] The American Red Cross adopted the Secretary's suggestion as policy. [84]

During World War II, ARC operated the American Red Cross Clubmobile Service to provide servicemen with food, entertainment and "a connection home." In a June 18, 1945, address to Congress, General Dwight D. Eisenhower said of the American Red Cross service in World War II, "The Red Cross, with its clubs for recreation, its coffee and doughnuts in the forward areas, its readiness to meet the needs of the well and to help minister to the wounded has often seemed the friendly hand of this nation, reaching across the sea to sustain its fighting men." [85] An account of one World War II American Red Cross Girl is recorded in Destination Unknown by Kathleen Cox; her mother, LeOna Cox, was recruited to American Red Cross Service by a fellow teacher at Allegheny College. [86] Another account of an American Red Cross World War II worker is related in letters by Evelyn Merritt Welden, compiled in the book How to Play During a War: A Free Spirit's Life in Letters, by her son, Lynne Whelden.

Great Lakes Naval Hospital 1966, Jennie and Terrie Frankel perform for wounded soldiers. Great Lakes Naval Hospital 1966 - American Red Cross - Jennie Frankel and Terrie Frankel perform for wounded soldiers.jpeg
Great Lakes Naval Hospital 1966, Jennie and Terrie Frankel perform for wounded soldiers.

During the Vietnam War 627 American women served in the ARC Supplemental Recreation Overseas Program. At the invitation of the United States Army the "Donut Dollies" provided morale-boosting games to soldiers. Due to the mobility of the UH-1 Iroquois, Vietnam Donut Dollies were able to visit troops in forwarding operating positions. The 2008 documentary film A Touch of Home: The Vietnam War's Red Cross Girls tells the story of these women. ARC also provided services to entertain wounded soldiers at the Great Lakes Naval Hospital during the Vietnam War.

In 2011, the Service to the Armed Forces (SAF) unit was reorganized and began receiving $24 million per year from Congress for operating expenses. Along with being downsized there was a consolidation into four regional locations (San Diego, California, Ft. Sill, Oklahoma, Louisville, Kentucky, and Springfield, Massachusetts). In 2012 the first stories began breaking about long call times and the poor quality of response from call takers, [87] [88] along with questions about whether money was being used appropriately. [89] In 2015, the San Diego and Springfield locations were closed because an online option for families was implemented. [90]

Controversies

Johnson & Johnson suit over Red Cross image

The red cross flag. The American Red Cross flag logo. Flag of the Red Cross.svg
The red cross flag. The American Red Cross flag logo.

On August 7, 2007, [91] Johnson & Johnson (J&J) filed suit against ARC over its sublicensing of the International Red Cross image for the production of first aid kits and similar products, which it alleged competed with the company's products. The suit also asked for the destruction of all non-Johnson & Johnson Red Cross Emblem bearing products and demanded that ARC pay punitive damages and J&J's legal fees.

The American Red Cross' position was that it had licensed its name to first aid kit makers in an effort to encourage readiness for disasters and that license revenues supported humanitarian work. [92] J&J claimed that the American Red Cross's commercial ventures were outside the scope of historically well-agreed usage and were in direct violation of federal statutes. [93]

On May 14, 2008, a federal judge ruled against J&J. [94] In June 2008, the two organizations announced a settlement had been reached allowing both parties to use the symbol. [95]

The FDA took court action against ARC in response to deficiencies in their procedures for ensuring blood supply safety. The resulting consent decree outlines violations of federal law that ARC engaged in before 1993. [96] ARC paid millions of dollars in fines.

ARC Biomedical Services instituted a standardized computer system to maintain the blood donor database; five National Testing Laboratories (NTLs) that test some six million units of blood annually; [97] the Charles Drew Biomedical Institute, which provides training and other educational resources to Red Cross Blood Services' personnel; a Quality Assurance/Regulatory Affairs Department, which helps to ensure regulatory compliance; and, a centrally managed blood inventory system.

The Consent Decree was amended in 2003 with penalties for specific violations.

