Baxter International

Last updated

Baxter International Inc.
Type Public
Industry Medical equipment
Founded1931;91 years ago (1931)
FounderDonald Baxter
Headquarters Deerfield, Illinois, U.S.
Key people
José E. Almeida, (chairman & CEO)
Jay Saccaro, (CFO)
ProductsMedical supplies to treat haemophilia and kidney disease and provide intravenous therapy
RevenueIncrease2.svgUS$11.67B (FY 2020) [1]
Increase2.svgUS$1.10B (FY 2020)
Total assets Increase2.svgUS$20.01B (FY 2020)
Total equity Increase2.svgUS$8.69B (FY 2020)
Number of employees
60,000 [2]  (2021)

Baxter International Inc. is an American multinational healthcare company with headquarters in Deerfield, Illinois. [3]


The company primarily focuses on products to treat kidney disease, and other chronic and acute medical conditions. The company had 2017 sales of $10.6 billion, across two businesses: BioScience and Medical Products. Baxter's BioScience business produces recombinant and blood plasma proteins to treat hemophilia and other bleeding disorders; plasma-based therapies to treat immune deficiencies and other chronic and acute blood-related conditions; products for regenerative medicine, and vaccines. Baxter's Medical Products business produces intravenous products and other products used in the delivery of fluids and drugs to patients; inhalational anaesthetics; contract manufacturing services; and products to treat end-stage kidney disease, or irreversible kidney failure, including products for peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis. [4]


Baxter International was founded in 1931 by Donald Baxter, a Los Angeles-based medical doctor, as a manufacturer and distributor of intravenous therapy solutions. [5] Seeing a need for products closer to the Midwest, the company opened a manufacturing plant in Glenview, Illinois, in 1933. [5] Baxter's interest was bought out in 1935 by Ralph Falk, who established a research and development function. [6] In 1939 the company developed a vacuum-type collection container, extending the shelf life of blood from hours to weeks. [6] In 1954, the company expanded operations outside of the United States by opening an office in Belgium. [7] In 1956 Baxter International introduced the first functioning artificial kidney, and in 1971 became a member of the Fortune 500.

In 1971, Baxter built a major manufacturing plant in Ashdod, Israel, and as a result, the company was placed on the Arab League boycott list in the early 1980s. [8]

Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the company expanded to deliver a wider variety of products and services (including vaccines, a greater variety of blood products) through acquisitions of various companies. Sales and production facilities also expanded throughout the world. [5]

In 1982, Baxter acquired Medcom, Inc., a New York-based firm founded by Richard Fuisz and his brother, that had large markets in the United States and Saudi Arabia. [9] [10] [11] Baxter chief executive Vernon Loucks fired Fuisz who then brought anti-boycott charges against Baxter to the U.S. Commerce Department Office of Anti-Boycott Compliance (OAC). Fuisz alleged that Baxter had sold their profitable Ashdod facility to Teva Pharmaceutical Industries in 1988 [12] while simultaneously negotiating the construction of a similar plant in Syria in partnership with the Syrian military in order to be removed from the Arab League blacklist in 1989. [8] [13] [14] In 1993 Baxter pleaded guilty to a felony in relation to an anti-boycott law in the United States. [12] [15]

On July 15, 1985, American Hospital Supply Corporation CEO Karl D. Bays and Baxter's then-CEO Vernon R. Loucks Jr. signed an agreement that merged two of the United States' "largest producers of medical supplies". [16] This was a "one-Baxter approach" in which the company provided "70% to 80% of what a hospital needed." [17]

In 1991, Baxter's home infusion subsidiary, Caremark, "was accused by the government of paying doctors to steer patients to its intravenous drug service" [18] In 1992 Caremark spun off from Baxter International. [18] Caremark was fined $160 million for the "four-year-long federal mail-fraud and kickback" scheme in which the "home-infusion business unit made weekly payments to scores of doctors that averaged about $75 per patient for referring those patients to its services. Some doctors earned as much as $80,000 a year from the kickbacks, according to government documents." [18]

