Last updated

Coordinates: 42°30′N19°18′E / 42.500°N 19.300°E / 42.500; 19.300

Geographic coordinate system Coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.



Црна Гора
Crna Gora
Ој, свијетла мајска зоро
Oj, svijetla majska zoro
(English: ’Oh, Bright Dawn of May’)
Location of Montenegro (green)

in Europe  (dark grey)  [ Legend ]

Montenegro - Location Map (2013) - MNE - UNOCHA.svg
and largest city
42°47′N19°28′E / 42.783°N 19.467°E / 42.783; 19.467
Official languages Montenegrin (national and official) [1]
Serbian, Bosnian, Albanian, Croatian (co-official) [2]
Writing system Latin, Cyrillic
Ethnic groups
(2011 [3] )
Demonym(s) Montenegrin
Government Unitary dominant-party parliamentary constitutional republic
Milo Đukanović
Duško Marković
Ivan Brajović
Legislature Parliament
 Formation of Duklja as a vassal of Byzantine Empire
  Duklja gains independence from the Byzantine Empire
7 October 1042
  Kingdom of Zeta proclaimed
 De facto monarchy established under "False Emperor" Stephan the Little
1 January 1852
28 August 1910
 Formation of Yugoslavia
1 December 1918
3 June 2006
13,812 km2 (5,333 sq mi)(156th)
 Water (%)
 July 2018 estimate
Increase2.svg 678,901 [4] (164th)
 2011 census
620,029 [5]
45/km2 (116.5/sq mi)(121st)
GDP  (PPP)2019 estimate
$12.310 billion [6]
 Per capita
$19,734 [6] (74th)
GDP  (nominal)2019 estimate
$5.607 billion [6]
 Per capita
$8,988 [6] (80th)
Gini  (2014)Decrease Positive.svg 31.9 [7]
medium ·  9th
HDI  (2017)Increase2.svg 0.814 [8]
very high ·  50th
Currency Euro ()a (EUR)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
 Summer (DST)
Driving side right
Calling code +382
ISO 3166 code ME
Internet TLD .me
  1. Adopted unilaterally; Montenegro is not a formal member of the Eurozone.

Montenegro ( /ˌmɒntɪˈnɡr, -ˈnɡr, -ˈnɛɡr/ ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Montenegrin : Црна Гора / Crna Gora [tsr̩̂ːnaː ɡɔ̌ra] ) [note 1] is a country in Southeast Europe on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest; Serbia and Kosovo to the east, Albania to the south and Croatia to the southwest. Montenegro has an area of 13,812 square kilometres and a population of 620,079 (2011 census). Its capital Podgorica is one of the twenty-three municipalities in the country. Cetinje is designated as the Old Royal Capital.

Montenegrin is the normative variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Montenegrins and the official language of Montenegro. Montenegrin is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian, more specifically on Eastern Herzegovinian, which is also the basis of Standard Croatian, Serbian, and Bosnian.

Southeast Europe Geographic region in Europe

Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe (SEE) is a geographical region of Europe, consisting primarily of the coterminous Balkan Peninsula. There are overlapping and conflicting definitions as to where exactly Southeastern Europe begins or ends or how it relates to other regions of the continent. Sovereign states that are most frequently included in the region are, in alphabetical order: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, and Slovenia.

Adriatic Sea Body of water between the Italian Peninsula and the Balkan Peninsula

The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto to the northwest and the Po Valley. The countries with coasts on the Adriatic are Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Montenegro and Slovenia. The Adriatic contains over 1,300 islands, mostly located along the Croatian part of its eastern coast. It is divided into three basins, the northern being the shallowest and the southern being the deepest, with a maximum depth of 1,233 metres (4,045 ft). The Otranto Sill, an underwater ridge, is located at the border between the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. The prevailing currents flow counterclockwise from the Strait of Otranto, along the eastern coast and back to the strait along the western (Italian) coast. Tidal movements in the Adriatic are slight, although larger amplitudes are known to occur occasionally. The Adriatic's salinity is lower than the Mediterranean's because the Adriatic collects a third of the fresh water flowing into the Mediterranean, acting as a dilution basin. The surface water temperatures generally range from 30 °C (86 °F) in summer to 12 °C (54 °F) in winter, significantly moderating the Adriatic Basin's climate.

During the Early Medieval period, three principalities were located on the territory of modern-day Montenegro: Duklja, roughly corresponding to the southern half; Travunia, the west; and Rascia proper, the north. [9] [10] [11] In 1042, archon Stefan Vojislav led a revolt that resulted in the independence of Duklja from the Byzantine Empire and the establishment of the Vojislavljević dynasty. The independent Principality of Zeta emerged in the 14th and 15th centuries, ruled by the House of Balšić between 1356 and 1421, and by the House of Crnojević between 1431 and 1498, when the name Montenegro started being used for the country. After falling under Ottoman rule, Montenegro regained de facto independence in 1697 under the rule of the House of Petrović-Njegoš, first under the theocratic rule of prince-bishops, before being transformed into a secular principality in 1852. Montenegro's de jure independence was recognised by the Great Powers at the Congress of Berlin in 1878, following the Montenegrin–Ottoman War. In 1905, the country became a kingdom. After World War I, it became part of Yugoslavia. Following the breakup of Yugoslavia, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro together established a federation known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which was renamed to the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in 2003. On the basis of an independence referendum held in May 2006, Montenegro declared independence and the federation peacefully dissolved on 3 June of that year.

Duklja Medieval principality in Eastern/Southern Europe

Duklja was a medieval Serb state which roughly encompassed the territories of present-day southeastern Montenegro, from the Bay of Kotor in the west to the Bojana river in the east, and to the sources of the Zeta and Morača rivers in the north. First mentioned in 10th– and 11th century Byzantine chronicles, it was a vassal of the Byzantine Empire until it became independent in 1040 under Stefan Vojislav who rose up and managed to take over territories of the earlier Serbian Principality, founding the Vojislavljević dynasty. Between 1043 and 1080, under Mihailo Vojislavljević, and his son, Constantine Bodin, Duklja saw its apogee. Mihailo was given the nominal title King of Slavs by the Pope after having left the Byzantine camp and supported an uprising in the Balkans, in which his son Bodin played a central part. Having incorporated the Serbian hinterland and installed vassal rulers there, this maritime principality emerged as the most powerful Serb polity, seen in the titles used by its rulers. However, its rise was short-lived, as Bodin was defeated by the Byzantines and imprisoned; pushed to the background, his relative and vassal Vukan became independent in Raška, which continued the fight against the Byzantines while Duklja was struck with civil wars. Between 1113 and 1149 Duklja was the centre of Serbian–Byzantine conflict, with members of the Vojislavljević as protégés of either fighting each other for power. Duklja was then incorporated as a crown land of the Grand Principality of Serbia ruled by the Vukanović dynasty, subsequently known as Zeta, remaining so until the fall of the Serbian Empire in the 14th century.

Principality of Serbia (early medieval) Medieval principality in Eastern Europe

Principality of Serbia was one of the early medieval states of the Serbs, located in western regions of Southeastern Europe. It existed from the 8th century up to c. 969-971 and was ruled by the Vlastimirović dynasty. Its first ruler known by name was Višeslav who started ruling around 780. In 822, the Serbs were said to rule the "greater part of Dalmatia", while at the same time the Bulgars had taken the lands to the east, preparing to conquer Serbia. Vlastimir defeated the Bulgar army in a three-year-war (839–842), and the two powers lived in peace for some decades. Vlastimir's three sons succeeded in ruling Serbia together, although not for long; Serbia became a key part in the power struggle between the Byzantines and Bulgars, which also resulted in major dynastic wars for a period of three decades. Central parts of the principality were shortly occupied by the Bulgarian army for three years (924–927), until Serbian prince Časlav succeeded to liberate the land and unite several Serbian regions, becoming the most powerful ruler of the Vlastimirović dynasty. An important process during this period was the Christianization of the Serbs, the establishment of Christianity as state-religion c. 869, and the founding of the first Serbian eparchy (diocese), the Eparchy of Ras. The principality was annexed by the Byzantines in c. 969-971 and ruled as the Catepanate of Ras. The main information of the history of the principality and Vlastimirović dynasty are recorded in the contemporary historical work De Administrando Imperio.

Archon is a Greek word that means "ruler", frequently used as the title of a specific public office. It is the masculine present participle of the verb stem αρχ-, meaning "to be first, to rule". Derived from the same root are words such as monarch and hierarchy.

Since 1990, the sovereign state of Montenegro has been governed by the Democratic Party of Socialists and its minor coalition partners. Classified by the World Bank as an upper middle-income country, Montenegro is a member of the UN, NATO, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Council of Europe, and the Central European Free Trade Agreement. It is a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean.

Sovereign state political organization with a centralized independent government

In international law, a sovereign state, sovereign country, or simply state, is a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states. It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to any other power or state.

Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro political party

The Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro is the ruling political party in Montenegro. It has been so since the introduction of a multi-party system in 1990.

The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects. It comprises two institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), and the International Development Association (IDA). The World Bank is a component of the World Bank Group.


Ancient Roman city Doclea. Ancient city Doclea - ruins 02.jpg
Ancient Roman city Doclea.