The FDA could impose penalties after April 2003 up to the following maximum amounts:

The FDA continued to apply pressure and fines to ARC in order to enforce compliance with regulations, including a $1.7 million fine in June 2008. [98]

ARC worked closely with the FDA to develop a more robust system. The systems resulted in a five-year period of sustained compliance that led to the release from the Consent Decree as of December 4, 2015. [99]

Blood donation controversy

ARC faced criticism from lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) advocacy organizations for prohibiting men who have sex with men (MSM) from donating blood. This policy was an FDA requirement for all blood collection companies and organizations in the United States. Specifically, the FDA instructs blood collection organizations to "defer for 12 months from the most recent sexual contact, a man who has had sex with another man during the past 12 months". [100] Consequently, ARC was legally unable to collect blood from such men. In 2006, along with the AABB and America's Blood Centers, ARC petitioned the FDA to remove the requirement from blood donations, citing better screening technologies. [101] [102] As of December 2016, the American Red Cross reports on its website that its deferral of MSM from donating blood for 12 months after any sexual contact with another man is aligned with the guidance issued by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. [103]

Hurricane Katrina controversy

In March 2006, investigations of allegations of fraud and theft by volunteers and contractors within ARC Katrina operations were launched by the Louisiana Attorney-General and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). [104] In response, ARC increased its internal and external education of the organization's fraud and a waste hotline for confidential reporting to a third party agency.[ citation needed ] The organization also elected to implement a background check policy for all volunteers and staff, starting in 2006. [105]

In April 2006, an unnamed former ARC official leaked reports made by the International Committee of the Red Cross and the British Red Cross. Such reports are typical of a large-scale disaster relief operation involving other national Red Cross societies to solicit their input, but are usually confidential and not released to the general public. These particular reports were particularly critical of ARC operations in Katrina-affected regions, although the British Red Cross report strongly praised ARC volunteers for their efforts.[ citation needed ]

Storms controversy (Hurricane Sandy, Isaac, other major storms)

In October 2014, independent public interest news broadcasters NPR and ProPublica published investigative reports on the Red Cross's handling of US East Coast Hurricanes Sandy and Isaac, citing internal Red Cross documents and interviews with former Red Cross and government officials. It criticized the organization's response in failing to meet the immediate needs of victims. It also described "an organization so consumed with public relations that it hindered the charity's ability to provide disaster services." [106] [107] [108]

See also

Related Research Articles

International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement International humanitarian movement

The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide, which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering. Within three distinct organizations that are legally independent from each other, but are united within the movement through common basic principles, objectives, symbols, statutes and governing organisations, there are the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), that is a private humanitarian institution founded in 1863 in Geneva, Switzerland, in particular by Henry Dunant and Gustave Moynier. Its 25-member committee has a unique authority under international humanitarian law to protect the life and dignity of the victims of international and internal armed conflicts. The ICRC was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize on three occasions.

Humanitarianism Relief activities to aid and assist humanity; philanthropic philosophy of active humanism

Humanitarianism is an active belief in the value of human life, whereby humans practice benevolent treatment and provide assistance to other humans, in order to improve the conditions of humanity for moral, altruistic and logical reasons. Humanitarianism is today primarily understood as voluntary emergency aid in a transnational context, but it overlaps with human rights advocacy, actions taken by governments, development assistance, and domestic philanthropy. Other critical issues include the correlation with religious beliefs; the motivation of aid between the poles of altruism and social control; market affinity; imperialism and neo-colonialism; gender and class relations; and the types of humanitarian agencies and endeavours that characterise different epochs. A practitioner is known as a humanitarian.

International Rescue Committee

The International Rescue Committee (IRC) is a global humanitarian aid, relief, and development nongovernmental organization. Founded in 1933 as the International Relief Association, at the request of Albert Einstein, and changing its name in 1942 after amalgamating with the similar Emergency Rescue Committee, the IRC provides emergency aid and long-term assistance to refugees and those displaced by war, persecution, or natural disaster. The IRC is currently working in about 40 countries and 26 U.S. cities where it resettles refugees and helps them become self-sufficient. It focuses mainly on health, education, economic wellbeing, power, and safety.