In 1996, the company entered into a four-way, $640 million settlement with haemophiliacs 1999 in relation to blood clotting concentrates that were infected with HIV. [19] Under pressure from shareholders due to poor performance and an unsuccessful merger, Loucks was forced to resign. [15] :115

Baxter acquired medical device firm Baxa on November 10, 2011. [20] In 2011, Hikma Pharmaceuticals PLC completed the acquisition of Baxter Healthcare Corporation's US generic injectables business (Multi-Source Injectables or MSI). [21] [22]

In July 2013, EU antitrust regulators approved Baxter's bid for Sweden's Gambro. [23]

In March 2014, Baxter announced plans to create two separate, independent global healthcare companies—one focused on developing and marketing bio-pharmaceuticals and the other on medical products. The medical products company retained the name Baxter International Inc. and the bio-pharmaceuticals company is named Baxalta and spun-off as a new public company that showed on trading boards as of July 1, 2015. [24]

In July 2014, Baxter announced that it was exiting the vaccines business—divesting its commercial vaccine portfolio to Pfizer (with the sale expected to close by the end of the year) and exploring options for its vaccines R&D program, including influenza. [25] In October 2015, José E. Almeida was named chairman and chief executive officer. [26] In January 2016 Shire PLC agreed to acquire Baxalta for $32 billion. [27]

In December 2016, Baxter announced it would acquire Claris Lifesciences injectables subsidiary, Claris Injectables, for $625 million. [28]

In December 2019, the company announced it would acquire Seprafilm from Sanofi for $350 million. [29] [30]

In September 2021, Baxter announced it would acquire Hill-rom for $12.4 billion. [31] The acquisition was completed in December 2021 for $12.5 billion. [32] [33]

Former employees

During the tenure of Vernon Loucks, who was Baxter's CEO from 1980 to 1998 and chairman from 1987 to 1999, company sales "more than quadrupled to $5.7 billion while its workforce rose from 30,000 to 42,000." During that time, Loucks hired and groomed staff who went on to become CEOs elsewhere. Baxter alumni groomed by Loucks included Terry Mulligan of MedAssets, Lance Piccolo at Caremark, Mike Mussallem of Edwards Lifesciences Corp and CEOs of Boston Scientific Corp. and Cardinal Health. [17]

Environmental activities

In 1997, a report produced by the company indicated that changes made to reduce environmental impacts generated savings that exceeded their cost, producing a net profit. Reporting was company-wide, with a variety of aggregation and reporting, including on the company's internet and intranet sites. [34] The company was an early joiner in the "green and greedy" movement, which aims to lessen the environmental impacts of manufacturing its products while saving the company money. [35] In 2009 the company announced it had reached a variety of its environmentally friendly goals, and that it would continue to try to reduce waste, emissions, energy use and environmental incidents over the coming years. [36]


Baxter International by businessline [37] [38]
NameFocus2013 sales (in billions)Percentage of total sales
BioScience Hemophilia therapy; antibody therapy; critical care therapy; pulmonology therapy; biosurgery products; vaccines $6.443%
Medical ProductsIV solutions, premixed drugs, infusion pumps and administration sets; parenteral nutrition products; anesthesia; drug formulation and pharma partnering; peritoneal dialysis products; hemodialysis products; continuous renal replacement therapy $10.357%

The company had 2014 sales of $16.7 billion, across two businesses: BioScience (2013 sales - $6.6 billion) and Medical Products ($8.7 billion). [4] Sales in 2013 were 42% in the United States, 30% in Europe, 16% in Asia Pacific, 12% in Latin America and Canada. In 2011, Baxter had approximately 61,500 employees. The breakdown of regional employees in 2013 was 36% in the United States; 34% in Europe; 16% in Asia Pacific; 14% in Latin America and Canada. In 2013, Baxter International spent more than $1.2 billion on research and development. [39] As of December 31, 2016, the company had approximately 48,000 employees. [40]

Corporate governance

In 1953 William Graham became the company's CEO. Vernon Loucks became president and CEO in 1980. Loucks was forced to resign by shareholders. [15] When shareholders forced Loucks to resign, [41]

"In January, as Baxter International Inc.'s Vernon Loucks relinquished his CEO duties after 18 years, directors handed him a special stock-option grant of 950,000 shares "for the specific purposes of motivating" him "to implement a smooth transition of his responsibilities." If Mr. Loucks sells all the 400,000 shares he can exercise at year end and Baxter's stock price remains at its current level, he will make more than $4 million."

