Sark

Last updated

Sark

Sèr / Cerq(Sercquiais)
Sercq  (French)
Coat of arms of Sark.svg
Coat of arms
Anthem: "God Save the Queen"
English Channel location map.svg
BSicon lHST.svg
Redpoint2.svg
Location circle.svg
BSicon lHST.svg
Redpoint2.svg
Location circle.svg
BSicon lHST.svg
Redpoint2.svg
Location of Sark (circled)

in the Bailiwick of Guernsey  (red)

Guernsey-Sark.png
Map of Sark within the Bailiwick
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Crown dependency Bailiwick of Guernsey
Separation from the Duchy of Normandy 1204
Fief granted to Hellier de Carteret 1565
Feudalism abolished 9 April 2008
Official languages English
Recognised regional languages Sercquiais
Government Self-governing dependency under a parliamentary constitutional monarchy
  Monarch
Elizabeth II
  Seigneur
Christopher Beaumont
Legislature Chief Pleas
Area
 Total
5.45 km2 (2.10 sq mi)
Population
 Estimate
492 [1]
 Density
110.09/km2 (285.1/sq mi)
Currency Guernsey pound [lower-alpha 1]
Pound sterling (£) (GBP)
Time zone UTC±00:00 (GMT)
  Summer (DST)
UTC+01:00 (BST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving side left
Calling code +44
UK postcode
ISO 3166 code CQ [2]
Internet TLD .gg

Sark (French: Sercq, French pronunciation:  [sɛʁ] ; Sercquiais: Sèr or Cerq) is a part of the Channel Islands in the southwestern English Channel, off the coast of Normandy, France. It is a royal fief, which forms part of the Bailiwick of Guernsey, with its own set of laws based on Norman law and its own parliament. It has a population of about 500. [1] Sark (including the nearby island of Brecqhou) has an area of 2.10 square miles (5.44 km2). [3] Little Sark is a peninsula joined by a natural but high and very narrow isthmus to the rest of Sark.

Contents

Sark is one of the few remaining places in the world where cars are banned from roads and only tractors and horse-drawn vehicles are allowed.[ citation needed ] In 2011, Sark was designated as a Dark Sky Community and the first Dark Sky Island in the world.

Geography and geology

La Coupee Sark Coupee.jpg
La Coupée

Sark consists of two main parts, Greater Sark, located at about 49°25′N2°22′W / 49.417°N 2.367°W / 49.417; -2.367 , and Little Sark to the south. They are connected by a narrow isthmus called La Coupée which is 300 feet (91 m) long and has a drop of 330 feet (100 m) on each side. [4] Protective railings were erected in 1900; before then, children would crawl across on their hands and knees to avoid being blown over the edge. There is a narrow concrete road covering the entirety of the isthmus that was built in 1945 by German prisoners of war under the direction of the Royal Engineers. Due to its isolation, the inhabitants of Little Sark had their own distinct form of Sercquiais, the native Norman dialect of the island. [5]

"Le Moulin" windmill, c. 1905 Sark windmill working.jpg
"Le Moulin" windmill, c.  1905

The highest point on Sark is 374 feet (114 m) above sea level. [4] A windmill, dated 1571, is found there, the sails of which were removed during World War II. This high point is named Le Moulin , after the windmill. The location is also the highest point in the Bailiwick of Guernsey. Little Sark had a number of mines accessing a source of galena. [6] At Port Gorey, the ruins of silver mines [7] may be seen. Off the south end of Little Sark are the Venus Pool and the Adonis Pool, both natural swimming pools whose waters are refreshed at high tide.

The whole island is extensively penetrated at sea level by natural cave formations that provide unique habitats for many marine creatures, notably sea anemones, some of which are only safely accessible at low tide.

Sark is made up mainly of amphibolite and granite gneiss rocks, intruded by igneous magma sheets called quartz diorite. Recent (1990–2000) [8] geological studies and rock age dating by geologists from Oxford Brookes University shows that the gneisses probably formed around 620–600 million years ago during the Late Pre-Cambrian Age Cadomian Orogeny. The quartz diorite sheets were intruded during this Cadomian deformation and metamorphic event.

All the Sark rocks (and those of the nearby Channel Islands of Guernsey and Alderney) formed during geological activity in the continental crust above an ancient subduction zone. This geological setting would have been analogous to the modern-day subduction zone of the Pacific Ocean plate colliding and subducting beneath the North and South American continental plate.

Sark also exercises jurisdiction over the island of Brecqhou, only a few hundred feet west of Greater Sark. It is a private island, but it has recently been opened to some visitors. Since 1993, Brecqhou has been owned by David Barclay, one of the Barclay brothers who are co-owners of The Daily Telegraph . They contest Sark's control over the island. The candidates endorsed by their various business interests on the island failed to win any seats in the elections held in 2008 [9] and 2010. [10]

Toponymy

Old records

Sark is probably first mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary (Itinerarium Antonini Augusti, part II : itinerarium maritimum) 3rd – 4th century AD together with the other main Channel Islands as Sarmia, Caesarea, Barsa, Silia and Andium, but it is unclear to which it refers. It has been suggested that Silia referred to Sark. [11] :131–132 The earliest record to evoke possibly the name of Sark are the Life of saint Samson and the Life of saint Magloire, bishops of Dol-de-Bretagne. They spell it Sargia, [12] with the neighbouring island Bissargia, [12] :41 all the other documents are from the 11th to the 12th century and the forms are : Serc, Serch, Sercum, Serco. [11] :124

Etymology

Richard Coates has suggested that in the absence of a Proto-Indo-European etymology it may be worthwhile looking for a Proto-Semitic source for the name. [13] [14] He proposes a comparison between the probable root of Sark, *Sarg-, and Proto-Semitic *śrq "redden; rise (as of the sun); east", noting Sark's position as the easternmost island of the Guernsey group. [15] His theory is based on the early medieval Latin records mentioning Sargia, but many Islands more or less close to Sark have a Latin name ending with -gia, such as Angia (Channel Island), Oye-Plage (Pas-de-Calais, Ogia 8th century) and Île-d'Yeu (Vendée, former Augia). Later records all mention Serc- and not *Sark, that seem to result from a later anglicising of the /er/ group (compare French merveille > English marvel; French Clerc / English clerk, clark cf. Clark). The traditional pronunciation of Sark in the native Norman language is sèr[sɛr], with regular fall of final [k] like clerc in French. [11] :124 Finally, no specialist ever identified any Proto-Semitic element in the French coastal toponymy, even on the French mediterranean side. René Lepelley suggests a Scandinavian etymology that would explain the regular and late records of the root Serc- in the documents, according to him, it could be Old Norse serkr "shirt". [11] :124 He compares with the name given to an island or a mountain by Vikings sailing from Norway to Greenland  : Hvítserkr cf. Hvitserk, maybe Mount Forel, [11] :124 so Old Saxon *Serki or Old Norse Serkr > Serc could have been a descriptive landmark for Saxon or Scandinavian sailors. In addition Norman toponymy reveals a mixture of (Anglo-)Saxon and Old Norse (Old Danish) place name elements. The Old English form of sark "shirt" (related to Old Norse serkr) is precisely serċ, syrċ > Middle English serk, serke, sark (through the Anglian variant).