Care International

CARE is a major international humanitarian agency delivering emergency relief and long-term international development projects. Founded in 1945, CARE is nonsectarian, impartial, and non-governmental. It is one of the largest and oldest humanitarian aid organizations focused on fighting global poverty. In 2019, CARE reported working in 104 countries, supporting 1,349 poverty-fighting projects and humanitarian aid projects, and reaching over 92.3 million people directly and 433.3 million people indirectly.

Humanitarian aid Material or logistical assistance for people in need

Humanitarian aid is material and logistic assistance to people who need help. It is usually short-term help until the long-term help by the government and other institutions replaces it. Among the people in need are the homeless, refugees, and victims of natural disasters, wars, and famines. Humanitarian relief efforts are provided for humanitarian purposes and include natural disasters and man-made disasters. The primary objective of humanitarian aid is to save lives, alleviate suffering, and maintain human dignity. It may, therefore, be distinguished from development aid, which seeks to address the underlying socioeconomic factors which may have led to a crisis or emergency. There is a debate on linking humanitarian aid and development efforts, which was reinforced by the World Humanitarian Summit in 2016. However, the conflation is viewed critically by practitioners.

Canadian Red Cross

The Canadian Red Cross Society is a Canadian humanitarian charitable organization, and one of 192 national Red Cross and Red Crescent societies. The organization receives funding from both private donations and from Canadian government departments.

LDS Humanitarian Services Charitable services within the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

Latter-day Saint Charities is a branch of the welfare department of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The organization's stated mission is to relieve suffering, to foster self-reliance for people of all nationalities and religions, and to provide opportunities for service.

The British Red Cross Society is the United Kingdom body of the worldwide neutral and impartial humanitarian network the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. The society was formed in 1870, and is a registered charity with more than 17,200 volunteers and 3,400 staff. At the heart of their work is providing help to people in crisis, both in the UK and overseas. The Red Cross is committed to helping people without discrimination, regardless of their ethnic origin, nationality, political beliefs or religion. Queen Elizabeth II is the patron of the society.

Australian Red Cross National society of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement in Australia

The Australian Red Cross, formally the Australian Red Cross Society, is a humanitarian aid and community services charity in Australia. Tracing its history back to 1923 and being incorporated by royal charter in 1941, the Australian Red Cross Society is the national member of the Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and part of the International Red Cross Movement. The Australian Red Cross is guided by the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and as such is a non-religious, neutral, impartial and independent humanitarian organisation.

Disaster response

Disaster response is the second phase of the disaster management cycle. It consists of a number of elements, for example; warning/evacuation, search and rescue, providing immediate assistance, assessing damage, continuing assistance and the immediate restoration or construction of infrastructure .The aim of emergency response is to provide immediate assistance to maintain life, improve health and support the morale of the affected population. Such assistance may range from providing specific but limited aid, such as assisting refugees with transport, temporary shelter, and food, to establishing semi-permanent settlement in camps and other locations. It also may involve initial repairs to damaged or diversion to infrastructure.

Turkish Red Crescent Turkish equivalent of the Red Cross

Turkish Red Crescent is the largest humanitarian organization in Turkey and is part of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.

There are a number of meanings for the term humanitarian. Here humanitarian pertains to the practice of saving lives and alleviating suffering. It is usually related to emergency response whether in the case of a natural disaster or a man-made disaster such as war or other armed conflict. Humanitarian principles govern the way humanitarian response is carried out.

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Humanitarian organization

The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) is a worldwide humanitarian aid organization that reaches 160 million people each year through its 192-member National Societies. It acts before, during and after disasters and health emergencies to meet the needs and improve the lives of vulnerable people. It does so with impartiality as to nationality, race, gender, religious beliefs, class and political opinions.