The Wall Street Journal, April 29, 1999

Loucks was succeeded by Harry Kraemer, who was succeeded by Robert Parkinson, who took the CEO position in 2004. [5]

H1N1 vaccine

In July 2009, Baxter International announced completion of the first commercial vaccine for the H1N1 ("swine flu") influenza. [42] The company has been one of several working with the World Health Organization and United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on the vaccine, and uses a cell-based rather than egg-based technology that allows a shorter production time. [43]


In 2008, Baxter launched Science@Work: Expanding Minds with Real-World Science, which supports teacher training and student development in healthcare and biotechnology in Chicago Public Schools. [44] :17

In 2013, the company was included in The Civic 50, a list of the most community-minded companies in America from The National Conference on Citizenship and Points of Light, published by Bloomberg. [45]

In 2014, roughly 6,300 Baxter employees volunteered in their communities through The Baxter International Foundation's Dollars for Doers program, addressing local concerns such as healthcare, the environment and education. [46] :104 In 2014, Baxter and The Baxter International Foundation gave over $50 million. [47]

Baxter was included for the 13th year in Corporate Responsibility magazine's 100 Best Corporate Citizens list in 2014 for its social responsibility performance. [48]

Criticisms and controversies

1975 Hemofil hepatitis B outbreak

In August 1975, Baxter / Travenol withdrew a clotting factor product Hemofil after the product was associated with an outbreak of hepatitis B. [49]

1983 prison plasma collection

Baxter, unknown to the FDA, continued to use prison plasma in factor concentrate production until October 1983, despite having entered into an agreement with the FDA (11 months earlier) that they would no longer use US prison plasma, which posed a high risk of virus transmission. [50]

1996 Japanese haemophiliac HIV lawsuit

It was announced in quarter 1 of 1996 that Baxter had agreed to settle a lawsuit involving 200 Japanese haemophilia patients who had become infected with HIV as a result of using contaminated haemophilia products which were unheated. The Japanese courts ordered for each victim to receive $411,460 by March 29 that year. [51]

2001 Althane disaster

The Baxter Althane disaster in autumn 2001 was a series of 56 sudden deaths of kidney failure patients in Spain, Croatia, Italy, Germany, Taiwan, Colombia and the USA (mainly Nebraska and Texas). All had received hospital treatment with Althane hemodialysis equipment, a product range manufactured by Baxter International, USA. [52] [53]

2008 Chinese heparin adulteration

In 2008, the quality of blood thinning products produced by Baxter was brought into question when they were linked to 81 deaths and 785 severe allergic reactions in the United States according to the FDA. [54] Upon inspection, one of the raw ingredients used by Baxter was found to be contaminated – between 5 and 20 percent – with a substance that was similar, but not identical, to the ingredient itself. The company initiated a voluntary recall, temporarily suspended the manufacture of heparin, and launched an investigation.

The investigation into the contamination has focused on raw heparin produced by one of Baxter's subcontractors Changzhou Scientific Protein Laboratories, a China-based branch of Scientific Protein Laboratories, based in Waunakee, Wisconsin. Changzhou SPL's facilities were never subjected to inspection by US FDA officials. In addition, Changzhou SPL's products were also never certified as safe for use in pharmaceutical products by Chinese FDA officials, due to Changzhou SPL's registration as a chemical company rather than a pharmaceutical manufacturer. [55] [56] [57]