History

A horse-drawn carriage on Sark Carriage - Sark.jpg
A horse-drawn carriage on Sark

Early history

In ancient times, Sark was almost certainly occupied by the Unelli, the Gallic tribe of the Cotentin Peninsula. These people were conquered by Julius Caesar of the Roman Empire about 56 BC in the Gallic Wars. About three decades later under Augustus, Gallia Celtica was subdivided into three parts, with this area a part of Gallia Lugdunensis, with its capital in Lugdunum, now Lyon. A later division was named Lugdunensis secunda (Lyonnaise 2nd). A Unelli town, now Coutances, was named Constantia in 298 by the Roman emperor Constantius Chlorus.

Around 430, the bishopric of Coutances (much later under the archbishopric of Rouen), was established in Coutances, having about the same limits as the Lyonnaise 2nd.

In 933, Sark was included in the Duchy of Normandy, based on the traditional boundaries of the Lugdunensis secunda and the archbishopric of Rouen. Following the Norman conquest of England in 1066, the island was united with the Crown of England. In the thirteenth century, the French pirate Eustace the Monk, having served King John, used Sark as a base of operations.

During the Middle Ages, the island was populated by monastic communities. By the 16th century, however, the island was uninhabited and used by pirates as a refuge and base. In 1565, Helier de Carteret, Seigneur of St. Ouen in Jersey, received letters patent from Queen Elizabeth I granting him Sark as a fief in perpetuity on condition that he kept the island free of pirates and occupied by at least forty men who were of her English subjects or swore allegiance to the Crown. [16] This he duly did, leasing 40 parcels of land (known as "Tenements") at a low rent to forty families, mostly from St. Ouen, on condition that a house was built and maintained on each parcel and that "the Tenant" provided one man, armed with a musket, for the defence of the island. The 40 tenements survive to this day, albeit with minor boundary changes. A subsequent attempt by the families to endow a constitution under a bailiff, as in Jersey, was stopped by the Guernsey authorities who resented any attempt to wrest Sark from their bailiwick.[ citation needed ]

Recent history

In 1844, desperate for funds to continue the operation of the silver mine on the island, the incumbent Seigneur, Ernest le Pelley, obtained Crown permission to mortgage Sark's fief to local privateer John Allaire. After the company running the mine went bankrupt, le Pelley was unable to keep up the mortgage payments and, in 1849, his son Pierre Carey le Pelley, the new Seigneur, was forced to sell the fief to Marie Collings for a total of £1,383 [17] (£6,000 less the sum borrowed and an accumulated interest of £616 and 13s). [18]

During World War II, the island, along with the other Channel Islands, was occupied by German forces between 1940 and 1945. German military rule on Sark began on 4 July 1940, the day after the Guernsey Kommandant Major Albrecht Lanz and his interpreter and chief of staff Major Maas visited the island to inform the Dame and Seigneur (Sibyl and Robert Hathaway) of the new regime. British Commandos raided the island several times. Operation Basalt, during the night of 3–4 October 1942, captured a prisoner, and Hardtack 7 was a failed British landing in December 1943. Sark was finally liberated on 10 May 1945, a full day after Guernsey.

In August 1990, an unemployed French nuclear physicist named André Gardes, armed with a semi-automatic weapon, attempted an invasion of Sark. The night Gardes arrived, he put up two posters declaring his intention to take over the island the following day at noon. The following day he started a solo foot patrol in front of the manor in battle-dress, weapon in hand. While Gardes was sitting on a bench waiting for noon to arrive, the island's volunteer connétable approached the Frenchman and complimented him on the quality of his weapon. [19] Gardes then proceeded to change the gun's magazine, at which point he was tackled to the ground, arrested, and given a seven-day sentence which he served in Guernsey. [19] [20] [21] [22] Gardes attempted a comeback the following year, but was intercepted in Guernsey.

Transition to new system of government

Brothers David and Frederick Barclay had purchased an island within Sark's territorial waters in 1993 [19] along with the hotels on the island. [23] In the mid-1990s, the brothers petitioned the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg, France, challenging Sark's inheritance law, which mandated their island be left to David's oldest son. The brothers wanted to will their estate equally to their four children. [24] In 1999, women in Sark were given equal rights of property inheritance, mainly due to the brothers' influence. [25]

Until 2008, Sark's parliament (Chief Pleas) was a single chamber consisting of 54 members, comprising the Seigneur, the Seneschal, 40 owners of the tenements and 12 elected deputies. A change to the system was advocated largely by the Barclay brothers. [23] Their premise was that a change was necessary to comply with the European Convention on Human Rights, though it was suggested that their objection was more likely at odds with certain property tax requirements and primogeniture laws affecting their holdings. [23] [26] The old system was described as feudal and undemocratic because the tenants were entitled to sit in Chief Pleas as of right. [27]

On 16 January 2008 and 21 February 2008, the Chief Pleas approved a law to reform Chief Pleas as a 30-member chamber, with 28 members elected in island-wide elections, one hereditary member (the Seigneur) and one member (the Seneschal) appointed for life. [lower-alpha 2] [28] The Privy Council of the United Kingdom approved the Sark law reforms on 9 April 2008. [29] The first elections under the new law were held in December 2008 and the new chamber first convened in January 2009. [30] [31]

Some Sark residents have complained that the new system is not democratic and have described the powers the new law granted to the Seneschal, an unelected member whose term the new law extended to the duration of his natural life, as imperial or dictatorial. The Court of Appeal had ruled his powers to be in breach of the European Convention on Human Rights [32] and his powers were subject to further legal challenges on these grounds. [33]

In 2012 the BBC Today programme reported on local disquiet about the influence on the island of David and Frederick Barclay, the billionaire brothers who own The Daily Telegraph . [34] The New Yorker magazine further illustrated the ongoing and escalating tensions between the Barclays and some of the longer-term residents. [35] In 2017 Private Eye also reported on the situation, following the Barclays' decision to close their vineyard and a number of hotels and shops they own on Sark. [36]

Dark Sky Community status

In January 2011, the International Dark-Sky Association designated Sark as Europe's first Dark Sky Community [37] and the first Dark Sky Island in the world. [38] This designation recognises that Sark is sufficiently clear of light pollution to allow naked-eye astronomy. Although Sark was aided in its achievement by its location, its historic ban on cars and the fact that there is no public lighting, it was also necessary for local residents to make adjustments, such as re-siting lights, to cut the light pollution.