Lebanese Red Cross

The Lebanese Red Cross (LRC) is a humanitarian organization and an auxiliary team to the medical service of the Lebanese Army. Its headquarters is in the Lebanese capital city of Beirut. Founded in 1945, the organization comprises a number of approximately 7,000 members/volunteers and 200 staff personnel. The society works with the International Federation and the ICRC, and on a bilateral basis with the Norwegian and the French Red Cross. The LRC also works with the relevant components of the Lebanese authorities, with UN agencies and NGOs.

The Sudanese Red Crescent (SRC) is the biggest and most decentralized and widespread humanitarian organization operating in Sudan. The society developed out of the Sudan branch of the British Red Cross Society and was established in 1956. Upon Sudan's independence in March 1956 received official recognition as an independent National Society following the Sudanese Council of Ministers decree No. 869. The National Society covers nearly the entire country with 15 State branches and several sub-branches/units in the provinces/localities and administrative units, with a nationwide community-based network of 35,000 active volunteers and another 300,000 who can be deployed as need arises. It has well-established working relations with public authorities at federal, state and local levels, and good partnership and collaboration with Movement partners and UN specialized agencies and national and international NGOs working in Sudan.

The Swiss Red Cross, or SRC, is the national Red Cross society for Switzerland.

Finnish Red Cross

The Finnish Red Cross is an independent member of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, which is one of the biggest and best-known international organisations in the world and in the field of humanitarian aid. FRC has over 90,000 members and around 45,000 active volunteers in Finland. FRC consists of 12 regional chapters and 550 local branches throughout the country. The current General Secretary is Ms. Kristiina Kumpula. At the end of 2006, the FRC employed 1,168 people, of which 136 worked at the headquarters in Helsinki.

Humanitarian response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake

The response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake included national governments, charitable and for-profit organizations from around the world which began coordinating humanitarian aid designed to help the Haitian people. Some countries arranged to send relief and rescue workers and humanitarian supplies directly to the earthquake damage zones, while others sought to organize national fund raising to provide monetary support for the nonprofit groups working directly in Haiti. OCHA coordinates and tracks this on a daily basis. The information is disseminated through the UN news and information portal, ReliefWeb. As of September 5, 2013, ReliefWeb have reported a total relief funding of $3.5 billion given.

Humanitarian response by non-governmental organizations to the 2010 Haiti earthquake

The humanitarian responses by non-governmental organizations to the 2010 Haiti earthquake included many organisations, such as international, religious, and regionally based NGOs, which immediately pledged support in the aftermath of the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Besides a large multi-contingency contribution by national governments, NGOs contributed significantly to both on-the-ground rescue efforts and external solicitation of aid for the rescue efforts.

The Maldivian Red Crescent (MRC) is an independent, volunteer, non-profit, humanitarian organization established in the Maldives by virture of the Maldivian Red Crescent Act Law No: 7/2009