The country's name derives from Venetian and translates as "Black Mountain", deriving from the appearance of Mount Lovćen when covered in dense evergreen forests. [12]

Venetian language Romance language spoken in the Italian region of Veneto

Venetian or Venetan is a Romance language spoken as a native language by almost four million people in the northeast of Italy, mostly in the Veneto region of Italy, where most of the five million inhabitants can understand it, centered in and around Venice, which carries the prestige dialect. It is sometimes spoken and often well understood outside Veneto, in Trentino, Friuli, Venezia Giulia, Istria, and some towns of Slovenia and Dalmatia (Croatia) by a surviving autochtonous population, and Brazil, Argentina and Mexico by diasporans.

Lovćen mountain range

Lovćen is a mountain and national park in southwestern Montenegro. It is the inspiration behind the name of Montenegro; Crna Gora, was first mentioned in a charter issued by Stefan Milutin in 1276, the name Montenegro deriving from the appearance of Mount Lovćen when covered in dense forests.

The native name Crna Gora came to denote the majority of contemporary Montenegro only in the 15th century. [13] Originally, it had referred to only a small strip of land under the rule of the Paštrovići, but the name eventually came to be used for the wider mountainous region after the Crnojević noble family took power in Upper Zeta. [13] The aforementioned region became known as Stara Crna Gora 'Old Montenegro' by the 19th century to distinguish the independent region from the neighbouring Ottoman-occupied Montenegrin territory of Brda '(The) Highlands'. Montenegro further increased its size several times by the 20th century, as the result of wars against the Ottoman Empire, which saw the annexation of Old Herzegovina and parts of Metohija and southern Raška. Its borders have changed little since then, losing Metohija and gaining the Bay of Kotor.

The Paštrovići is a historical tribe and region in the Montenegrin Littoral. Paštrovići stretches from the southernmost part of the Bay of Kotor, from the cape of Zavala to Spič. Its historical capital was the island of Sveti Stefan. Paštrovići was a province of Venetian Albania, a Venetian possession on the Adriatic coast, from 1423 until 1797, with interruptions by the Ottoman Empire. It was part of the Kingdom of Dalmatia from 1815 to 1918, then Yugoslavia, then became part of Montenegro only after World War II. It is historically one of two major "maritime tribes", the other being Grbalj.

Crnojević noble family Serbian noble family

The Crnojević was a medieval noble family that held Zeta, or parts of it; a region north of Lake Skadar corresponding to southern Montenegro and northern Albania, from 1326 to 1362, then 1403 until 1515. Its progenitor Đuraš Ilijić, was the head of Upper Zeta in the Medieval Kingdom of Serbia and Empire, under Stefan Dečanski, Dušan the Mighty and Stefan Uroš V. Đuraš was killed in 1362 by the Balšić family, the holders of Lower Zeta ; Zeta was in the hands of the Balšići under nominal Imperial rule until 1421, when Serbian Despot Stefan Lazarević was given the province by Balša III (1403–1421). The family fought its rivals following the murder of Đuraš, and the Crnojevićs controlled Budva from 1392 until 1396, when Radič Crnojević was murdered by the Balšićs. They are mentioned again in 1403, as vassals of the Republic of Venice, taking power in their hereditary lands.

Upper Zeta is a historical region in Montenegro, roughly between the Morača and Zeta rivers. During the Middle Ages, the province of Upper Zeta was part of the Serbian state under the Nemanjić dynasty, existing alongside Lower Zeta. It was then held by the Balšić and Crnojević families until the Ottoman annexation (1514). In the late modern period, the term was used for an area in the northern half of "Old Montenegro", though its borders fluctuated.

After the second session of the AVNOJ during World War II in Yugoslavia, the modern state of Montenegro was founded as the Federal State of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Савезна држава Црне Горе / Savezna država Crne Gore) on 15 November 1943 within the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia by the ZAVNOCGB. After DF Yugoslavia became the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, the Federal State of Montenegro was renamed to the People's Republic of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Народна Република Црна Гора / Narodna Republika Crna Gora) on 29 November 1945. In 1963, the FPRY was renamed to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and coincidentally, the People's Republic of Montenegro was renamed to the Socialist Republic of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Социјалистичка Република Црна Гора / Socijalistička Republika Crna Gora). As the breakup of Yugoslavia occurred, the SRCG was renamed to the Republic of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Република Црна Гора / Republika Crna Gora) on 27 April 1992 within the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia by removing the adjective "socialist" from the republic's title. Since 22 October 2007, a year after its independence, the name of the country became simply known as Montenegro.

The ISO Alpha-2 code for Montenegro is ME and the Alpha-3 Code is MNE. [14]


Arrival of the Slavs

Kingdom of Duklja in the zenith of power, 1080 AD. South-Eastern Europe, ca. 1090, by User-Hxseek.png
Kingdom of Duklja in the zenith of power, 1080 AD.

In the 9th century, three Slavic principalities were located on the territory of Montenegro: Duklja, roughly corresponding to the southern half, Travunia, the west, and Rascia, the north. [9] [10] Duklja gained its independence from the Byzantine Roman Empire in 1042. Over the next few decades, it expanded its territory to neighbouring Rascia and Bosnia, and also became recognised as a kingdom. Its power started declining at the beginning of the 12th century. After King Bodin's death (in 1101 or 1108), several civil wars ensued. Duklja reached its zenith under Vojislav's son, Mihailo (1046–81), and his grandson Constantine Bodin (1081–1101). [15] By the 13th century, Zeta had replaced Duklja when referring to the realm. In the late 14th century, southern Montenegro (Zeta) came under the rule of the Balšić noble family, then the Crnojević noble family, and by the 15th century, Zeta was more often referred to as Crna Gora (Venetian: monte negro).

As the nobility fought for the throne, the kingdom was weakened, and by 1186, it was conquered by Stefan Nemanja and incorporated into the Serbian realm as a province named Zeta. After the Serbian Empire collapsed in the second half of the 14th century, the most powerful Zetan family, the Balšićs, became sovereigns of Zeta.

Uprising of the people of Montenegro against Ottomans Ustanak Tsrnogoratsa.jpg
Uprising of the people of Montenegro against Ottomans

In 1421, Zeta was annexed to the Serbian Despotate, but after 1455, another noble family from Zeta, the Crnojevićs, became sovereign rulers of the country, making it the last free monarchy of the Balkans before it fell to the Ottomans in 1496, and got annexed to the sanjak of Shkodër. During the reign of Crnojevićs, Zeta became known under its current name – Montenegro. For a short time, Montenegro existed as a separate autonomous sanjak in 1514–1528 (Sanjak of Montenegro). Also, Old Herzegovina region was part of Sanjak of Herzegovina.

Ottoman period

Petar II Petrovic-Njegos, was a Prince-Bishop (vladika) of Montenegro and Montenegrin national poet and philosopher. Petar II Petrovitsh Njegosh, pesnik i vladika.jpg
Petar II Petrović-Njegoš, was a Prince-Bishop (vladika) of Montenegro and Montenegrin national poet and philosopher.

Large portions fell under the control of the Ottoman Empire from 1496 to 1878. In the 16th century, Montenegro developed a unique form of autonomy within the Ottoman Empire permitting Montenegrin clans freedom from certain restrictions. Nevertheless, the Montenegrins were disgruntled with Ottoman rule, and in the 17th century, raised numerous rebellions, which culminated in the defeat of the Ottomans in the Great Turkish War at the end of that century.

Montenegro consisted of territories controlled by warlike clans. Most clans had a chieftain (knez), who was not permitted to assume the title unless he proved to be as worthy a leader as his predecessor. The great assembly of Montenegrin clans (Zbor) was held every year on 12 July in Cetinje, and any adult clansman could take part.[ citation needed ]

Parts of the territory were controlled by Republic of Venice and the First French Empire and Austria-Hungary, its successors. In 1515, Montenegro became a theocracy led by the Metropolitanate of Montenegro and the Littoral, which flourished after the Petrović-Njegoš of Cetinje became the traditional prince-bishops (whose title was "Vladika of Montenegro"). However, the Venetian Republic introduced governors who meddled in Montenegrin politics. The republic was succeeded by the Austrian Empire in 1797, and the governors were abolished by Prince-Bishop Petar II in 1832. His predecessor Petar I contributed to the unification of Montenegro with the Highlands.[ citation needed ]

Principality of Montenegro (1852–1910)

Battle of Vucji Do between Montenegrin and Ottoman Army Battle of Vucji Do, Orao, 1877.jpg
Battle of Vučji Do between Montenegrin and Ottoman Army

Under Nicholas I, the principality was enlarged several times in the Montenegro-Turkish Wars and was recognised as independent in 1878. Under the rule of Nicholas I, diplomatic relations were established with the Ottoman Empire. Minor border skirmishes excepted, diplomacy ushered in about 30 years of peace between the two states until the deposition of Abdul Hamid II. [16]

The political skills of Abdul Hamid and Nicholas I played a major role in the mutually amicable relations. [16] Modernization of the state followed, culminating with the draft of a Constitution in 1905. However, political rifts emerged between the reigning People's Party, who supported the process of democratization and union with Serbia, and those of the True People's Party, who were monarchist.