The designation was made in January 2011, following an audit by the IDA in 2010. The award is significant in that Sark is the first island community to have achieved this; other Dark-Sky Places have, up to now, been mainly uninhabited areas, and IDA chairman Martin Morgan-Taylor commended Sark residents for their effort. [39] After the designation was granted, Sark Astronomy Society worked to secure funds for an astronomical observatory on the island. In October 2015 Sark's observatory was officially opened by Marek Kukula, public astronomer from the Royal Observatory Greenwich. [40] [41]

Politics

September 2005 aerial view of Sark. North is to the lower left, Little Sark toward the upper right and Brecqhou at bottom right. Sark-aerial.jpg
September 2005 aerial view of Sark. North is to the lower left, Little Sark toward the upper right and Brecqhou at bottom right.

Sark was considered the last feudal state in Europe. Together with the other Channel Islands, it is the last remnant of the former Duchy of Normandy still belonging to the Crown. Sark belongs to the Crown in its own right and has an independent relationship with the Crown through the Lieutenant Governor in Guernsey. [42] Formally, the Seigneur holds it as a fief from the Crown, reenfeoffing the landowners on the island with their respective parcels. The political consequences of this construction were abolished in recent years, particularly in the reform of the legislative body, Chief Pleas, which took place in 2008.

Although part of the Bailiwick of Guernsey, Sark is fiscally separate from the rest of the Bailiwick. Together with the islands of Alderney and Guernsey, Sark from time to time approves Bailiwick of Guernsey legislation, which, subject to the approval of all three legislatures, applies in the entire Bailiwick. Legislation cannot be made which applies on Sark without the approval of the Chief Pleas, although recently Chief Pleas has been delegating a number of ordinance-making powers to the States of Guernsey. Such powers are, however, in each case subject to dis-application, or repeal, by the Chief Pleas. By long standing custom, Sark's criminal law has been made by the States of Guernsey, and this custom was put on a statutory basis in Section 4 of the Reform (Sark) Law, 2008, by which Sark delegates criminal law making power to the States of Guernsey.

Sark has its own United Nations Standard Country or Area Code for Statistical Use (690). That code is used for statistical processing purposes by the Statistics Division of the United Nations Secretariat. [43] Sark does not have its own separate ISO issued Country Code as it is part of the Bailiwick of Guernsey and is represented by Guernsey’s country code (GG) for those purposes. The code CQ has been reserved by the United Kingdom. [2]

Seigneur

Christopher Beaumont is the current and twenty-third Seigneur of Sark, having inherited the Seigneurie in 2016.

Before the constitutional reforms of 2008 the Seigneur of Sark was the head of the government of the Isle of Sark (in the case of a woman the title was Dame). Many of the laws, particularly those related to inheritance and the rule of the Seigneur, had changed little since they were enacted in 1565 under Queen Elizabeth I. For example, the Seigneur or Dame had the sole right on the island to keep pigeons and was the only person allowed to keep an unspayed dog. [20]

Seneschal

Until 2013 the Seneschal of Sark was the head of the Chief Pleas. From 1583 and 1675 judicial functions were exercised by five elected jurats and a juge, but since 1675 the Seneschal has also been the judge of the island.

The Seneschal was historically appointed by the Seigneur, but nowadays there is an Appointment Committee consisting of the Seigneur and two other members appointed by the Seigneur. [28]

In 2010, following the decision of the English Court of Appeal, the Chief Pleas decided to split the dual role of the Seneschal. [44] Thus, since 2013 the Chief Pleas has elected its own President, who presides in almost all cases. The Seneschal now presides in Chief Pleas only during the election of the President.

The complete list of all the Seneschals of Sark from 1675 is as follows: [45]

  1. Pierre Gibault (15/7/1675–1680)
  2. Thomas de Beauvoir (1680–1683)
  3. Phillipe Dumeresq (1683–1702)
  4. Jean Payne (1702–1707)
  5. Philippe de Carteret (1707–1744)
  6. Henri de Carteret (1744–1752)
  7. Phillipe le Masurier (1752–1777)
  8. Henri le Masurier (1777–1785)
  9. Amice le Couteur (1785–1808)
  10. Jean le Couteur (1808–1812)
  11. Jean Falle (1812–1830)
  12. Elie le Masurier (1830–1841)
  13. Philippe Guille (1841–1851)
  14. Thomas Godfray (1851–1876)
  15. William de Carteret (1876–1881)
  16. Abraham Baker (1881–1891)
  17. Thomas Godfray (1891–1920)
  18. Kenneth Campbell (1920–1922)
  19. Ashby Taylor (1922–1925)
  20. Frederick de Carteret (1925–1937)
  21. William Carré (1937–1945)
  22. William Baker (1945–1969)
  23. Bernard Jones (1969–1979)
  24. Hilary Carré (1979–1985)
  25. Lawrence Philip de Carteret (1985–2000)
  26. Reginald J. Guille (2000–2013)
  27. Jeremy la Trobe-Bateman (from 27 February 2013)

Tenants

The Seigneurie (
49deg26.4'N 2deg21.7'W / 49.4400degN 2.3617degW / 49.4400; -2.3617) Sark Seigneurie.jpg
The Seigneurie ( 49°26.4′N2°21.7′W / 49.4400°N 2.3617°W / 49.4400; -2.3617 )

Pursuant to the royal letters patent, the Seigneur was to keep the island inhabited by at least 40 armed men. [16] Therefore, from his lands, 39 parcels or tenements, each sufficient for one family, were subdivided and granted to settlers, the tenants. Later, some of these parcels were dismembered, and parts of the Seigneurial land were sold, creating more parcels.