Upon investigation of these adverse events by the FDA, academic institutions, and the involved pharmaceutical companies, the contaminant was identified as an "over-sulfated" derivative of chondroitin sulfate, a closely related substance obtained from mammal or fish cartilage and often used as a treatment for arthritis. [58] [59] Since over-sulfated chondroitin is not a naturally occurring molecule, it costs a fraction of true heparin precursor chemical, and mimics the in-vitro properties of heparin, the counterfeit was almost certainly intentional as opposed to an accidental lapse in manufacturing. [60] The raw heparin batches were found to have been cut from 2–60% with the counterfeit substance, and motivation for the adulteration was attributed to a combination of cost effectiveness and a shortage of suitable pigs in Mainland China. In mid-January 2008 Baxter voluntarily recalled some lots of multi-dose vials of Heparin in February in consultation with the FDA Baxter recalled the rest of their Heparin products. [54]

2009 Avian flu contamination

In early 2009, samples of viral material supplied by Baxter International to a series of European laboratories were found to be contaminated with live Avian flu virus (Influenza A virus subtype H5N1). [61] Samples of the less harmful seasonal flu virus (subtype H3N2) were found to be mixed with the deadly H5N1 strain after a vaccine made from the material killed test animals in a lab in the Czech Republic. Though the serious consequences were avoided by the lab in the Czech Republic, [62] Baxter then claimed the failed controls over the distribution of the virus were 'stringent' and there was 'little chance' of the lethal virus harming humans. [63]

2009 drug cost inflation

On July 2, 2009, Kentucky Attorney General Jack Conway announced a settlement between the state and Baxter Healthcare Corporation, a subsidiary of Baxter International, worth $2 million. The company had been inflating the cost of the intravenous drugs sold to Kentucky Medicaid, at times as much as 1300%. [64]

2010 hepatitis C infections

In 2010, a jury in Las Vegas, Nevada, ordered Baxter and Teva Pharmaceuticals to pay $144 million to patients who had been infected with hepatitis C after doctors wrongly reused dirty medical supplies to administer propofol to patients, although the label for propofol clearly states that it is for single-patient use only and that aseptic procedures should be used at all times. [65] Per a 2009 indemnity agreement between Teva (the manufacturer) and Baxter (acting as a distributor on behalf of Teva), the litigation and related settlements were defended and paid by Teva. [66]

2010 infusion pump recall

In 2010, Baxter was ordered by the FDA to recall all of their Colleague infusion pumps from the market due to 87 recalls and deaths associated with the pump. [67]

2008–2010 tax avoidance

In December 2011, the non-partisan organization Public Campaign criticized Baxter for spending $10.45 million on lobbying and not paying any taxes during 2008–2010, instead getting $66 million in tax rebates, despite making a profit of $926 million. [68]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Novartis</span> Swiss-American multinational pharmaceutical corporation

Novartis AG is a Swiss-American multinational pharmaceutical corporation based in Basel, Switzerland and Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. It is one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Johnson & Johnson</span> American multinational pharmaceutical and consumer goods corporation

Johnson & Johnson (J&J) is an American multinational corporation founded in 1886 that develops medical devices, pharmaceuticals, and consumer packaged goods. Its common stock is a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average and the company is ranked No. 36 on the 2021 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Johnson & Johnson is one of the world's most valuable companies, and is one of only two U.S.-based companies that has a prime credit rating of AAA, higher than that of the United States government.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">GSK plc</span> British multinational pharmaceutical and biotechnology company

GSK plc, formerly GlaxoSmithKline plc, is a British multinational pharmaceutical and biotechnology company with global headquarters in London, England. Established in 2000 by a merger of Glaxo Wellcome and SmithKline Beecham. GSK is the tenth largest pharmaceutical company and #294 on the 2022 Fortune Global 500, ranked behind other pharmaceutical companies China Resources, Sinopharm, Johnson & Johnson, Pfizer, Roche, AbbVie, Novartis, Bayer, and Merck.