During this period, one of the major Montenegrin victories over the Ottomans occurred at the Battle of Grahovac. Grand Duke Mirko Petrović, elder brother of Knjaz Danilo, led an army of 7,500 and defeated the numerically superior Ottomans who had 15,000 troops at Grahovac on 1 May 1858. The glory of Montenegrin victory was soon immortalized in the songs and literature of all the South Slavs, in particular the Montenegrins in Vojvodina, then part of Austria-Hungary. This forced the Great Powers to officially demarcate the borders between Montenegro and Ottoman Empire, de facto recognizing Montenegro's independence. Montenegro's independence was recognized by Ottoman Empire with the Treaty of Berlin in 1878.

The first Montenegrin constitution was proclaimed in 1855; it was also known as the Danilo Code.

Kingdom of Montenegro (1910–1918)

Royal family of Montenegro: King Nicholas I with his wife, sons, daughters, grandchildren and sons- and daughters-in-law Kralj i kraljica u krugu sire familije.jpg
Royal family of Montenegro: King Nicholas I with his wife, sons, daughters, grandchildren and sons- and daughters-in-law

In 1910, Montenegro became a kingdom, and as a result of the Balkan wars in 1912 and 1913 (in which the Ottomans lost all Balkan land), a common border with Serbia was established, with Shkodër being awarded to a newly created Albania, though the current capital city of Montenegro, Podgorica, was the old border of Albania and Yugoslavia.

Montenegro was among the Allied Powers during World War I (1914–18). From 1916 to October 1918, Montenegro was occupied by Austria-Hungary. During the occupation, King Nicholas fled the country and a government-in-exile was set up in Bordeaux.

Kingdom of Yugoslavia

In 1922, Montenegro formally became the Oblast of Cetinje in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, with the addition of the coastal areas around Budva and Bay of Kotor. In a further restructuring in 1929, it became a part of a larger Zeta Banate of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia that reached the Neretva River.

Nicholas's grandson, the Serb King Alexander I, dominated the Yugoslav government. Zeta Banovina was one of nine banovinas which formed the kingdom; it consisted of the present-day Montenegro and parts of Serbia, Croatia, and Bosnia.

World War II

Liberation of Montenegro from 1711 to 1918 Crna Gora - Oslobodjenje od strane okupacije 1711-1918.png
Liberation of Montenegro from 1711 to 1918
Captured ships of the Yugoslavian Navy, Bay of Kotor 1941. Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-185-0116-27A, Bucht von Kotor (-), jugoslawische Schiffe.jpg
Captured ships of the Yugoslavian Navy, Bay of Kotor 1941.
Uprising in Montenegro 1944. Borbe za oslobodenje Crne Gore.jpg
Uprising in Montenegro 1944.

In April 1941, Nazi Germany, the Kingdom of Italy, and other Axis allies attacked and occupied the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Italian forces occupied Montenegro and established it as a puppet Kingdom of Montenegro.

In May, the Montenegrin branch of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia started preparations for an uprising planned for mid-July. The Communist Party and its Youth League organised 6,000 of its members into detachments prepared for guerrilla warfare. The first armed uprising in Nazi-occupied Europe happened on 13 July 1941 in Montenegro. [17]

Unexpectedly, the uprising took hold, and by 20 July, 32,000 men and women had joined the fight. Except for the coast and major towns (Podgorica, Cetinje, Pljevlja, and Nikšić), which were besieged, Montenegro was mostly liberated. In a month of fighting, the Italian army suffered 5,000 dead, wounded, and captured. The uprising lasted until mid-August, when it was suppressed by a counter-offensive of 67,000 Italian troops brought in from Albania. Faced with new and overwhelming Italian forces, many of the fighters laid down their arms and returned home. Nevertheless, intense guerrilla fighting lasted until December.

Fighters who remained under arms fractured into two groups. Most of them went on to join the Yugoslav Partisans, consisting of communists and those inclined towards active resistance; these included Arso Jovanović, Sava Kovačević, Svetozar Vukmanović-Tempo, Milovan Đilas, Peko Dapčević, Vlado Dapčević, Veljko Vlahović, and Blažo Jovanović. Those loyal to the Karađorđević dynasty and opposing communism went on to become Chetniks, and turned to collaboration with Italians against the Partisans.

War broke out between Partisans and Chetniks during the first half of 1942. Pressured by Italians and Chetniks, the core of the Montenegrin Partisans went to Serbia and Bosnia, where they joined with other Yugoslav Partisans. Fighting between Partisans and Chetniks continued through the war. Chetniks with Italian backing controlled most of the country from mid-1942 to April 1943. Montenegrin Chetniks received the status of "anti-communist militia" and received weapons, ammunition, food rations, and money from Italy. Most of them were moved to Mostar, where they fought in the Battle of Neretva against the Partisans, but were dealt a heavy defeat.

During the German operation Schwartz against the Partisans in May and June 1943, Germans disarmed large number of Chetniks without fighting, as they feared they would turn against them in case of an Allied invasion of the Balkans. After the capitulation of Italy in September 1943, Partisans managed to take hold of most of Montenegro for a brief time, but Montenegro was soon occupied by German forces, and fierce fighting continued during late 1943 and entire 1944. Montenegro was liberated by the Partisans in December 1944.

Josip Broz Tito was the leader of SFR Yugoslavia from 1944 to 1980; Pictured: Tito in Podgorica Odlazak predsednika Tita iz vile "Gorica".jpg
Josip Broz Tito was the leader of SFR Yugoslavia from 1944 to 1980; Pictured: Tito in Podgorica

Montenegro within Socialist Yugoslavia

Montenegro, like the rest of Yugoslavia, was liberated by the Yugoslav Partisans in 1944.

Montenegro became one of the six constituent republics of the communist Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY). Its capital became Podgorica, renamed Titograd in honour of President Josip Broz Tito. After the war, the infrastructure of Yugoslavia was rebuilt, industrialization began, and the University of Montenegro was established. Greater autonomy was established until the Socialist Republic of Montenegro ratified a new constitution in 1974.[ citation needed ]

Montenegro within FR Yugoslavia

After the dissolution of the SFRY in 1992, Montenegro remained part of a smaller Federal Republic of Yugoslavia along with Serbia.

In the referendum on remaining in Yugoslavia in 1992, the turnout was 66%, with 96% of the votes cast in favour of the federation with Serbia. The referendum was boycotted by the Muslim, Albanian, and Catholic minorities, as well as the pro-independence Montenegrins. The opponents claimed that the poll was organized under anti-democratic conditions with widespread propaganda from the state-controlled media in favour of a pro-federation vote. No impartial report on the fairness of the referendum was made, as it was unmonitored, unlike in 2006 when European Union observers were present.

Mausoleum of Petar II Petrovic-Njegos, in Lovcen Njegos mausoleum montenegro.jpg
Mausoleum of Petar II Petrović-Njegoš, in Lovćen

During the 1991–1995 Bosnian War and Croatian War, Montenegrin police and military forces joined Serbian troops in the attacks on Dubrovnik, Croatia. [18] These operations, aimed at acquiring more territory, were characterized by a consistent pattern of large-scale violations of human rights. [19]

Montenegrin General Pavle Strugar was convicted for his part in the bombing of Dubrovnik. [20] Bosnian refugees were arrested by Montenegrin police and transported to Serb camps in Foča, where they were subjected to systematic torture and executed. [21] [22]

In 1996, Milo Đukanović's government severed ties between Montenegro and its partner Serbia, which was led by Slobodan Milošević. Montenegro formed its own economic policy and adopted the German Deutsche Mark as its currency and subsequently adopted the euro, although not part of the Eurozone currency union. Subsequent governments pursued pro-independence policies, and political tensions with Serbia simmered despite the political changes in Belgrade. Targets in Montenegro were bombed by NATO forces during Operation Allied Force in 1999, although the extent of these attacks was very limited in both time and area affected. [23]

In 2002, Serbia and Montenegro came to a new agreement for continued cooperation and entered into negotiations regarding the future status of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. This resulted in the Belgrade Agreement, which saw the country's transformation into a more decentralised state union named Serbia and Montenegro in 2003. The Belgrade Agreement also contained a provision delaying any future referendum on the independence of Montenegro for at least three years.


The status of the union between Montenegro and Serbia was decided by a referendum on Montenegrin independence on 21 May 2006. A total of 419,240 votes were cast, representing 86.5% of the total electorate; 230,661 votes (55.5%) were for independence and 185,002 votes (44.5%) were against. [24] This narrowly surpassed the 55% threshold needed to validate the referendum under the rules set by the European Union. According to the electoral commission, the 55% threshold was passed by only 2,300 votes. Serbia, the member-states of the European Union, and the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council all recognised Montenegro's independence.

The 2006 referendum was monitored by five international observer missions, headed by an Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)/ODIHR team, and around 3,000 observers in total (including domestic observers from CDT (OSCE PA), the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE), the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of the Council of Europe (CLRAE), and the European Parliament (EP) to form an International Referendum Observation Mission (IROM). The IROM—in its preliminary report—"assessed compliance of the referendum process with OSCE commitments, Council of Europe commitments, other international standards for democratic electoral processes, and domestic legislation." Furthermore, the report stated that the competitive pre-referendum environment was marked by an active and generally peaceful campaign and that "there were no reports of restrictions on fundamental civil and political rights."