Originally each head of a parcel-holding family had the right to vote in Chief Pleas, but in 1604 this right was restricted to the 39 original tenements required by the letters patent, the so-called 'Quarantaine Tenements' (French : quarantaine: a group of forty). The newer parcels mostly did not have the obligation to bear arms. In 1611 the dismemberment of tenements was forbidden, but the order was not immediately followed.

In Sark, the word tenant is used (and often pronounced as in French) in the sense of feudal landholder rather than the common English meaning of lessee. Originally, the word referred to any landowner, but today it is mostly used for a holder of one of the Quarantaine Tenements.

Chief Pleas

Meeting place for Chief Pleas and the Court of the Seneschal Sark July 2011 50.jpg
Meeting place for Chief Pleas and the Court of the Seneschal
Seal of the Chief Pleas Sark Chief Pleas Seal.svg
Seal of the Chief Pleas

Chief Pleas (French : Chefs Plaids; Sercquiais: Cheurs Pliaids) is the parliament of Sark. It consists of eighteen members (conseillers), elected for a period of office of four years. In addition, the Seigneur and a speaker (who is elected by the conseillers) are counted as members; but they have no right to vote. The periods of office are shifted, with the period of half the conseillers starting in the middle of the periods of the other half. Thus, every second year, nine conseillers are elected for the coming four years. The elections are held on the basis of a single multi-member Sark-wide constituency, with the nine candidates receiving most votes being elected. The Prévôt , the Greffier and the treasurer also attend but are not members; the treasurer may address Chief Pleas on matters of taxation and finance.

However, if there are not more willing candidates than the numbers of positions to fill (including any casual vacancies), then all candidates are declared elected, without any actual election necessary. This happened both in the 2014 and the 2016 elections to the Chief Pleas.

Until 2008, the Chief Pleas consisted of the tenants, and twelve deputies of the people as the only representation of the majority, an office introduced in 1922. The Seigneur and the Seneschal (who presided) were also members of Chief Pleas.

Since 2000, Chief Pleas was working on its own reform, responding to internal and international pressures. On 8 March 2006 by a vote of 25–15 Chief Pleas voted for a new legislature of the Seigneur, the Seneschal, fourteen elected landowners and fourteen elected non-landowners. [46] [47] But it was made plain by the British Lord Chancellor Jack Straw that this option was not on the table. [48]

Offered two options for reform involving an elected legislature, one fully elected, one with a number of seats reserved for elected tenants, 56% of the inhabitants expressed a preference for a totally elected legislature. [49] Following the poll, Chief Pleas voted on 4 October 2006 to replace the twelve deputies and forty tenants in Chief Pleas by 28 conseillers elected by universal adult suffrage. [50] This decision was suspended in January 2007 when it was pointed out to Chief Pleas that the 56% versus 44% majority achieved in the opinion poll did not achieve the 60% majority required for the constitutional change.[ citation needed ] The decision was replaced by the proposal that Chief Pleas should consist of sixteen tenants and twelve conseillers both elected by universal adult suffrage from 2008 to 2012 and that a binding referendum should then decide whether this composition should be kept or replaced by 28 conseillers. [51] This proposal was rejected by the Privy Council and the 28 conseiller option was reinstated in February 2008 and accepted by Privy Council in April 2008. [52]

In 2003, Chief Pleas voted to vary the long-standing ban on divorce in the island by extending to the Royal Court of Guernsey power to grant divorces. [53]

In 2017, due to a lack of candidates standing for elections, the number of conseillers was reduced from 28 to 18, with nine elected every two years.

Bailiwick of Guernsey laws and United Kingdom Acts of Parliament can (the latter as in the case of all the other Channel Islands) be extended to Sark. Normally the consent of Chief Pleas is obtained for this, but the Supreme Court ruled in R v Secretary of State for Justice [2014] UKSC 54 that it need not be. [54] [55] Sark does not make its own criminal laws; [56] the responsibility for making criminal law was assigned to the States of Guernsey by Section 4(3) of the Reform (Sark) Law 2008. [57]

Officers

The executive officers on the island are:

The Seneschal, Prevôt, and Greffier are chosen by the Seigneur, while the Treasurer, Constable and Vingtenier are elected by Chief Pleas. [28] [58]

The list of current Officers of the Island of Sark:

Clameur de haro

Among the old laws of the Channel Islands is the old Norman custom of the clameur de haro . Using this legal device, a person can obtain immediate cessation of any action he considers to be an infringement of his rights. At the scene, he must, in front of witnesses, recite the Lord's Prayer in French and cry out "Haro, Haro, Haro! À mon aide mon Prince, on me fait tort!" ("Haro, Haro, Haro! To my aid, my Prince! I am being wronged!"). It should then be registered with the Greffe Office within 24 hours. All actions against the person must then cease until the matter is heard by the Court. The last clameur recorded on Sark was raised in June 1970 to prevent the construction of a garden wall. [20]

Periodicals

Since 2009 a resident of Sark has operated a weekly online newspaper called The Sark Newspaper (earlier: The Sark Newsletter). [62] The publisher is a former longtime employee of the wealthy Barclay brothers, who own the small neighbouring island of Brecqhou. [63] The publication has compared the local government of Sark "to fascist Germany in the 1930s". In 2014 over 50 residents of Sark filed complaints with the police about accusations made by the paper. [64]

Since 2011 a quarterly magazine called Sark Life, which promotes a positive view of the island and welcomes contributions, is published by the Sark-based publishing company Small Island Publishing. [65]

Sercquiais

Sercquiais (Sarkese, or sometimes called Sark-French) is a dialect of the Norman language still spoken in 1998 by a few older inhabitants of the island. [5] Its decline has been linked with the arrival of English-speaking miners in 1835, and increased tourism in more recent years. [66]

Economy

Tourism

Sark's economy depends primarily on tourism and financial services. Sark has no company registry and relies on Guernsey's financial services commission. [67]

Taxation

Sark is fiscally autonomous from Guernsey, and consequently has control over how it raises taxes. There are no taxes on income, capital gains or inheritances. There is also no VAT charged on goods and services, but import duties (Impôts) are charged on some goods brought onto the island at around 70–75% of Guernsey rates. However, the island does levy a Personal Capital Tax, a Property Tax, a Poll Tax ("Landing Tax") on visitors coming to the island, and a Property Transfer Tax (PTT) on residential properties when they are sold.