References

  1. 36 U.S.C.   § 300101
  2. 1 2 "Leaders of the American Red Cross". American Red Cross. Retrieved August 22, 2011.
  3. "American Red Cross 2017 Audit and Consolidated Financial Statements" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 13, 2018. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  4. "Congressional Charter of the American Red Cross" (PDF). May 2007.
  5. "What We Do | Red Cross | Disaster Relief, Emergency Management". American Red Cross. Retrieved September 18, 2015.
  6. The Federal Charter of the American Red Cross Archived July 30, 2012, at the Wayback Machine , American Red Cross. Retrieved April 18, 2007
  7. "Everyone has a Ball at Rhapsody in Red 2001". American Red Cross. 2001. Archived from the original on July 13, 2001. Retrieved February 10, 2019.
  8. McCormick, K. Todd A Brief History of Logan County, Ohio Archived February 25, 2006, at the Wayback Machine , Logan County Museum. Retrieved April 18, 2007
  9. "Cultural Resource Information System (CRIS)". New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation. Archived from the original (Searchable database) on April 4, 2019. Retrieved November 1, 2015.Note: This includes Virginia L. Bartos (March 2013). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: English Evangelical Lutheran Church of Dansville" (PDF). Retrieved November 1, 2015. and Accompanying photographs Archived April 23, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  10. Haug, Hans; Gasser, Hans-Peter; Perret, Françoise; Robert-Tissot, Jean-Pierre; Henry-Dunant, Institut (1993). Humanity for all : the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. p. 261. ISBN   978-3-258-04719-5.
  11. "The Story of My Childhood". World Digital Library . 1907. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
  12. Marks, Mary Jo. "Clara Barton in Dansville, 1866 and 1876–1886". Dansville Historical Society. Retrieved July 1, 2009.
  13. "Article". Cheney Sentinel . Cheney, Washington. September 13, 1889. p. 1.
  14. Little, Branden (August 2013). "Review of Jones, Marian Moser. The American Red Cross from Clara Barton to the New Deal". H-SHGAPE, H-Net Reviews.
  15. Moser Jones, Marian (2013), The American Red Cross from Clara Barton to the New Deal, pp. 117, 137
  16. Cimino, Eric (Spring 2019). "Walking Titanic's Charity Trail in New York City: Part One". Voyage: Journal of the Titanic International Society. 107: 109–110.
  17. Strom, Stephanie (April 18, 2007). "American Red Cross Announces New Chief". The New York Times. Retrieved April 18, 2007.
  18. "36 U.S. Code § 300104.Board of governors". cornell.edu. Retrieved September 15, 2020.
  19. "Overall Score & Rating". Charity Navigator. Retrieved November 30, 2017.
  20. "CharityWatch Report". CharityWatch. Retrieved November 30, 2017.
  21. "The Charities Americans Like Most And Least," The Chronicle of Philanthropy, December 13, 1996,
  22. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Binheim, Max; Elvin, Charles A (1928). Women of the West; a series of biographical sketches of living eminent women in the eleven western states of the United States of America . Retrieved August 8, 2017.PD-icon.svgThis article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  23. "Ida F. Butler, Red Cross Nurse · Hartford Women in World War I · Digital History 511: Theory & Practice". library.ccsu.edu.
  24. "News from the Field". American Journal of Public Health and the Nation's Health. 28 (10): 1260–1268. October 1938. doi:10.2105/AJPH.28.10.1260.
  25. Bullough, Vern L. (2000). American Nursing: A Biographical Dictionary:, Volume 3. Springer Publishing Company. p. 71. ISBN   978-0-8261-1147-0 . Retrieved September 9, 2017.
  26. "George Ryerson Fowler". www.whonamedit.com.
  27. "Crescenta Business Pioneer Succumbs to Heart Failure – 18 Apr 1982, Sun • Page 170". The Los Angeles Times. 1982. p. 170. Retrieved September 9, 2017.
  28. "Biologue of Founder Violet Richardson-Ward" . Retrieved October 4, 2017.
  29. "Gertrude B. Wilder – 15 Apr 1955, Fri • Page 7". The San Bernardino County Sun. 1955. p. 7. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
  30. Murphy, Heather (September 11, 2006). "The Business of Blood, Does the Red Cross sell your frozen plasma?". Slate.com. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