On 3 June 2006, the Montenegrin Parliament declared the independence of Montenegro, [25] formally confirming the result of the referendum. Serbia did not object to the declaration.

Euro-Atlantic integration in the 21st century

President of Montenegro on the Global Investment Game Changers Summit 2018 Geneva. Global Investment Game Changers Summit I 2018 (30572772047).jpg
President of Montenegro on the Global Investment Game Changers Summit 2018 Geneva.

The Law on the Status of the Descendants of the Petrović Njegoš Dynasty was passed by the Parliament of Montenegro on 12 July 2011. It rehabilitated the Royal House of Montenegro and recognized limited symbolic roles within the constitutional framework of the republic.

In 2015, the investigative journalists' network OCCRP named Montenegro's long-time President and Prime Minister Milo Đukanović "Person of the Year in Organized Crime". [26] The extent of Đukanović's corruption led to street demonstrations and calls for his removal. [27] [28]

In October 2016, for the day of the parliamentary election, a coup d'état was prepared by a group of persons that included leaders of the Montenegrin opposition, Serbian nationals and Russian agents; the coup was prevented. [29] In 2017, fourteen people, including two Russian nationals and two Montenegrin opposition leaders, Andrija Mandić and Milan Knežević, were indicted for their alleged roles in the coup attempt on charges such as "preparing a conspiracy against the constitutional order and the security of Montenegro" and an "attempted terrorist act." [30]

Montenegro formally became a member of NATO in June 2017, though "Montenegro remains deeply divided over joining NATO", [31] an event that triggered a promise of retaliatory actions on the part of Russia's government. [32] [33] [34]

Montenegro has been in negotiations with the EU since 2012. In 2018, the earlier goal of acceding by 2022 [35] was revised to 2025. [36]


Zla Kolata, highest point of Montenegro Zla Kolata summit view with Kolata peaks (cropped).jpg
Zla Kolata, highest point of Montenegro
Satellite view of Montenegro HSV 654 07 Jan 2014 Montenegro Holokarst.jpg
Satellite view of Montenegro
Lake Skadar Lac de Shkodra.jpg
Lake Skadar
Black Lake Big Black Lake.jpg
Black Lake
Pinus heldreichii, Bijela gora. Pinus heldreichii Bijela gora above Borovi do.jpg
Pinus heldreichii , Bijela gora.

Internationally, Montenegro borders Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Kosovo, [lower-alpha 1] and Albania. It lies between latitudes 41° and 44°N, and longitudes 18° and 21°E.

Montenegro ranges from high peaks along its borders with Serbia, Kosovo, and Albania, a segment of the Karst of the western Balkan Peninsula, to a narrow coastal plain that is only 1.5 to 6 kilometres (1 to 4 miles) wide. The plain stops abruptly in the north, where Mount Lovćen and Mount Orjen plunge into the inlet of the Bay of Kotor.

Montenegro's large karst region lies generally at elevations of 1,000 metres (3,280 ft) above sea level; some parts, however, rise to 2,000 m (6,560 ft), such as Mount Orjen (1,894 m or 6,214 ft), the highest massif among the coastal limestone ranges. The Zeta River valley, at an elevation of 500 m (1,600 ft), is the lowest segment.

The mountains of Montenegro include some of the most rugged terrain in Europe, averaging more than 2,000 metres (6,600 feet) in elevation. One of the country's notable peaks is Bobotov Kuk in the Durmitor mountains, which reaches a height of 2,522 m (8,274 ft). Owing to the hyperhumid climate on their western sides, the Montenegrin mountain ranges were among the most ice-eroded parts of the Balkan Peninsula during the last glacial period.

Durmitor National Park1952390 square kilometres (39,000 ha)
Biogradska Gora 195254 square kilometres (5,400 ha)
Lovćen National Park195264 square kilometres (6,400 ha)
Lake Skadar National Park1983400 square kilometres (40,000 ha)
Prokletije National Park2009166 square kilometres (16,600 ha)

Montenegro is a member of the International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River, as more than 2,000 km2 (772 sq mi) of the country's territory lie within the Danube catchment area.


The diversity of the geological base, landscape, climate, and soil, and the position of Montenegro on the Balkan Peninsula and Adriatic Sea, created the conditions for high biological diversity, putting Montenegro among the "hot-spots" of European and world biodiversity. The number of species per area unit index in Montenegro is 0.837, which is the highest index recorded in any European country. [38]

Biodiversity outlook


Milo Dukanovic in 2010.jpg Dusko Markovic.png
Milo Đukanović
Duško Marković
Prime Minister

The Constitution of Montenegro describes the state as a "civic, democratic, ecological state of social justice, based on the reign of Law." [41] Montenegro is an independent and sovereign republic that proclaimed its new constitution on 22 October 2007.

Blue Palace seat of the President of Montenegro, Cetinje Plavi dvorac.jpg
Blue Palace seat of the President of Montenegro, Cetinje

The President of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Predsjednik Crne Gore) is the head of state, elected for a period of five years through direct elections. The President represents the country abroad, promulgates laws by ordinance, calls elections for the Parliament, proposes candidates for Prime Minister, president and justices of the Constitutional Court to the Parliament. The President also proposes the calling of a referendum to Parliament, grants amnesty for criminal offences prescribed by the national law, confers decoration and awards and performs other constitutional duties and is a member of the Supreme Defence Council. The official residence of the President is in Cetinje.

The Government of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Vlada Crne Gore) is the executive branch of government authority of Montenegro. The government is headed by the Prime Minister, and consists of the deputy prime ministers as well as ministers.

The Parliament of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Skupština Crne Gore) is a unicameral legislative body. It passes laws, ratifies treaties, appoints the Prime Minister, ministers, and justices of all courts, adopts the budget and performs other duties as established by the Constitution. Parliament can pass a vote of no-confidence in the Government by a simple majority. One representative is elected per 6,000 voters. The present parliament contains 81 seats, with 39 seats held by the Coalition for a European Montenegro after the 2012 parliamentary election.

Foreign relations of Montenegro

After the promulgation of the Declaration of Independence in the Parliament of the Republic of Montenegro on 3 June 2006, following the independence referendum held on 21 May, the Government of the Republic of Montenegro assumed the competences of defining and conducting the foreign policy of Montenegro as a subject of international law and a sovereign state. The implementation of this constitutional responsibility was vested in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which was given the task of defining the foreign policy priorities and activities needed for their implementation. These activities are pursued in close cooperation with other state administration authorities, the President, the Speaker of the Parliament, and other relevant stakeholders. [42]

Integration into the European Union is Montenegro's strategic goal. This process will remain in the focus of Montenegrin foreign policy in the short term. The second strategic and equally important goal, but one attainable in a shorter time span, was joining NATO, which would guarantee stability and security for pursuing other strategic goals. Montenegro believes NATO integration would speed up EU integration. [42] In May 2017 NATO accepted Montenegro as a NATO member starting 5 June 2017. [43]

Although it only borders Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, and Serbia, Montenegro also counts former Yugoslav republics North Macedonia and Slovenia as its neighbouring countries, for historical and regional reasons, as well as the neighbours of former Yugoslavia: Austria, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Greece.


An official flag of Montenegro, based on the royal standard of King Nicholas I, was adopted on 12 July 2004 by the Montenegrin legislature. This royal flag was red with a silver border, a silver coat of arms, and the initials НІ, in Cyrillic script (corresponding to NI in Latin script), representing King Nicholas I. On the current flag, the border and arms are in gold and the royal cipher in the centre of the arms has been replaced with a golden lion.

The national day of 13 July marks the date in 1878 when the Congress of Berlin recognized Montenegro as the 27th independent state in the world [44] and the start of one of the first popular uprisings in Europe against the Axis Powers on 13 July 1941 in Montenegro.

In 2004, the Montenegrin legislature selected a popular Montenegrin traditional song, "Oh, Bright Dawn of May", as the national anthem. Montenegro's official anthem during the reign of King Nicholas I was Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori ("To Our Beautiful Montenegro").


Armed Forces of Montenegro Military Montenegro 11.jpg
Armed Forces of Montenegro

The military of Montenegro is a fully professional standing army under the Ministry of Defence and is composed of the Montenegrin Ground Army, the Montenegrin Navy, and the Montenegrin Air Force, along with special forces. Conscription was abolished in 2006. The military currently maintains a force of 1,920 active duty members. The bulk of its equipment and forces were inherited from the armed forces of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro; as Montenegro contained the entire coastline of the former union, it retained practically the entire naval force.

Montenegro was a member of NATO's Partnership for Peace program and then became an official candidate for full membership in the alliance. Montenegro applied for a Membership Action Plan on 5 November 2008, which was granted in December 2009. Montenegro is also a member of Adriatic Charter. [45] Montenegro was invited to join NATO on 2 December 2015 and on 19 May 2016, NATO and Montenegro conducted a signing ceremony at NATO headquarters in Brussels for Montenegro's membership invitation. [46] Montenegro became NATO's 29th member on 5 June 2017, despite Russia's objections. [47] The government plans to have the army participate in peacekeeping missions through the UN and NATO such as the International Security Assistance Force. [48]

Administrative divisions

Montenegro is divided into twenty-three municipalities ( opština ). This includes 21 District-level Municipalities and 2 Urban Municipalities, with two subdivisions of Podgorica municipality, listed below. Each municipality can contain multiple cities and towns. Historically, the territory of the country was divided into "nahije".