The island has its own tax assessor (in 2016, this remained Simon de Carteret), [68] who collects the Property Tax, PTT, and the Personal Capital Tax (direct tax). [69] Currently, the Personal Capital Tax ranges from a minimum of £450, to a maximum of £9,000 or 0.39% per annum (whichever is the lower). [70] In 2014, there were 5 taxpayers who paid the maximum amount of £6,400 (PCT and Property Tax combined), and 6 who paid zero tax. Residents over the age of 69 do not pay the PCT. If a resident chooses not to declare the value of their personal assets, they can elect to pay a flat-rate under the Forfait method.

In 2006, Property Transfer Tax replaced the feudal Treizième. [71] This used to be calculated by dividing the purchase price of any of the 30 tenements or 40 freehold properties on Sark by 13. The proceeds from doing this were then paid directly to the Seigneur. When the Treizième was abolished, the Chief Pleas introduced an indexed-linked pension of £28,000 per year, payable to the Seigneur.

An individual is considered to be a resident for tax purposes if they have remained on the island for at least 90 days in any tax year. [72]

Sark Company Registry

Sark has no public company registry, and no company law. In January 2017, a private organisation called the "Sark Company Registry" was set up. The project was initially opposed by the Guernsey Financial Services Commission, [73] but that opposition ended with nothing, since no law could prohibit private registration of companies. None of managers of the private registry or any company registered by them was ever sanctioned. [74]

Education

Sark generally follows the education system of England though this is not strictly adhered to.

Sark has one school, the Sark School, which takes residents from the ages of 4 to 15. School is divided into 4 classes. Class 1 takes children from the ages of 4 to 7 (reception to year 2), class 2 caters for 7- to 9-year-olds (year 3 to year 4), class 3 has 9- to 14-year-olds (year 5 to year 9) and the older children attend class 4 (years 10 and 11). [75] Pupils wishing to obtain a GCSE or A-level qualification often finish their education in Guernsey or in England. Since 2006, however, a limited number of GCSEs have been offered to pupils at Sark School. [76]

Population

Year1274182118311841185118611871188118911901191119211931193919511961197120082014
Sark>400488543785580583546571570504579611571430555550584>474>492
Brecqhou005005722036010116
Map of settlements in Sark Sark location map.png
Map of settlements in Sark

Notes:

Demography

Population by gender and movements

Resident population on Sark by gender and residence at one and five-yearly intervals.

Residents (1971)Residence
One Year Prior
Residence
Five Years Prior
SameDifferentSameDifferent
MFMFMFMFMF
24524823023015181891875661

Data from the 1971 Bailiwick of Guernsey report. [78]

Population by birthplace and visitors

BirthplaceGuernseyAlderneySark
PersonsMalesFemalesPersonsMalesFemalesPersonsMalesFemales
Resident in Bailiwick
Total4939923749256501579752827493245248
United Kingdom4764822923247251429689740463233230
Channel Islands358201740118419642323319264139125
Bailiwick352501715118099607309298247131116
Jersey5702503203514211789
England10346482755196803203601838796
Scotland734324410703238725
Wales414194220261016633
Northern Ireland3341771571147321
Other Country17518269251506387301218
Visitors
Total2059104310161074562974453
United Kingdom1669838831963957833746
Channel Islands1346074413101
Bailiwick984652413101
Jersey361422000000
England1205610595873651753441
Scotland1165561422321
Wales712942000303
Northern Ireland1438459101110
Other Country39020518511651477

Data from the 1971 Bailiwick of Guernsey report. [78]

Transport

The high-speed ferry service from Jersey arriving at Sark Sark ferry arrival.jpg
The high-speed ferry service from Jersey arriving at Sark
2007 Sark July 2010 27.jpg
2007

The Isle of Sark Shipping Company operates small ferries from Sark to St Peter Port, Guernsey. The service takes 55 minutes for the 9 miles (14 km) crossing. [81] A high-speed passenger ferry is operated in summer by the French company Manche Iles Express to Jersey. [82] A 12-passenger boat, the Lady Maris II, operates regular services to Alderney. [83]

The island is a car-free zone [84] where the only vehicles allowed are horse-drawn vehicles, bicycles, tractors, and battery-powered buggies for elderly or disabled people. Electric bicycles were deregulated in the 2019 Midsummer Chief Pleas with the ordinance coming in to force on 4 July 2019. [85] Passengers and goods arriving by ferry from Guernsey are transported from the wharf by tractor-pulled vehicles.

There is no airport on Sark, and flight over Sark below 2400 ft is prohibited by the Air Navigation (Restriction of Flying) (Guernsey) Regulations 1985 (Guernsey 1985/21). The closest airports are Guernsey Airport and Jersey Airport. Sark lies directly in line of approach to the runway of Guernsey airport, however, and low-flying[ citation needed ] aircraft regularly fly over the island.

Religion

St Peter's Church (Anglican) Church - Sark.jpg
St Peter's Church (Anglican)

In common with the other Channel Islands, Sark is attached to the Anglican diocese of Canterbury. [86] Catholics depend on the Roman Catholic Diocese of Portsmouth in England.

Sark has an Anglican church (St Peter's, built 1820) and a Methodist [87] church. John Wesley first proposed a mission to Sark in 1787. Jean de Quetteville of Jersey subsequently began preaching there, initially in a cottage at Le Clos à Geon and then at various houses around Sark. Preachers from Guernsey visited regularly, and in 1796, land was donated by Jean Vaudin, leader of the Methodist community in Sark, for the construction of a chapel, which Jean de Quetteville dedicated in 1797. [88] In the mid-1800s there was a small Plymouth Brethren assembly. Its most notable member was the classicist William Kelly (1821–1906). Kelly was then the tutor to the Seigneur's children.

Supported by the evidence of the names of the tenements of La Moinerie and La Moinerie de Haut, it is believed [89] that the Seigneurie was constructed on the site of the monastery of Saint Magloire. Magloire had been Samson of Dol's successor as bishop of Dol, but retired and founded a monastery in Sark where he died in the late sixth century. According to the vita of Magloire, the monastery housed 62 monks and a school for the instruction of the sons of noble families from the Cotentin. Magloire's relics were venerated at the monastery until the mid-ninth century when Viking raids rendered Sark unsafe, and the monks departed for Jersey, taking the relics with them.