  31. "About". America's Blood Centers. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
  32. "Baxter and the American National Red Cross Agree to Terminate Contract Manufacturing Arrangement for Plasma Products". Baxter.com (Press release). March 1, 2005. Archived from the original on November 1, 2012. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  33. Barrington, K.; Fergusson, D.; Hebert, P.; Joseph, L.; Lee, S.; Walker, R. (2003). "Clinical Outcomes Following Institution of Universal Leukoreduction of Blood Transfusions for Premature Infants". JAMA. 289 (15): 1950–56. doi: 10.1001/jama.289.15.1950 . PMID   12697797.
  34. Grimes; Kaler; Obezrz; Sazama; Shriver (2003). "Reports of 355 Transfusion-Associated Deaths: 1976 Through 1985". Transfusion. 30 (7): 583–90. doi:10.1046/j.1537-2995.1990.30790385515.x. PMID   2402771. S2CID   22631788.
  35. "Red Cross Training | Take a Class | Red Cross". American Red Cross. Retrieved October 30, 2018.
  36. "First Aid Kits, Emergency Essentials, & Survival Kits | Red Cross Store". American Red Cross. Retrieved October 30, 2018.
  37. "Licensed Training Provider | Instructor Training | Red Cross". American Red Cross. Retrieved October 31, 2018.
  38. "Science Behind Our Programs | Science Advisory Council | American Red Cross".
  39. "American Red Cross – Community Services". American Red Cross. Archived from the original on August 25, 2007. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
  40. "American Red Cross Vehicles". Flickr. Retrieved May 14, 2021.
  41. "FEMA And American Red Cross Partnership Will Strengthen Mass Care During A Disaster". Federal Emergency Management Agency. October 22, 2010. Archived from the original on January 8, 2011.
  42. "National Response Framework". Federal Emergency Management Agency. Archived from the original on August 20, 2011. Retrieved August 18, 2011.
  43. 1 2 IRWIN, JULIA F. (2017). MAKING THE WORLD SAFE : the american red cross and a nation's humanitarian awakening. OXFORD University Press. p. 40. ISBN   978-0-19-061074-6. OCLC   959033970.
  44. The American Red Cross from Clara Barton to the New Deal. 2012. pp. 138–139. doi:10.1353/book.21077. ISBN   9781421408231.
  45. IRWIN, JULIA F. (2017). MAKING THE WORLD SAFE : the american red cross and a nation's humanitarian awakening. OXFORD University Press. p. 220. ISBN   978-0-19-061074-6. OCLC   959033970.
  46. IRWIN, JULIA F. (2017). MAKING THE WORLD SAFE : the american red cross and a nation's humanitarian awakening. OXFORD University Press. pp. 40–41. ISBN   978-0-19-061074-6. OCLC   959033970.
  47. IRWIN, JULIA F. (2017). MAKING THE WORLD SAFE : the american red cross and a nation's humanitarian awakening. OXFORD University Press. p. 41. ISBN   978-0-19-061074-6. OCLC   959033970.
  48. IRWIN, JULIA F. (2017). MAKING THE WORLD SAFE : the american red cross and a nation's humanitarian awakening. OXFORD University Press. p. 46. ISBN   978-0-19-061074-6. OCLC   959033970.
  49. IRWIN, JULIA F. (2017). MAKING THE WORLD SAFE : the american red cross and a nation's humanitarian awakening. OXFORD University Press. p. 47. ISBN   978-0-19-061074-6. OCLC   959033970.
  50. IRWIN, JULIA F. (2017). MAKING THE WORLD SAFE : the american red cross and a nation's humanitarian awakening. OXFORD University Press. p. 72. ISBN   978-0-19-061074-6. OCLC   959033970.
  51. Moser Jones, Marian (2013). The American Red Cross from Clara Barton to the New Deal. pp. xx.
  52. Moser Jones, Marian (2013). The American Red Cross from Clara Barton to the New Deal. p. 166.
  53. Irwin, Julia (2013). Making the World Safe. p. 5.
  54. 1 2 Irwin, Julia (2013). Making the World Safe. p. 7.
  55. C. Herring, George (2011). From Colony to Superpower. Oxford University Press. p. 423.
  56. Moser Jones, Marian (2013). The American Red Cross from Clara Barton to the New Deal. p. 174.
  57. Kind-Kovács, Friederike (January 2, 2016). "The Great War, the child's body and the American Red Cross". European Review of History: Revue européenne d'histoire. 23 (1–2): 34. doi: 10.1080/13507486.2015.1121971 . ISSN   1350-7486. S2CID   147431478.