Municipalities of Montenegro. Montenegro, administrative divisions - Nmbrs - colored.svg
Municipalities of Montenegro.
Regions of Montenegro. Regions of Montenegro.jpg
Regions of Montenegro.
Pljevlja-grb.png 1 Pljevlja Municipality Pljevlja
Pluzine coa.png 2 Plužine Municipality Plužine
Amblem of Zabljak.png 3 Žabljak Municipality Žabljak
Mojkovac coa.png 4 Mojkovac Municipality Mojkovac
BijeloPoljeWeapon.png 5 Bijelo Polje Municipality Bijelo Polje
BeraneWeapon.png 6 Berane / Petnjica Berane / Petnjica (22)
Rozaje-grb.png 7 Rožaje Municipality Rožaje
SavnikWeapon.png 8 Šavnik Municipality Šavnik
Niksic-Grb.gif 9 Nikšić Municipality Nikšić
Kolasin coat.gif 10 Kolašin Municipality Kolašin
CoatAN.jpg 11 Andrijevica Municipality Andrijevica
PlavWeapon.png 12 Plav / Gusinje Plav / Gusinje (23)
Coat of Arms of Kotor.png 13 Kotor Municipality Kotor
Cetinje Coat-of-Arms.svg 14 Cetinje Old Royal Capital
Coat of arms of Danilovgrad.jpg 15 Danilovgrad Municipality Danilovgrad
Podgorica Coat of Arms.png 16 Podgorica Capital City and Municipality
Herceg-Novi-Grb.gif 17 Herceg Novi Municipality Herceg Novi
TivatWeapon.png 18 Tivat Municipality Tivat
Budva-grb.gif 19 Budva Municipality Budva
Coat of Arms of Bar.png 20 Bar Municipality Bar
Coat of Arms of Ulcinj.svg 21 Ulcinj Municipality Ulcinj

Cities in Montenegro


Port of Bar is Montenegro's main sea port located in Bar. The port of Bar, view from Vrsuta mnt (39372956332).jpg
Port of Bar is Montenegro's main sea port located in Bar.

The economy of Montenegro is mostly service-based and is in late transition to a market economy. According to the International Monetary Fund, the nominal GDP of Montenegro was $4.376 billion in 2016. [6] The GDP PPP for 2016 was $10.428 billion, or $16,749 per capita. [6] According to Eurostat data, the Montenegrin GDP per capita stood at 46% of the EU average in 2017. [50] The Central Bank of Montenegro is not part of the euro system but the country is "euroised", using the euro unilaterally as its currency.

GDP grew at 10.7% in 2007 and 7.5% in 2008. [51] The country entered a recession in 2008 as a part of the global recession, with GDP contracting by 4%. However, Montenegro remained a target for foreign investment, the only country in the Balkans to increase its amount of direct foreign investment. [52] The country exited the recession in mid-2010, with GDP growth at around 0.5%. [53] However, the significant dependence of the Montenegrin economy on foreign direct investment leaves it susceptible to external shocks and a high export/import trade deficit.

In 2007, the service sector made up 72.4% of GDP, with industry and agriculture making up the rest at 17.6% and 10%, respectively. [54] There are 50,000 farming households in Montenegro that rely on agriculture to fill the family budget. [55]


Roads of Montenegro in service and two planned: red - Bar-Boljare highway, blue - Adriatic-Ionian motorway Montenegro motorways.JPG
Roads of Montenegro in service and two planned: red – Bar–Boljare highway, blue – Adriatic–Ionian motorway

The Montenegrin road infrastructure is not yet at Western European standards. Despite an extensive road network, no roads are built to full motorway standards. Construction of new motorways is considered a national priority, as they are important for uniform regional economic development and the development of Montenegro as an attractive tourist destination.

Current European routes that pass through Montenegro are E65 and E80.

The backbone of the Montenegrin rail network is the Belgrade–Bar railway, which provides international connection towards Serbia. There is a domestic branch line, the Nikšić-Podgorica railway, which was operated as a freight-only line for decades, and is now also open for passenger traffic after the reconstruction and electrification works in 2012. The other branch line from Podgorica towards the Albanian border, the Podgorica–Shkodër railway, is not in use.

Montenegro has two international airports, Podgorica Airport and Tivat Airport. The two airports served 1.1 million passengers in 2008. Montenegro Airlines is the flag carrier of Montenegro.

The Port of Bar is Montenegro's main seaport. Initially built in 1906, the port was almost completely destroyed during World War II, with reconstruction beginning in 1950. Today, it is equipped to handle over 5 million tons of cargo annually, though the breakup of the former Yugoslavia and the size of the Montenegrin industrial sector has resulted in the port operating at a loss and well below capacity for several years. The reconstruction of the Belgrade-Bar railway and the proposed Belgrade-Bar motorway are expected to bring the port back up to capacity.


Durmitor, Skrcko Lake Velke a male Skrcke jezero mezi Prutasem a Planinici (2330 m.jpg
Durmitor, Škrčko Lake
Bay of Kotor View over Bay of Kotor - Montenegro - 01.jpg
Bay of Kotor
Buljarica beach Buljarica beach.jpg
Buljarica beach
Tara Canyon, deepest canyon in Europe Durmitor, canyon Tara - Montenegro.JPG
Tara Canyon, deepest canyon in Europe

Montenegro has both a picturesque coast and a mountainous northern region. The country was a well-known tourist spot in the 1980s. Yet, the Yugoslav wars that were fought in neighbouring countries during the 1990s crippled the tourist industry and damaged the image of Montenegro for years.

With a total of 1.6 million visitors, the nation is the 36th (out of 47 countries) most visited country in Europe. [56]

The Montenegrin Adriatic coast is 295 km (183 mi) long, with 72 km (45 mi) of beaches, and with many well-preserved ancient old towns. National Geographic Traveler (edited once in decade) features Montenegro among the "50 Places of a Lifetime", and Montenegrin seaside Sveti Stefan was used as the cover for the magazine. [57] The coast region of Montenegro is considered one of the great new "discoveries" among world tourists. In January 2010, The New York Times ranked the Ulcinj South Coast region of Montenegro, including Velika Plaza, Ada Bojana, and the Hotel Mediteran of Ulcinj, as among the "Top 31 Places to Go in 2010" as part of a worldwide ranking of tourism destinations. [58]

Montenegro was also listed in "10 Top Hot Spots of 2009" to visit by Yahoo Travel, describing it as "Currently ranked as the second fastest growing tourism market in the world (falling just behind China)". [59] It is listed every year by prestigious tourism guides like Lonely Planet as top touristic destination along with Greece, Spain and other world touristic places. [60] [61]

It was not until the 2000s that the tourism industry began to recover, and the country has since experienced a high rate of growth in the number of visits and overnight stays. The Government of Montenegro has set the development of Montenegro as an elite tourist destination a top priority. It is a national strategy to make tourism a major contributor to the Montenegrin economy. A number of steps were taken to attract foreign investors. Some large projects are already under way, such as Porto Montenegro, while other locations, like Jaz Beach, Buljarica, Velika Plaža and Ada Bojana, have perhaps the greatest potential to attract future investments and become premium tourist spots on the Adriatic.


Ethnic structure

Predominant ethnic group in each municipality of Montenegro, 2011 MontenegroEthnic2011.PNG
Predominant ethnic group in each municipality of Montenegro, 2011

According to the 2003 census, Montenegro has 620,145 citizens. If the methodology used up to 1991 had been adopted in the 2003 census, Montenegro would officially have recorded 673,094 citizens. The results of the 2011 census show that Montenegro has 620,029 citizens. [62]

Historical population
1900 311,564    
1909 317,856+2.0%
1921 311,341−2.0%
1931 360,044+15.6%
1953 419,873+16.6%
1971 529,604+26.1%
1981 584,310+10.3%
1991 615,035+5.3%
2003 620,145+0.8%
2011 620,029−0.0%

Montenegro is multiethnic state in which no ethnic group forms a majority. [63] [64] Major ethnic groups include Montenegrins (Црногорци/Crnogorci) and Serbs (Срби/Srbi), others are Bosniaks (Bošnjaci), Albanians (Albanci – Shqiptarët) and Croats (Hrvati). The number of "Montenegrins" and "Serbs" fluctuates widely from census to census due to changes in how people perceive, experience, or choose to express, their identity and ethnic affiliation. [65] [66] [67]

Ethnic groups (2011 census)

Ethnic composition according to the 2011 official data: [62]

Montenegrins 278,86545.0
Serbs 178,11028.7
Bosniaks 53,6058.6
Albanians 30,4394.9
Muslims by nationality 20,5373.3
Croats 6,0211.0
Roma 5,2510.8
Serbo-Montenegrins 2,1030.3
"Egyptians" 2,0540.3
Montenegrins-Serbs 1,8330.3
Yugoslavs 1,1540.2
Russians 9460.2
Macedonians 9000.2
Bosnians 4270.1
Slovenes 3540.1
Hungarians 3370.1
Muslim-Montenegrins 257<0.1
Gorani people 197<0.1
Muslim-Bosniaks 183<0.1
Montenegrin-Muslims 175<0.1
Italians 135<0.1
Germans 131<0.1
Turks 104<0.1
regional qualification1,2020.2
without declaration30,1704.9


Linguistic structure of Montenegro by settlements, 2011 MontenegroLanguage2011.PNG
Linguistic structure of Montenegro by settlements, 2011

The official language in Montenegro is Montenegrin. Also, Serbian, Bosnian, Albanian and Croatian are recognized in usage. Montenegrin, Serbian, Bosnian, and Croatian are mutually intelligible, all being standard varieties of Serbo-Croatian language. Montenegrin is the plurality mother tongue of the population under 18 years of age. [68] In 2013, Matica crnogorska announced the results of public opinion research regarding the identity attitudes of the citizens of Montenegro, indicating that the majority of the population claims Montenegrin as their mother tongue. [69] Previous constitutions endorsed Serbo-Croatian as the official language in SR Montenegro and Serbian of Ijekavian standard during the 1992–2006 period.