Law enforcement

Despite Sark having its own legislative assembly, Guernsey has sole responsibility for matters of criminal law under the Sark (Reform) Law 2008. For matters of extreme law enforcement the island calls upon the States of Guernsey Police Service. Sark has a small police station and jail, with two (rarely used) cells available. [20] The island has several police officers permanently stationed on it, the constable (senior officer), the vingtenier (deputy constable), two assistant constables (former constables), two custody officers (special constables) and several special constables.[ citation needed ] Sark also has access to police services in Guernsey through the designation of a member of the Guernsey Neighbourhood Policing Team as a dedicated point of contact for Sark constables. [90] [ failed verification ]

Emergency services

Tractor-drawn emergency ambulance on Sark Sark Ambulance.jpg
Tractor-drawn emergency ambulance on Sark

A resident doctor provides healthcare on Sark, and is available to attend accidents and emergencies. The Sark Ambulance Service operates two tractor-drawn ambulances, [91] and is able to treat casualties and transport them to the harbour for transfer onto the Guernsey marine ambulance launch, Flying Christine III, operated by Guernsey Ambulance and Rescue Service. A small ambulance station houses the two ambulances.

Fire and rescue services are provided by an independent and volunteer service established in 1958. Originally named 'Sark Fire Brigade', it is now known as the Sark Fire and Rescue Service. [92] The services operates two pump tenders and an all-purpose trailer; all three appliances are drawn by tractors owing to the ban on other motor vehicles on Sark. The original fire station was a large garage. Today the service operates from a large purpose-built fire station on La Chasse Marette.

Lifeboat services are provided by the Royal National Lifeboat Institution from the Guernsey lifeboat station, supported by the RNLI stations on Jersey and Alderney.

Sport

Participation in sport tends towards individual sports rather than team sports, but the population supports a cricket team, a rugby union team and a football team. [93] Sark competes in the biennial Island Games in which the Sark football team has participated. The annual Sark to Jersey Rowing Race is contested by teams from both bailiwicks. [94] Carl Hester, who was brought up in Sark, won a gold medal at the 2012 Summer Olympics in the Individual and Team Dressage events. [95] A Sark post box was painted gold to celebrate the event.

Sark in media

There are many examples of media taking Sark as an inspiration or setting.

Norman literature

Although there is no record of literature about Sark in Sercquiais, Guernésiais and Jèrriais literature has included writing about Sark; for example by such authors as Edwin John Luce, [96] Thomas Grut, [97] George F. Le Feuvre, [98] and Denys Corbet. [99]

English literature

French literature

Maurice Leblanc's novel L'Île aux Trente Cercueils (translated in English as The Secret of Sarek) features an island called Sarek, off the coast of Brittany, and bears obvious similarities to Sark. In the story, gentleman-thief Arsène Lupin rescues Véronique d'Hergemont from a local superstition requiring the death of thirty women to appease vengeful spirits.

In music

Irish musician, composer and singer Enya's 2015 album Dark Sky Island was inspired by Sark's designation as the first 'dark sky island'. Certain songs on the album, the title track especially, explore the stars, skies and nature.

Television

See also

Related Research Articles

Channel Islands Archipelago in the English Channel

The Channel Islands are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy. They include two Crown dependencies: the Bailiwick of Jersey, which is the largest of the islands; and the Bailiwick of Guernsey, consisting of Guernsey, Alderney, Sark, Herm and some smaller islands. They are considered the remnants of the Duchy of Normandy and, although they are not part of the United Kingdom, the UK is responsible for the defence and international relations of the islands. The Crown dependencies are not members of the Commonwealth of Nations, nor have they ever been in the European Union. They have a total population of about 170,499, and the bailiwicks' capitals, Saint Helier and Saint Peter Port, have populations of 33,500 and 18,207, respectively.

Politics of Guernsey

Politics of Guernsey take place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic British Crown dependency.

Sibyl Hathaway 20th-century Dame of Sark

Dame Sibyl Mary Hathaway was Dame of Sark from 1927 until her death in 1974. Her 47-year rule over Sark, in the Channel Islands, spanned the reigns of four Monarchs: George V, Edward VIII, George VI and Elizabeth II.

Brecqhou

Brecqhou is one of the Channel Islands, located off the west coast of Sark where they are now geographically detached from each other. Brecqhou is politically part of both Sark and the Bailiwick of Guernsey. It has been established in the courts that Brecqhou is a tenement of Sark. The Ministry of Justice, the department of the United Kingdom government with responsibility for the Channel Islands, considers Brecqhou part of Sark.

David and Frederick Barclay British businessmen; twin brothers

Sir David Rowat Barclay and Sir Frederick Hugh Barclay, commonly referred to as the "Barclay Brothers" or "Barclay Twins", were British billionaires. They were identical twin brothers, and, up until the death of David in 2021, had joint business interests primarily in media, retail and property.

Crown Dependencies Self-governing possessions of the British crown

The Crown Dependencies are three island territories off the coast of Great Britain that are self-governing possessions of The Crown: the Bailiwick of Guernsey, the Bailiwick of Jersey and the Isle of Man. They are not part of the United Kingdom (UK) nor are they British Overseas Territories. Internationally, the dependencies are considered "territories for which the United Kingdom is responsible", rather than sovereign states. As a result, they are not member states of the Commonwealth of Nations. However, they do have relationships with the Commonwealth and other international organisations, and are members of the British–Irish Council. They have their own teams in the Commonwealth Games.

Bailiwick of Guernsey British Crown dependency consisting of several islands

The Bailiwick of Guernsey is one of three Crown Dependencies.

A bailiwick is usually the area of jurisdiction of a bailiff, and once also applied to territories in which a privately appointed bailiff exercised the sheriff's functions under a royal or imperial writ. The bailiwick is probably modelled on the administrative organization which was attempted for a very small time in Sicily and has its roots in the official state of the Hohenstaufen.

States of Guernsey

The States of Guernsey is the parliament and government of the British Crown dependency of Guernsey. Some laws and ordinances approved by the States of Guernsey also apply to Alderney and Sark as "Bailiwick-wide legislation" with the consent of the governments of those islands. All enactments of the States of Guernsey apply to Herm as well as Guernsey, since Herm is wholly owned by the States of Guernsey.

Outline of Guernsey Overview of and topical guide to Guernsey

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Guernsey:

Flag of Sark

The flag of Sark is white with a red St. George's cross and a red canton containing two yellow lions. It was designed by Herbert Pitt in 1938 and adopted the same year as the personal standard of the Seigneur of Sark before becoming the island's flag in 1987. The canton is similar to the arms of nearby Normandy, of which the Channel Islands were historically a part.