  58. lrwin, Julia F. (July 2009). "Nation Building and Rebuilding: The American Red Cross in Italy During the Great War". The Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era. 8 (3): 408. doi:10.1017/s1537781400001328. ISSN   1537-7814.
  59. lrwin, Julia F. (July 2009). "Nation Building and Rebuilding: The American Red Cross in Italy During the Great War". The Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era. 8 (3): 409. doi:10.1017/s1537781400001328. ISSN   1537-7814.
  60. lrwin, Julia F. (July 2009). "Nation Building and Rebuilding: The American Red Cross in Italy During the Great War". The Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era. 8 (3): 411. doi:10.1017/s1537781400001328. ISSN   1537-7814.
  61. RODGERS, Daniel T. (1998). Atlantic Crossings. Harvard University Press. p. 4. ISBN   978-0-674-00201-2.
  62. lrwin, Julia F. (July 2009). "Nation Building and Rebuilding: The American Red Cross in Italy During the Great War". The Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era. 8 (3): 439. doi:10.1017/s1537781400001328. ISSN   1537-7814.
  63. Khwaja, Barbara (May 26, 2017). "Health Reform in Revolutionary Russia". Socialist Health Association. Retrieved May 26, 2017.
  64. A Year of Healing Archived January 21, 2012, at the Wayback Machine The American Red Cross, August 2006. Retrieved April 18, 2007
  65. Hurricane Season 2005 Archived May 1, 2006, at the Wayback Machine , American Red Cross website, June 30, 2006. Retrieved April 18, 2007.
  66. Lawson, Katie (August 26, 2006). "Red Cross Responds to Commercial Jet Crash in Kentucky". American Red Cross. Archived from the original on January 3, 2007. Retrieved April 18, 2007.
  67. "American Red Cross Mobilizes Resources in Central Florida: List Your Loved Ones on Safe And Well Website". RedCross.org. Archived from the original on December 22, 2008. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  68. Hackett, Alexandra. "Volunteers descend on Central Florida" Archived March 2, 2007, at the Wayback Machine , tampabays10.com. Retrieved April 18, 2007.
  69. "American Red Cross responding to Midwest Tornadoes". RedCross.org (Press release). May 5, 2007. Archived from the original on December 11, 2007. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  70. Boone, Beth (August 3, 2007). "Red Cross Chapter Serves as Focal Point of Response Efforts". The American National Red Cross. Archived from the original on August 11, 2007. Retrieved August 28, 2007. and "Red Cross on Scene of Minneapolis I-35W Bridge Collapse" (Press release). The American National Red Cross. August 2, 2007. Archived from the original on August 18, 2007. Retrieved August 28, 2007.
  71. O'Connor, Debra (August 24, 2007). "How to give wisely after Minnesota's disasters". Pioneer Press. MediaNews Group, Inc. Archived from the original on November 7, 2007. Retrieved August 25, 2007.
  72. Louwagie, Pam (September 10, 2007). "Bridge Disaster Fund tops $564,000". Star Tribune. Avista Capital Partners. Archived from the original on November 1, 2007. Retrieved September 10, 2007.
  73. Minnesota designated counties are found in three places: Farm Service Agency Public Affairs Staff (August 7, 2007). "USDA Designates 24 Minnesota Counties as Primary Natural Disaster Areas" (Press release). Farm Service Agency, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Retrieved August 25, 2007. and Preston, Steven C. (August 22, 2007). "Disaster Declaration #10991" (PDF). U.S. Small Business Administration. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 25, 2007. Retrieved August 25, 2007. and "Designated Counties for Minnesota Severe Storms and Flooding (Disaster Summary For FEMA-1717-DR, Minnesota)" (Press release). Federal Emergency Management Agency. August 23, 2007 [updated August 28, 2007]. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved August 28, 2007.
  74. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. "Types of ERU – IFRC" . Retrieved August 18, 2011.
  75. The American Red Cross from Clara Barton to the New Deal. 2012. p. 140. doi:10.1353/book.21077. ISBN   9781421408231.
  76. IRWIN, JULIA F. (2017). MAKING THE WORLD SAFE : the american red cross and a nation's humanitarian awakening. OXFORD University Press. p. 45. ISBN   978-0-19-061074-6. OCLC   959033970.