Languages (2011 census)

According to the 2011 Census the following languages are spoken in the country: [62]

Serbian 265,89542.9
Montenegrin 229,25137.0
Bosnian 33,0775.3
Albanian 32,6715.3
Serbo-Croatian 12,5592.0
Roma 5,1690.8
Bosniak 3,6620.6
Croatian 2,7910.5
Serbo-Montenegrin 6180.1
Macedonian 5290.1
Montenegrin-Serbian 3690.1
Hungarian 225<0.1
Croatian-Serbian 224<0.1
Slovene 107<0.1
Romanian 101<0.1
mother tongue3,3180.5
regional languages4580.1
without declaration24,7484.0


Podgorica, cattedrale della resurrezione di cristo, esterno 01.JPG
Kotor Cathedral church.jpg
Cetinje monastery.jpg
Monasterio de Ostrog, Montenegro, 2014-04-14, DD 14.JPG
Clockwise from left: 1. Orthodox Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ, Podgorica 2. Roman Catholic cathedral in Kotor 3. Cetinje Monastery 4. Ostrog Monastery − the famous and most popular Christian pilgrimage site in Montenegro.
Religious structure of Montenegro by settlements, 2011 MontenegroReligion2011.PNG
Religious structure of Montenegro by settlements, 2011

Montenegro has been historically at the crossroads of multiculturalism and over centuries this has shaped its unique form of co-existence between Muslim and Christian populations. [70] Montenegrins have been, historically, members of the Serbian Orthodox Church (governed by the Metropolitanate of Montenegro and the Littoral), and Serbian Orthodox Christianity is the most popular religion today in Montenegro. The Montenegrin Orthodox Church was recently founded and is followed by a small minority of Montenegrins although it is not in communion with any other Christian Orthodox Church as it has not been officially recognized.

Despite tensions between religious groups during the Bosnian War, Montenegro remained fairly stable, mainly due its population having a historic perspective on religious tolerance and faith diversity. [71] Religious institutions from Montenegro all have guaranteed rights and are separate from the state. The second largest religion is Islam, which amounts to 19% of the total population of the country. One third of Albanians are Catholics (8,126 in the 2004 census) while the two other thirds (22,267) are mainly Sunni Muslims; in 2012 a protocol passed that recognizes Islam as an official religion in Montenegro, ensures that halal foods will be served at military facilities, hospitals, dormitories and all social facilities; and that Muslim women will be permitted to wear headscarves in schools and at public institutions, as well as ensuring that Muslims have the right to take Fridays off work for the Jumu'ah (Friday)-prayer. [72] There is also a small Roman Catholic population, mostly Albanians with some Croats, divided between the Archdiocese of Antivari headed by the Primate of Serbia and the Diocese of Kotor that is a part of the Church of Croatia.

Religious determination according to the 2011 census: [62]

Eastern Orthodox 446,85872.1
Catholics 21,2993.4
Adventists 8940.1
Jehovah's Witnesses 145<0.1
Other Christians1,4600.2
Islam/Muslims 118,477
(99,038 Islam, 19,439 Muslims)
(16.0 Islam, 3.1 Muslims)
Buddhists 118<0.1
Atheists 7,6671.2
without declaration16,1802.6
Note: In the 2011 census, there are two separate columns for the adherents of Islam, one is called Islam, the other Muslims.


Education in Montenegro is regulated by the Montenegrin Ministry of Education and Science.

Education starts in either pre-schools or elementary schools. Children enroll in elementary schools (Montenegrin: Osnovna škola) at the age of 6; it lasts 9 years. The students may continue their secondary education (Montenegrin: Srednja škola), which lasts 4 years (3 years for trade schools) and ends with graduation (Matura). Higher education lasts with a certain first degree after 3 to 6 years. There is one public university (University of Montenegro) and two private (Mediterranean University and University of Donja Gorica).

Elementary and secondary education

Elementary education in Montenegro is free and compulsory for all the children between the age of 7 and 15 when children attend the "eight-year school".

Various types of elementary education are available to all who qualify, but the vocational and technical schools (gymnasiums), where the students follow four-year course which will take them up to the university entrance, are the most popular. At the secondary level there are a number of art schools, apprentice schools and teacher training schools. Those who have attended the technical schools may pursue their education further at one of two-year post-secondary schools, created in response to the needs of industry and the social services.

Secondary schools are divided in three types, and children attend one depending on choice and primary school grades:

National Library of Montenegro in Cetinje Cetinje, Montenegro - panoramio (15).jpg
National Library of Montenegro in Cetinje

Tertiary education

Tertiary level institutions are divided into "Higher education" (Više obrazovanje) and "High education" (Visoko obrazovanje) level faculties.

Higher schools (Viša škola) lasts between two and four years.

Post-graduate education

Post-graduate education (post-diplomske studije) is offered after tertiary level and offers Masters' degrees, PhD and specialization education.


Our Lady of Philermos the patroness of Montenegro, Rhodes and Sovereign Military Order of Malta, one of the first Christian icons, according to legend painted by St. Luke, National Museum of Montenegro, Cetinje. THEOTOKOS PHILERMON.jpg
Our Lady of Philermos the patroness of Montenegro, Rhodes and Sovereign Military Order of Malta, one of the first Christian icons, according to legend painted by St. Luke, National Museum of Montenegro, Cetinje.


National Museum of Montenegro Vladin Dom (Dom Rzadowy) w Cetinje 02.jpg
National Museum of Montenegro
Maritime Museum of Montenegro in Kotor. Museo Maritimo, Kotor, Bahia de Kotor, Montenegro, 2014-04-19, DD 31.JPG
Maritime Museum of Montenegro in Kotor.

The culture of Montenegro has been shaped by a variety of influences throughout history. The influence of Orthodox, Ottoman (Turk), Slavic, Central European, and seafaring Adriatic cultures (notably parts of Italy, like the Republic of Venice) have been the most important in recent centuries.

Montenegro has many significant cultural and historical sites, including heritage sites from the pre-Romanesque, Gothic and Baroque periods. The Montenegrin coastal region is especially well known for its religious monuments, including the Cathedral of Saint Tryphon in Kotor [73] (Cattaro under the Venetians), the basilica of St. Luke (over 800 years), Our Lady of the Rocks (Škrpjela), the Savina Monastery and others. Montenegro's medieval monasteries contain thousands of square metres of frescos on their walls.

A dimension of Montenegrin culture is the ethical ideal of Čojstvo i Junaštvo, "Humaneness and Gallantry". [74] [75] The traditional folk dance of the Montenegrins is the Oro, the "eagle dance" that involves dancing in circles with couples alternating in the centre, and is finished by forming a human pyramid by dancers standing on each other's shoulders.


Montenegro's capital Podgorica and the former royal capital of Cetinje are the two most important centres of culture and the arts in the country.

The American author Rex Stout wrote a long series of detective novels featuring his fictional creation Nero Wolfe, who was born in Montenegro. His Nero Wolfe novel "The Black Mountain" was largely set in Montenegro during the 1950s.


The media of Montenegro refers to mass media outlets based in Montenegro. Television, magazines, and newspapers are all operated by both state-owned and for-profit corporations which depend on advertising, subscription, and other sales-related revenues. The Constitution of Montenegro guarantees freedom of speech. As a country in transition, Montenegro's media system is under transformation.


Foods from Montenegro Foods from Montenegro.jpg
Foods from Montenegro

Montenegrin cuisine is a result of Montenegro's long history. It is a variation of Mediterranean and Oriental. The most influence is from Italy, Turkey, Byzantine Empire/Greece, and as well from Hungary. Montenegrin cuisine also varies geographically; the cuisine in the coastal area differs from the one in the northern highland region. The coastal area is traditionally a representative of Mediterranean cuisine, with seafood being a common dish, while the northern represents more the Oriental.


The Sports in Montenegro revolves mostly around team sports, such as football, basketball, water polo, volleyball, and handball. Other sports involved are boxing, tennis, swimming, judo, karate, athletics, table tennis, and chess.