2008 Sark general election

General elections were held in Sark on 10 December 2008, the first elections on the island.

Elections in Sark

Since 2008, Elections in Sark take place every two years to elect 14 members of the Chief Pleas, the parliament of Sark, to serve a four-year term in a rolling election cycle.

LGBT rights in Guernsey

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) rights in the British Crown dependency of Guernsey have improved significantly in the past decades. Same-sex sexual activity for both men and women is legal in Guernsey. Same-sex marriage has been legal since 2 May 2017 in Guernsey, and since 14 June 2018 in its dependency, Alderney. Legislation approving the legalisation of same-sex marriage in its other dependency, Sark was given royal assent on 11 March 2020. Guernsey is the only part of the British Isles to have never enacted civil partnership legislation, though civil partnerships performed in the United Kingdom were recognised for succession purposes. Since April 2017, same-sex couples can adopt in the entire Bailiwick. Discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity has been banned since 2004. Transgender people can legally change gender since 2007.

External relations of Guernsey

The Bailiwick of Guernsey is a British Crown dependency in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy. As a bailiwick, Guernsey embraces not only all ten parishes on the island of Guernsey, but also the islands of Alderney and Sark – each with their own parliament – and the smaller islands of Herm, Jethou and Lihou. Although its defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom, the Bailiwick is not part of the United Kingdom, but, as its description suggests, a possession of the Crown. Consequently, though it lies within the Common Travel Area, it was never part of the European Union.

Courts of Guernsey

The Courts of Guernsey are responsible for the administration of justice in the Bailiwick of Guernsey, one of the Channel Islands. They apply the law of the Island, which is a mixture of customary law dating back as far as the 10th century and legislation passed by the legislature, the States of Deliberation.

Same-sex marriage is legal in the Bailiwick of Guernsey, a Crown dependency of the United Kingdom. It became legal in the jurisdiction of Guernsey on 2 May 2017, in Alderney on 14 June 2018, and in Sark on 23 April 2020.

The Sark Newspaper is a controversial small publication, distributed free to residents of the island of Sark, and published online. It is edited by Kevin Delaney, who worked for the Barclay brothers, David Rowat Barclay and Frederick Hugh Barclay, publishing magnates.

Sandra Williams is a Conseiller on Sark's Chief Pleas, the island's parliament. She was among the first elected to the reformed legislature in 2008, topped the poll in the 2012 election and was returned unopposed in 2016.

References

Notes

  1. The Guernsey pound is not a separate currency, but a local issue of standard pound sterling.
  2. The changes were in the Reform (Sark) Law, 2008 [28] and the Real Property (Transfer Tax, Charging and Related Provisions) (Sark) Law, 2007