  77. "June 2011 Progress Report for the American Red Cross Response" (PDF). Retrieved August 18, 2011.
  78. "In Search of the Red Cross' $500 Million in Haiti Relief".
  79. "Report: Red Cross Spent 25 Percent of Haiti Donations on Internal Expenses".
  80. "UN Foundation – The Measles Initiative Vaccinates One Billion Children" . Retrieved August 18, 2011.[ permanent dead link ]
  81. McDonald, Jeff (January 19, 2013). "Military notification funds spent other ways Red Cross programs that got funding included Bike-O-Rama, Starbucks giveaway". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
  82. Jowers, Karen (June 4, 2015). "Red Cross begins to address hotline problems". Military Times. Gannett Company. Retrieved June 12, 2015.
  83. "The Milwaukee Journal – Google News Archive". April 10, 1946. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
  84. "Red Cross Charges for Assistance". Snopes.com. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
  85. Cox, Leona; Cox, Kathleen (2009). Destination Unknown. ISBN   978-1-4664-1248-4.
  86. Cox, Kathleen (April 26, 2013). "Book Presentation Webcast". Archived from the original on June 28, 2013. Retrieved July 20, 2013.
  87. "Red Cross Attention to Military Members' Needs Questioned". August 24, 2012. Archived from the original on November 21, 2016. Retrieved November 21, 2016.
  88. http://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/news/2012/nov/13/military-call-hubs-now-handle-disasters-too/%5B%5D
  89. "Military notification funds spent other ways". January 19, 2013. Archived from the original on October 11, 2016. Retrieved November 21, 2016.
  90. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 21, 2016. Retrieved November 21, 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  91. "J&J (NYSE: JNJ) Sues Red Cross Over Use of Red Cross Emblem". Archived from the original on March 7, 2008.
  92. Foley, Stephen (August 10, 2007). "Johnson & Johnson sues the Red Cross". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on December 30, 2007. Retrieved April 23, 2010.
  93. Johnson & Johnson Press Release Archived August 20, 2007, at the Wayback Machine . Statement on Civil Complaint Against The American National Red Cross. August 9, 2007.
  94. "Opinion and order by U.S. District Court Judge Jed S. Rakoff". Docs.justia.com. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
  95. Claim Over Red Cross Symbol Is Settled Archived February 10, 2016, at the Wayback Machine , The New York Times , June 18, 2008.
  96. Consent Decree Notification , U.S. Food and Drug Administration website, (April 13, 2003). Retrieved on April 18, 2007.
  97. "American Red Cross > Blood Services > National Testing Laboratories". Archived from the original on May 18, 2008. Retrieved July 3, 2008.
  98. Harris, Gardiner (June 10, 2008). "Red Cross Is Fined For Blood Violations". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 27, 2008.
  99. Red Cross Gets Blood Consent Decree Lifted Archived May 30, 2016, at the Wayback Machine , The Nonprofit Times website, (December 15, 2015). Retrieved on December 22, 2015.
  100. "Revised Recommendations for Reducing the Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission by Blood and Blood Products" (PDF). March 14, 2019.
  101. "Red Cross calls for end to ban on gay blood donors". Advocate.com. Archived from the original on March 16, 2006.
  102. "American Red Cross Fights Ban on Gays' Blood". NPR.org. May 30, 2007. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
  103. "Eligibility Criteria by Topic" . Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  104. "Red Cross probed on Katrina fraud" Archived October 24, 2016, at the Wayback Machine , BBC News Online, March 27, 2006. Retrieved April 18, 2007.
  105. Background Check Fact Sheet, PlainsRedCross.org, July 2006.
  106. "Red Cross 'Diverted Assets' During Storms' Aftermath To Focus On Image". NPR.org. October 29, 2014.
  107. "Red Cross defends response to Hurricane Sandy two years on". PBS.org. October 29, 2014. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  108. Elliott, Justin; Eisinger, Jesse; Sullivan, Laura (October 29, 2014). "The Red Cross' Secret Disaster". Propublica.org. ProPublica and NPR. Retrieved October 27, 2015.

Further reading