The most popular sport is football. Notable players from Montenegro were Dejan Savićević, Predrag Mijatović, Mirko Vučinić, Stefan Savić or Stevan Jovetić. Montenegrin national football team, founded at 2006, played in playoffs for UEFA Euro 2012, which is the biggest success in the history of national team.

Water polo is often considered the national sport. Montenegro's national team is one of the top ranked teams in the world, winning the gold medal at the 2008 Men's European Water Polo Championship in Málaga, Spain, and winning the gold medal at the 2009 FINA Men's Water Polo World League, which was held in Montenegrin capital, Podgorica. Montenegrin team PVK Primorac from Kotor became a champion of Europe at the LEN Euroleague 2009 in Rijeka, Croatia.

Podgorica City Stadium, Montenegro fans with national features. MontenegrinFans2.jpg
Podgorica City Stadium, Montenegro fans with national features.

The Montenegro national basketball team is also known for good performances and had won a lot of medals in the past as part of the Yugoslavia national basketball team. In 2006, the Basketball Federation of Montenegro along with this team joined the International Basketball Federation (FIBA) on its own, following the Independence of Montenegro. Montenegro participated on two Eurobaskets until now.

Among women sports, the national handball team is the most successful, having won the 2012 European Championship and finishing as runners-up at the 2012 Summer Olympics. ŽRK Budućnost Podgorica won two times EHF Champions League.

Chess is another popular sport and some famous global chess players, like Slavko Dedić, were born in Montenegro.

At the 2012 Olympic Games in London, Montenegro women's national handball team won the country's first Olympic medal by winning silver. They lost in the final to defending World, Olympic and European Champions, Norway 26–23. Following this defeat the team won against Norway in the final of the 2012 European Championship, becoming champions for the first time.

Public holidays

1 January New Year's Day (non-working holiday)
7 January Orthodox Christmas (non-working)
26 AprilOrthodox Good Friday (non-working) *
28 April Orthodox Easter (non-working) *
1 May Labor Day (non-working)
9 May Victory Day
21 May Independence Day (non-working)
13 July Statehood Day (non-working)

*2019 - exact date varies each year according to the Orthodox calendar

See also

Related Research Articles

Serbia and Montenegro former European state from 2003 to 2006 (named Federal Republic of Yugoslavia until February 2003)

Serbia and Montenegro, officially the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, also known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1992 to 2003, was a country in Southeast Europe, created from the two remaining federal republics of Yugoslavia after its breakup in 1992. The republics of Serbia and Montenegro together established a federation in 1992 as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ,.

Podgorica City in Montenegro

Podgorica is the capital and largest city of Montenegro.

The history of Montenegro begins in the early Middle Ages, into the former Roman province of Dalmatia that forms present-day Montenegro. In the 9th century, there were three principalities on the territory of Montenegro: Duklja, roughly corresponding to the southern half, Travunia, the west, and Rascia, the north. In 1042, Stefan Vojislav led a revolt that resulted in the independence of Duklja and the establishment of the Vojislavljević dynasty. Duklja reached its zenith under Vojislav's son, Mihailo (1046–81), and his grandson Bodin (1081–1101). By the 13th century, Zeta had replaced Duklja when referring to the realm. In the late 14th century, southern Montenegro (Zeta) came under the rule of the Balšić noble family, then the Crnojević noble family, and by the 15th century, Zeta was more often referred to as Crna Gora. Large portions fell under the control of the Ottoman Empire from 1496 to 1878. Parts were controlled by Venice. From 1515 until 1851 the prince-bishops (vladikas) of Cetinje were the rulers. The House of Petrović-Njegoš ruled until 1918. From 1918, it was a part of Yugoslavia. On the basis of an independence referendum held on 21 May 2006, Montenegro declared independence on 3 June of that year.

Bay of Kotor Geographic region of Montenegro

The Bay of Kotor known simply as Boka, is the winding bay of the Adriatic Sea in southwestern Montenegro and the region of Montenegro concentrated around the bay.

Montenegrins, literally "People of the Black Mountain", are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Montenegro.

History of the Balkans

The Balkans is an area situated in Southeastern and Eastern Europe. The distinct identity and fragmentation of the Balkans owes much to its common and often violent history regarding centuries of Ottoman conquest and to its very mountainous geography.

Geography of Montenegro

Montenegro is a small, mountainous state in south-west Balkans. Montenegro borders Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Kosovo, Albania and the Adriatic Sea. While being a small country at 13,812 km², it is very diverse regarding the terrain configuration.

Breakup of Yugoslavia Process starting in mid-1991 leading to the abolishment of the state of Yugoslavia

The Breakup of Yugoslavia occurred as a result of a series of political upheavals and conflicts during the early 1990s. After a period of political and economic crisis in the 1980s, constituent republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia split apart, but the unresolved issues caused bitter inter-ethnic Yugoslav wars. The wars primarily affected Bosnia and Herzegovina, neighboring parts of Croatia and some years later, Kosovo.

Kingdom of Montenegro 1910-1918 kingdom in Southeastern Europe

The Kingdom of Montenegro was a monarchy in southeastern Europe, present-day Montenegro, during the tumultuous years on the Balkan Peninsula leading up to and during World War I. Legally it was a constitutional monarchy, but absolutist in practice. On 28 November 1918, following the end of World War I, with the Montenegrin government still in exile, the Podgorica Assembly proclaimed unification with the Kingdom of Serbia which itself was merged into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes three days later, on 1 December 1918.

2006 Montenegrin independence referendum independence referendum

An independence referendum was held in Montenegro on 21 May 2006. It was approved by 55.5% of voters, narrowly passing the 55% threshold. By 23 May, preliminary referendum results were recognized by all five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, suggesting widespread international recognition if Montenegro were to become formally independent. On 31 May, the referendum commission officially confirmed the results of the referendum, verifying that 55.5% of the population of Montenegrin voters had voted in favor of independence. Because voters met the controversial threshold requirement of 55% approval set by the European Union, the referendum was incorporated into a declaration of independence during a special parliamentary session on 31 May. The Assembly of the Republic of Montenegro made a formal Declaration of Independence on Saturday 3 June.

Economy of Montenegro

The economy of Montenegro is mostly a service based economy, currently in the process of economic transition. The economy of this small Balkan state is recovering from the impact of the Yugoslav Wars, the decline of industry following the breakup of SFRY, and UN economic sanctions.

Constitution of Montenegro

The current Constitution of Montenegro was ratified and adopted by the Constitutional Parliament of Montenegro on 19 October 2007 on an extraordinary session by achieving the required two-thirds supermajority of votes. The Constitution was officially proclaimed as the Constitution of Montenegro on 22 October 2007. This Constitution replaced the Constitution of 1992.

Languages of Montenegro languages of a geographic region

Montenegro has one official language, specified in the Constitution of 2007 as Montenegrin. At the 2011 census, 42% of the population declared Serbian to be their native language, while 37% declared it to be Montenegrin. Linguistically, they are the same language, but an incipient Montenegrin standard is in the process of being formulated.

Italian governorate of Montenegro short-lived territory on the Balkan Peninsula between 1941–1943

The Italian governorate of Montenegro existed from October 1941 to September 1943 as an occupied territory under military government of Fascist Italy during World War II. Although the Italians had intended to establish a quasi-independent Montenegrin kingdom, these plans were permanently shelved after a popular uprising in July 1941. Following the Italian surrender in September 1943, the territory of Montenegro was occupied by German forces which withdrew in December 1944.

Republic of Montenegro (1992–2006) federal unit of Yugoslavia/Serbia & Montenegro between 1992 and 2006

The Republic of Montenegro was a constituent federated state of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia between 1992 and 2006. The declaration of independence of Montenegro in 2006 ended Yugoslavia.

Outline of Montenegro Overview of and topical guide to Montenegro

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Montenegro:

Montenegro–Russia relations Diplomatic relations between Montenegro and Russia

Montenegro–Russia relations are foreign relations between Montenegro and Russia. Montenegro has an embassy in Moscow and Russia has an embassy in Podgorica.

Montenegro–Serbia relations Diplomatic relations between Montenegro and the Republic of Serbia

Montenegrin–Serbian relations are foreign relations between Montenegro and Serbia. From 1918 until 2006 the two states were united under the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and Serbia and Montenegro. There is controversy regarding the national identity of Montenegro due to recent political developments in the region. There is a debate on the ethnic identification of Montenegrins, and the name of the national language. Despite this, the countries have mostly friendly relations.

Controversy over ethnic and linguistic identity in Montenegro is an ongoing dispute over the ethnic and linguistic identity of several communities in Montenegro, a multiethnic and multilingual country in Southeastern Europe. There are several points of dispute, some of them related to identity of people who self-identify as ethnic Montenegrins, while some other identity issues are also related to communities of Serbs of Montenegro, Croats of Montenegro, Bosniaks of Montenegro and ethnic Muslims of Montenegro. All of those issues are mutually interconnected, and highly politicized.

Serbs of Montenegro ethnic group

Serbs of Montenegro or Montenegrin Serbs, compose the second largest ethnic group in Montenegro, after the Montenegrins.



  1. Serbian and Bosnian: Црна Гора, Crna Gora; Albanian: Mali i Zi; Croatian: Crna Gora.
  1. Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has been recognized as an independent state by 112 out of 193 United Nations member states. 10 states have recognized Kosovo only to later withdraw their recognition.