Abbott Laboratories is an American multinational medical devices and health care company with headquarters in Abbott Park, Illinois, United States. The company was founded by Chicago physician Wallace Calvin Abbott in 1888 to formulate known drugs; today, it sells medical devices, diagnostics, branded generic medicines and nutritional products. It split off its research-based pharmaceuticals business into AbbVie in 2013. The firm has also been present in India for over 100 years through its subsidiary Abbott India Limited, and it is currently India's largest healthcare products company.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pharmaceutical industry</span> Industry involved with discovery, development, production and marketing of drugs

The pharmaceutical industry discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as medications to be administered to patients, with the aim to cure them, vaccinate them, or alleviate symptoms. Pharmaceutical companies may deal in generic or brand medications and medical devices. They are subject to a variety of laws and regulations that govern the patenting, testing, safety, efficacy using drug testing and marketing of drugs. The global pharmaceuticals market produced treatments worth $1,228.45 billion in 2020 and showed a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 1.8%.

Sanofi S.A. is a French multinational pharmaceutical and healthcare company headquartered in Paris, France. Originally, the corporation was established in 1973 and merged with Synthélabo in 1999 to form Sanofi-Synthélabo. In 2004, Sanofi-Synthélabo merged with Aventis and renamed to Sanofi-Aventis, which were each the product of several previous mergers. It changed its name back to Sanofi in May 2011. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index.

McKesson Corporation is an American company distributing pharmaceuticals and providing health information technology, medical supplies, and care management tools. The company delivers a third of all pharmaceuticals used in North America and employs over 78,000 employees. McKesson had revenues of $238.2 billion in its fiscal year ending March 31, 2021.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cardinal Health</span> American multinational health care services company

Cardinal Health, Inc. is an American multinational health care services company, and the 14th highest revenue generating company in the United States. Its headquarters are in Dublin, Ohio and Dublin, Ireland (EMEA). The company specializes in the distribution of pharmaceuticals and medical products, serving more than 100,000 locations. The company also manufactures medical and surgical products, including gloves, surgical apparel, and fluid management products. In addition, it operates one of the largest networks of radiopharmacies in the U.S. Cardinal Health provides medical products to over 75 percent of hospitals in the United States.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Live attenuated influenza vaccine</span> Flu vaccine that is sprayed into the nose

Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is a type of influenza vaccine in the form of a nasal spray that is recommended for the prevention of influenza.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chiron Corporation</span> American biotechnology firm (1981-2006)

Chiron Corporation was an American multinational biotechnology firm founded in 1981, based in Emeryville, California, that was acquired by Novartis on April 20, 2006. It had offices and facilities in eighteen countries on five continents. Chiron's business and research was in three main areas: biopharmaceuticals, vaccines, and blood testing. Chiron's vaccines and blood testing units were combined to form Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, while Chiron BioPharmaceuticals was integrated into Novartis Pharmaceuticals. In 2014, Novartis completed the sale of its blood transfusion diagnostics unit to Grifols and announced agreements for the sale of its vaccines unit to GlaxoSmithKline.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Janssen Pharmaceuticals</span> Belgian pharmaceutical company

Janssen Pharmaceuticals is a pharmaceutical company headquartered in Beerse, Belgium, and wholly-owned by Johnson & Johnson. It was founded in 1953 by Paul Janssen.

CVS Caremark is the prescription benefit management subsidiary of CVS Health, headquartered in Woonsocket, Rhode Island.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hospira</span> U.S. healthcare company

Hospira was an American global pharmaceutical and medical device company with headquarters in Lake Forest, Illinois. It had approximately 19,000 employees. Before its acquisition by Pfizer, Hospira was the world's largest producer of generic injectable pharmaceuticals, manufacturing generic acute-care and oncology injectables, as well as integrated infusion therapy and medication management systems. Hospira's products are used by hospitals and alternate site providers, such as clinics, home healthcare providers and long-term care facilities. It was formerly the hospital products division of Abbott Laboratories. On September 3, 2015, Hospira was acquired by Pfizer, who subsequently sold off the medical devices portion of Hospira to ICU Medical.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Teva Pharmaceuticals</span> Israeli pharmaceutical company

Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. is an Israeli multinational pharmaceutical company with headquarters in Tel Aviv, Israel. It specializes primarily in generic drugs, but other business interests include active pharmaceutical ingredients and, to a lesser extent, proprietary pharmaceuticals. Teva Pharmaceuticals was the largest generic drug manufacturer, when it was surpassed briefly by US-based Pfizer. Teva regained its market leader position once Pfizer spun off its generic drug division in a merger with Mylan, forming the new company Viatris at the end of 2020. Overall, Teva is the 18th largest pharmaceutical company in the world.

CVS Health Corporation is an American healthcare company that owns CVS Pharmacy, a retail pharmacy chain; CVS Caremark, a pharmacy benefits manager; and Aetna, a health insurance provider, among many other brands. The company's headquarters is in Woonsocket, Rhode Island.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Richard Fuisz</span> American physician, inventor, and entrepreneur

Richard Carl Fuisz is an American physician, inventor, and entrepreneur, with connections to the United States military and intelligence community. He holds more than two hundred patents worldwide, in such diverse fields as drug delivery, interactive media, and cryptography, and has lectured on these topics internationally. Fuisz is a member of the Board of Regents of Georgetown University, where he and his brother created an annual scholarship honoring their deceased elder sibling, and established the first endowed professorship at the Georgetown University School of Medicine.

Scientific Protein Laboratories is a bio-pharmaceutical company established in Waunakee, Wisconsin in 1976 by Oscar Mayer.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wyeth</span> American pharmaceutical company (1860-2009)

Wyeth, LLC was an American pharmaceutical company. The company was founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1860 as John Wyeth and Brother. It was later known, in the early 1930s, as American Home Products, before being renamed to Wyeth in 2002. Its headquarters moved to Collegeville, Pennsylvania and Madison, New Jersey, before they were consolidated with Pfizer's in New York City after the 2009 merger. Most of Wyeth's pharmaceutical assets were acquired by Pfizer in 2009, while its infant and maternal nutrition business was acquired by Nestlé in 2012.

Emcure Pharmaceuticals Limited is an Indian multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Pune, Maharashtra. Emcure's product portfolio includes tablets, capsules and injectables.