  1. "Language and alphabet Article 13". Constitution of Montenegro. WIPO. 19 October 2007. The official language in Montenegro shall be Montenegrin. Latin and Cyrillic alphabet shall be equal.
  2. "Language and alphabet Article 13". Constitution of Montenegro. WIPO. 19 October 2007. Serbian, Bosnian, Albanian and Croatian shall also be in the official use.
  3. "Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in Montenegro 2011" (PDF). Monstat. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
  5. "Stanovništvo Crne Gore prema polu, tipu naselja, nacionalnoj, odnosno etničkoj pripadnosti, vjeroispovijesti i maternjem jeziku po opštinama u Crnoj Gori" (PDF).
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". International Monetary Fund. 20 October 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  7. "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". World Bank . Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  8. "2018 Human Development Report". United Nations Development Programme. 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  9. 1 2 David Luscombe; Jonathan Riley-Smith (2004). The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 4, c. 1024 c. 1198. Cambridge University Press. pp. 266–. ISBN   9780521414111.
  10. 1 2 Jean W Sedlar (2013). East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000–1500. University of Washington Press. pp. 21–. ISBN   9780295800646.
  11. John Van Antwerp Fine (1983). he early medieval Balkans: a critical survey from the sixth to the late twelfth century. University of Michigan Press. p. 194. ISBN   9780472100255.
  12. "Montenegro History – Part I". Retrieved 27 June 2018.
  13. 1 2 Fine 1994 , p. 532
  14. ISO 3166-1 Newsletter No. V-12, Date: 26 September 2006 Archived 20 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  15. "Duklja, the first Montenegrin state". Archived from the original on 16 January 1997. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
  16. 1 2 Uğur Özcan, II. Abdülhamid Dönemi Osmanlı-Karadağ Siyasi İlişkileri (Political relations between the Ottoman Empire and Montenegro in the Abdul Hamid II era) Türk Tarih Kurumu, Ankara 2013. ISBN   9789751625274
  17. "Prema oceni istoričara, Trinaestojulski ustanak bio je prvi i najmasovniji oružani otpor u porobljenoj Evropi 1941. godine" (in Serbian). Retrieved 7 December 2012.
  18. "Bombing of Dubrovnik". Retrieved 7 December 2012.
  19. "A/RES/47/121. The situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina". United Nations. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
  20. Archived 3 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  21. Annex VIII – part 3/10 Prison Camps. Archived 20 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  22. "Porodica Nedžiba Loje o Njegovom Hapšenju i Deportaciji 1992". Godine Archived 12 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  23. "Russia pushes peace plan". BBC. 29 April 1999.
  24. "Montenegro vote result confirmed". BBC News. 23 May 2006. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
  25. "Montenegro declares independence". BBC News. 4 June 2006. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
  26. "OCCRP announces 2015 Organized Crime and Corruption ‘Person of the Year’ Award". Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project.
  27. "The Balkans’ Corrupt Leaders are Playing NATO for a Fool". Foreign Policy . 5 January 2017.
  28. "Montenegro invited to join NATO, a move sure to anger Russia, strain alliance's standards". The Washington Times. 1 December 2015.
  29. Stojanovic, Dusan (31 October 2016). "NATO, Russia to Hold Parallel Drills in the Balkans". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
    "Russians behind Montenegro coup attempt, says prosecutor". Germany: Deutsche Welle. AFP, Reuters, AP. 6 November 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
    "Montenegro Prosecutor: Russian Nationalists Behind Alleged Coup Attempt". The Wall Street Journal. United States. 6 November 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
    "'Russian nationalists' behind Montenegro PM assassination plot". United Kingdom: BBC. 6 November 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  30. Montenegrin Court Confirms Charges Against Alleged Coup Plotters Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 8 June 2017.
  31. Indictment tells murky Montenegrin coup tale: Trial will hear claims of Russian involvement in plans to assassinate prime minister and stop Balkan country's NATO membership. Politico, 23 May 2017.
  32. Montenegro finds itself at heart of tensions with Russia as it joins Nato: Alliance that bombed country only 18 years ago welcomes it as 29th member in move that has left its citizens divided The Guardian, 25 May 2017.
  33. МИД РФ: ответ НАТО на предложения российских военных неконкретный и размытый // ″Расширение НАТО″, TASS, 6 October 2016.
  34. Комментарий Департамента информации и печати МИД России в связи с голосованием в Скупщине Черногории по вопросу присоединения к НАТО Russian Foreign Ministry′s Statement, 28.04.17.
  35. Darmanović: Montenegro becomes EU member in 2022 20 April 2017. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
  36. "EU to map out membership for 6 western Balkan states", Michael Peel and Neil Buckley, Financial Times, 1 February 2018
  37. "[Iron Deep 2012] Czech Speleological Society".
  38. Environment Reporter 2010. Environmental Protection Agency of Montenegro. 2011. p. 22.
  39. Petović S., Gvozdenović S. & Ikica Z. (2017) "An Annotated Checklist of the Marine Molluscs of the South Adriatic Sea (Montenegro) and a Comparison with Those of Neighbouring Areas". Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 17: 921–934. PDF. doi : 10.4194/1303-2712-v17_5_08
  40. Environment Reporter 2010. Environmental Protection Agency of Montenegro. 2011. pp. 22–23.
  41. "Ustav Crne Gore" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
  42. 1 2 "Foreign Policy". Archived from the original on 21 September 2013.
  43. Julian E. Barnes (25 May 2017). "Montenegro to Join NATO on June 5 – WSJ". The Wall Street Journal . Retrieved 25 May 2017.
  44. "President Vujanovic's Closing Speech at the Crans Montana Forum". 21 February 2006. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
  45. "Adriatic Charter". Archived from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
  46. "NATO Formally Invites Montenegro as 29th Member". Associated Press. 19 May 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
  47. Milic, Predrag (5 June 2017). "Defying Russia, Montenegro finally joins NATO". ABC News. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
  48. "Spremaju se za Avganistan". Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
  49. "Popis stanovništva, domaćinstava i stanova u Crnoj Gori 2011. godine" [Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in Montenegro 2011](PDF) (Press release) (in Serbo-Croatian and English). Statistical office, Montenegro. 12 July 2011. Retrieved 30 March 2011.
  50. "GDP per capita in PPS". Eurostat . Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  51. "5. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". International Monetary Fund. April 2011.
  52. FDI falls across West Balkans, except Montenegro. Reuters India 10 December 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
  53. "Montenegro's leader sees slow economic recovery". Archived from the original on 14 May 2011.
  54. "Montenegro at a glance" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 May 2011.
  55. Milosevic, Milena. "EU Farming Standards Pose Test For Montenegro". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
  56. Mark Hillsdon (27 February 2017). "The European capital you'd never thought to visit (but really should)". The Daily Telegraph.
  57. "50 Places of a Lifetime". National Geographic. 17 September 2009. Archived from the original on 29 March 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
  58. "The 31 Places to Go in 2010". The New York Times. 7 January 2010. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
  59. "10 Top Hot Spots of 2009 by Yahoo Travel". Yahoo!. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
  60. Leue, Holger. "Where to go in June". Lonely Planet. Archived from the original on 5 June 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
  61. "America Sending their Best Adventure Racers to Montenegro". 4 June 2010. Archived from the original on 10 July 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
  62. 1 2 3 4 "Popis stanovništva, domaćinstava i stanova u Crnoj Gori 2011. godine" [Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in Montenegro 2011](PDF) (Press release) (in Serbo-Croatian and English). Statistical office, Montenegro. 12 July 2011. Retrieved 30 March 2011.
  63. "Montenegro, country report" (PDF). European Commission. December 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 August 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  64. Montenegro: A Modern History. I.B. Tauris. 2009. ISBN   9781845117108.
  65. "Montenegrin Census' from 1909 to 2003". 23 September 2004. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
  66. "Romani, Balkan in Montenegro". Joshua Project. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
  67. "Montenegro: The money came and went – and Romani families are still unhoused". 18 July 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
  68. Archived 2 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine Vijesti: The majority of youth below 18 years of age speaks the Montenegrin language (26 July 2011)
  69. Matica crnogorska: Third deep research of public opinion regarding the identity attitudes of the citizens of Montenegro (2013)
  70. Pettifer, James (2007). Strengthening Religious Tolerance for a Secure Civil Society in Albania and the Southern Balkans. IOS Press. ISBN   978-1-58603-779-6.
  71. Larkin, Barbara (2001). International Religious Freedom 2000: Annual Report: Submitted by the U.S. Department Of State. Diane Publishing. ISBN   978-0-7567-1229-7.
  72. Rifat Fejzic, the reis (president) of the Islamic community in Montenegro Archived 21 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine Today's Zaman
  73. Šestović, Aleksandar. "Kotor". Retrieved 11 September 2010.
  74. "Чојство и јнаштво старих Црногораца, Цетиње 1968. 3–11". Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
  75. Oblikovanje crnogorske nacije u doba petrovica njegosa, "Cojstvo je osobeno svojstvo Crnogoraca, koje su uzdigli u najvecu vrlinu i uzor." [ dead link ]


Further reading