  1. "BAX Financials - Nasdaq".
  2. "Baxter: Number of Employees 2010-2022 | BAX". MacroTrends. Retrieved September 22, 2022.
  3. "Contact Us." Baxter International. Retrieved on February 2, 2011. "Corporate address: One Baxter Parkway Deerfield, IL 60015-4625."
  4. 1 2 "2013 Form 10-K" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 3, 2014. Retrieved July 14, 2014.
  5. 1 2 3 4 "History". Baxter International. Archived from the original on June 2, 2009. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  6. 1 2 Library, HBS Baker. "Baxter Laboratories, Inc. | Baker Library | Bloomberg Center | Harvard Business School". Retrieved September 14, 2022.
  7. "Baxter opens r&d facility in Alliance Park, Belgium". Retrieved September 14, 2022.
  8. 1 2 Feiler, Gil (2005). From Boycott to Economic Cooperation: The Political Economy of the Arab Boycott of Israel. Frank Cass Publishers. p. 70.
  9. Morris, Steven (March 17, 1990). "Baxter Told To Pay Firm $15 Million". Chicago Tribune .
  10. "FUISZ TECHNOLOGIES LTD, Form 10-K, Annual Report, Filing Date Mar 31, 1997". Retrieved May 15, 2018.
  11. Kupper, Thom (January 29, 1992). "'Whistle-blower' Left L.v. For Career". The Morning Call .
  12. 1 2 "The case against Baxter International". Bloomberg. October 6, 1991. Retrieved October 17, 2015.
  13. Curtiss, Richard (July–August 1994). "People Watch". Washington Report on Middle East Affairs . p. 45.
  14. Morris, Steven (March 26, 1993). "$6 Million From Baxter". Chicago Tribune .
  15. 1 2 3 Mintzberg, Henry (2004). Managers Not MBAs: A Hard Look at the Soft Practice of Managing and Management Development . San Francisco, Calif: Berrett-Koehler Publishers. p.  115. ISBN   1-57675-275-5.
  16. Crudele, John (July 16, 1985). "Baxter's Merger Bid Accepted Published: July 16, 1985". New York Times. Retrieved October 17, 2015.
  17. 1 2 Finkel, Ed (March 27, 2006). "Profile of Vernon Loucks Spinning off success: Loucks helped mentor a cadre of future leaders at Baxter". Modern Healthcare. Retrieved October 17, 2015.
  18. 1 2 3 Yates, Ronald E. (June 19, 1995). "Caremark Wounds Not Deep Penalty Could Have Been More Damaging". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved October 17, 2015.
  19. Feldman, EA; Bayer R (1999). Blood feuds: AIDS, blood, and the politics of medical disaster. Oxford University Press. pp.  49–50, 320. ISBN   0-19-513160-6.
  20. "Baxter Int'l finishes $380M Baxa Corp purchase". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on July 7, 2012.
  21. "Hikma Pharmaceuticals Plc Completes Acquisition of Baxter Healthcare Corporation's Multi-Source Injectables Business". Reuters. Retrieved May 3, 2011. Archived from the original on October 18, 2012. Retrieved June 30, 2017.
  22. "History". Hikma Pharmaceuticals PLC. Archived from the original on June 26, 2013. Retrieved May 11, 2012.
  23. Foo Yun Chee (July 10, 2013). "EU to clear Baxter's $4 billion buy of Sweden's Gambro: sources". Reuters. Archived from the original on January 12, 2015. Retrieved June 30, 2017.
  24. "Baxalta Added and QEP Resources Deleted". July 1, 2015. Archived from the original on October 23, 2018. Retrieved July 1, 2015.
  25. "Baxter U.S. - Baxter Announces Divestiture of Commercial Vaccines Business to Pfizer". Archived from the original on November 28, 2014. Retrieved November 18, 2014.
  26. Russell, John. "Baxter names new CEO". The Chicago Tribune. The Chicago Tribune.
  27. Ward, Andrew. "Shire agrees $32bn takeover of Baxalta". FT.
  28. "Baxter Buys Claris' Generic Injectables Subsidiary for $625M - GEN Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News - Biotech from Bench to Business - GEN". GEN. December 15, 2016. Retrieved July 16, 2017.
  29. "Baxter to Expand Advanced Surgery Portfolio with Acquisition of Seprafilm Adhesion Barrier".
  30. "Baxter to Expand Advanced Surgery Portfolio with Acquisition of Seprafilm Adhesion Barrier". December 2, 2019.
  31. Linnane, Ciara. "Baxter to acquire Hillrom in all-cash deal with enterprise value of about $12.4 billion". MarketWatch. Retrieved September 2, 2021.
  32. "Baxter officially acquires Hillrom". Greensburg Daily News. December 13, 2021 via Yahoo! News.
  33. Whooley, Sean (December 13, 2021). "Baxter completes $12.5B acquisition of Hillrom". MassDevice. Retrieved September 6, 2022.
  34. Bennett M; James P (1999). "The Evolution of Integrated Environmental Performance Evaluation and Reporting". In Klinkers L; Bennett M; James P (eds.). Sustainable Measures: Evaluation and Reporting of Environmental and Social Performance. Greenleaf Pubns. pp.  253–282. ISBN   1-874719-16-0.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  35. Adelson, G; Engell J; Ranalli B; Van Anglen KP (2008). Environment: An Interdisciplinary Anthology. Yale University Press. pp.  254–5. ISBN   978-0-300-11077-7.
  36. "Baxter Cuts GHG Emissions by 21%". June 19, 2009. Archived from the original on June 21, 2009. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
  37. "Corporate Overview". Baxter International. Archived from the original on November 20, 2010. Retrieved November 5, 2010.
  38. Davis, J A (2003). "Purifying an image: Baxter International and the Dialyzer Crisis". In Feigenbaum A V (ed.). The power of management capital: utilizing the new drivers of innovation, profitability, and growth in a demanding global economy. McGraw-Hill Professional. pp.  349–364. ISBN   0-07-021733-5.
  39. "Corporate overview".
  40. "Baxter Form 10-K for year ended 2016".[ permanent dead link ]
  41. Schellhardt, Timothy D. (April 29, 1999). "To a Pile of CEO Perks, Add the 'Special' Bonus". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 18, 2015.
  42. "Baxter completes first swine flu vaccine batches". Reuters. August 5, 2009. Retrieved September 14, 2022.
  43. "Baxter to release flu vaccine in July". United Press International. June 13, 2009. Archived from the original on June 16, 2009. Retrieved July 2, 2009.
  44. "Education and Critical Community Needs" (PDF), Baxter, Baxter sustainability report, 2015, retrieved October 18, 2015
  45. "The Civic 50 website, 2013 results". Archived from the original on July 6, 2014. Retrieved July 16, 2017.
  46. "Employee Involvement" (PDF), Baxter, Baxter sustainability report, 2015, retrieved October 18, 2015
  47. "Community Support" (PDF), Baxter, Baxter sustainability report, 2015, retrieved October 18, 2015
  48. "Press Room: Press Releases – Baxter". June 2014. Archived from the original on June 3, 2015. Retrieved July 16, 2017.
  49. "Report of the Tribunal of Inquiry into the Infection with HIV and Hepatitis C of Persons with Haemophilia and Related Matters" (PDF). 2014. Retrieved June 2, 2019.
  50. Class Action Complaint (2004) Case No. C032572 PJH. Page 24.
  51. Letter, The Pharma. "Baxter Agrees To Settle Japan HIV Lawsuit".
  52. "Baxter Dialyzer Recall". Major Recalls of Organ Replacement Devices. Archived from the original on October 12, 2013. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
  53. "Baxter Faces Suit On Dialysis Deaths". New York Times. November 14, 2001. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
  54. 1 2 Hubbard, Douglas (May 15, 2009). The Failure of Risk Management: Why It's Broken and How to Fix It . John Wiley & Sons. p.  15. ISBN   978-0470387955.
  55. "Contaminant Found in Blood Thinner", Washington Post (Online edition), March 5, 2008
  56. "Baxter probe focuses on US-owned China plant – WSJ", Reuters, February 15, 2008
  57. "China Washes Hands on Heparin Purity", Wall Street Journal (Online edition) February 27, 2008
  58. "Heparin's Deadly Side Effects". Time magazine. November 13, 2008. Archived from the original on November 21, 2008. Retrieved November 16, 2008.
  59. Zawisza, Julie (March 29, 2008). "FDA Media Briefing on Heparin" (PDF). U.S. Food and Drug Administration . Retrieved April 23, 2008.
  60. Bogdanich, Walt (March 20, 2008). "Heparin Find May Point to Chinese Counterfeiting". The New York Times. Retrieved March 20, 2008.
  61. "Baxter Sent Bird Flu Virus to European Labs by Error". Bloomberg L.P. February 24, 2009. Retrieved August 8, 2009.
  62. "Baxter admits flu product contained live bird flu virus". CTV. The Canadian Press. February 27, 2009. Archived from the original on March 2, 2009. Retrieved July 4, 2009.
  63. Jack, A (March 16, 2009). "WHO mulls stricter transport of bio products". Financial Times. Retrieved June 16, 2009.
  64. Tracy, B (July 3, 2009). "Conway Announces Multi-Million Dollar Settlement With Drug Company". Kentucky Post . E. W. Scripps Company. Archived from the original on July 9, 2009. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
  65. "Teva, Baxter Will Fight $500 Million in Damages Over Propofol", Business Week, May 8, 2010
  66. "2011 annual report, page 87". Retrieved July 16, 2017.
  67. "FDA Issues Statement on Baxter's Recall of Colleague Infusion Pumps". FDA. FDA. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
  68. Portero, Ashley. "30 Major U.S. Corporations Paid More to Lobby Congress Than Income Taxes, 2008–2010". International Business Times . Archived from the original on January 7, 2012. Retrieved December 26, 2011.