Citations

  1. 1 2 Too many people – or not enough? Jersey's population dilemma, Jersey Evening Post , 9 April 2015
  2. 1 2 "ISO 3166: CQ".
  3. "The official website for the Island of Sark". Sark Tourism. 23 January 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  4. 1 2 "Sark Home Page". Island Life. 10 December 2008. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
  5. 1 2 Dr Mari C Jones. "Voices – Multilingual Nation / Jèrriais and Sercquiais today". BBC . Retrieved 21 February 2008.
  6. "Galena from Le Pelley's Shaft, Little Sark, Channel Islands". Hudson Institute of Mineralogy . Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  7. "Sark (Channel Islands)". uk-fusion.com. Archived from the original on 20 April 2008.
  8. Miller, Brent V; Samson, Scott D; D'Lemos, Richard S (October 1999). "Time span of plutonism, fabric development, and cooling in a Neoproterozoic magmatic arc segment: U–Pb age constraints from syn-tectonic plutons, Sark, Channel Islands, UK". Tectonophysics. 312 (1): 79–95. Bibcode:1999Tectp.312...79M. doi:10.1016/S0040-1951(99)00172-9.
  9. "Sark goes to the polls". This is Guernsey . 8 December 2010. Archived from the original on 24 May 2013.
  10. Indyjourno (29 June 2012). "Sark and the Barclays Brothers – Indymedia Ireland". www.indymedia.ie. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 Lepelley, René (1995). "Les Noms des îles anglo-normandes" [The Names of the Channel Islands]. Nouvelle revue d'onomastique (in French). 25 (25–26): 119–142. doi:10.3406/onoma.1995.1221.
  12. 1 2 de Beaurepaire, François (1994). "Nouveaux regards sur la toponymie des îles normandes de la Manche" [New Perspectives on the Toponymy of the Norman Channel Islands]. Nouvelle revue d'onomastique (in French) (23–24): 31–44.
  13. Coates, Richard (1991). The ancient and modern names of the Channel Islands: a linguistic history. Stamford: Paul Watkins. pp. 73–76. ISBN   978-1871615166.
  14. Coates, Richard (2009). "A Glimpse through a Dirty Window into an Unlit House: Names of Some North-West European Islands" (PDF). In Ahrens, Wolfgang; Embleton, Sheila; Lapierre, André (eds.). Names in Multi-Lingual, Multi-Cultural and Multi-Ethnic Contact: Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress of Onomastic Sciences: August 17‒22, York University, Toronto, Canada. Toronto: York University. p. 228. ISBN   978-1-55014-521-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 April 2015.
  15. Coates, Richard (2009). "A Glimpse through a Dirty Window into an Unlit House: Names of Some North-West European Islands" (PDF). In Ahrens, Wolfgang; Embleton, Sheila; Lapierre, André (eds.). Names in Multi-Lingual, Multi-Cultural and Multi-Ethnic Contact: Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress of Onomastic Sciences: August 17‒22, York University, Toronto, Canada. Toronto: York University. p. 235. ISBN   978-1-55014-521-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 April 2015.
  16. 1 2 Barclay & Ors R (on the application of) v The Seigneur of Sark & Anor [2008] EWHC 1354(Admin) , [2008] 3 WLR 867(18 June 2008)
  17. Marr, James (1984). Guernsey people. Phillimore. ISBN   0850335299.
  18. Ewen, Alfred Harry; De Carteret, Allan Roper (1969). The Fief of Sark. Guernsey: Guernsey Press. pp. 101–102.
  19. 1 2 3 Launet, Edouard (6 December 1997). "Michael Beaumont, 70 ans, est le 'seigneur' de Sercq, île anglo-normande. Deux richissimes jumeaux contestent son paisible féodalisme. Le comte de l'île". Libération (in French). Retrieved 18 December 2015.
  20. 1 2 3 4 Caesar, Ed (25 October 2006). "Lost world: the last days of feudal Sark". The Independent . Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  21. "Grave affair. (Andre Gardes tries to take over Sark in the Channel Islands)". The Economist (US). 1 September 1990. Archived from the original on 16 September 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2014.Subscription required for full article
  22. "Weird Fact of the Day (that you probably didn't know)". Metro.co.uk. 8 September 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  23. 1 2 3 Harrell, Eben (17 January 2008). "A Revolution Not Televised". Time . Retrieved 18 December 2015.
  24. Singer, Jason (11 October 2005). "On island of Sark, Barclay brothers joust with feudalism". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 21 November 2014. Retrieved 15 January 2014 via Mathaba News Agency.
  25. Grey, Paul (25 November 1999). "Sark gives women equal right to inherit". The Independent. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  26. Bowers, Simon; Pidd, Helen (27 June 2012). "Minister in row with Barclay brothers over Sark". The Guardian . Retrieved 28 June 2012.
  27. "Feudal Sark: Democratic revolution". The Economist . 12 July 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  28. 1 2 3 "The Reform (Sark) Law, 2008" (PDF). Sark Chief Pleas. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 July 2018. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  29. "Sark democracy plans are approved". BBC News. 9 April 2008. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  30. Harrell, Eben (17 January 2008). "A Revolution Not Televised". Time . Archived from the original on 19 January 2008. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  31. "Sark agrees switch to democracy". BBC News. 22 February 2008. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  32. R v Secretary of State for Justice [2008] EWHC Civ 1319 , [2009] 2 WLR 1205(2 December 2008)
  33. Mann, Nick. "Sark Seneschal could lose Chief Pleas role". This is Guernsey . Archived from the original on 11 June 2011.
  34. "Sark Islanders fear takeover". Today . BBC. 28 March 2012.
  35. Collins, Lauren (29 October 2012). "A Feudal Feud on the Isle of Sark". The New Yorker. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  36. "A plaintive wine from Sark". Private Eye . London: Pressdram. 27 January 2017.
  37. Anon (31 January 2011). "Sark Island and Hortobágy National Park Earn Dark Sky Status From the International Dark Sky Association" (PDF). IDA Press release. International Dark Sky Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2014.
  38. Anon (31 January 2011). "Sark named world's first dark sky island". BBC News Guernsey. BBC. Retrieved 22 February 2014.
  39. Ian Sample (31 January 2011). "Sark is world's first 'dark sky island'". The Guardian . Retrieved 7 December 2012.
  40. Anon (11 October 2015). "Sark's astronomical observatory opens". BBC News Guernsey. BBC. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  41. Anon (3 October 2015). "Sark's Very Own Observatory". Sark Island. Sark Tourism. Retrieved 18 September 2017.
  42. "Lords Hansard text for 16 Jun 2009 (pt 0001)" (PDF). parliament.uk. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
  43. United Nations: Standard Country or Area Codes for ISO 3166-2:GG Use [accessed April 25, 2020])
  44. Stevenson, Jess. "Seneschal to lose one of his roles". Guernsey Press. Archived from the original on 11 June 2011. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  45. "Sark Island". Portalestoria.net. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
  46. "Minutes Extraordinary meeting of the Chief Pleas held on the 8th day of March, 2006" (PDF). sark.info. p. 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 October 2007. Retrieved 21 February 2008. Proposition 1
  47. "Sark set to fight UK over tenants". Guernsey Press . Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  48. "Deputy's hope for election reform". BBC News. 17 January 2008.
  49. "Island of Sark – Test of opinion on composition of the Chief Pleas" (PDF). sark.info. 7 September 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 April 2008. Retrieved 5 May 2008. for 28 Open Seats...234 ... for 12 Seats for Deputies, 8 Seats for Tenants, 8 Open Seats...184
  50. "Minutes of the meeting held in the Assembly Room, Sark on 4 October 2006" (PDF). sark.info. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 21 February 2008.
  51. "Minutes of the Easter Meeting of Chief Pleas held in the Assembly Room, Sark on 11–12 April 2007" (PDF). sark.info. pp. 4, 7, 13. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 October 2007. Retrieved 21 February 2008.
  52. "Sark democracy plans are approved". BBC News Online . 9 April 2008. Retrieved 5 May 2008.
  53. Dewe, R. J. (August 2002). "The General Purposes & Finance Committee Report on Divorce". sark.info. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012.
  54. "R (on the application of Sir David Barclay and another) (Respondents) v Secretary of State for Justice and the Lord Chancellor and others (Appellants) and The Attorney General of Jersey and The States of Guernsey (Interveners)" (PDF). The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. 22 October 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2018. ... in the eyes of the courts the UK Parliament did have a paramount power to legislate for the Islands on any matter, domestic or international, without their consent ...
  55. R v Secretary of State for Justice [2014] UKSC 54 , [2014] 3 WLR 1142, [2015] 1 AC 276, [2014] WLR(D) 446(22 October 2014)
  56. "Parliament - The Chief Pleas". www.guernseyroyalcourt.gg. The Royal Court of Guernsey. 13 September 2011.
  57. "Reform (Sark) Law, 2008". 20 March 2012 via www.guernseylegalresources.gg.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  58. Hammond, Reginald J. W., ed. (1975). Channel Islands. Ward Lock Red Guide. London: Ward Lock. p. 146. ISBN   0-7063-5497-4.
  59. 1 2 "Seneschal & Deputy Seneschal" (PDF). Sark Chief Pleas. Government of Sark. 27 February 2013. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  60. 1 2 "Contacts". Sark Chief Pleas. Government of Sark. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  61. 1 2 "Sark Government web site contacts". Archived from the original on 18 November 2009.
  62. "Keeping the Island Informed". The Sark Newspaper.
  63. "Kevin Delaney leaves Barclay Brothers' Sark firm". BBC News Online . 11 March 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2017.
  64. Morris, Steven (20 November 2014). "Police called in over 'media harassment' on Sark". The Guardian . ISSN   0261-3077 . Retrieved 27 July 2017.
  65. "Sark Life magazine by Small Island Publishing, Sark". www.smallislandpublishing.sark.gg.
  66. Dr Mari C Jones. "Voices – Multilingual Nation / The history of Jèrriais and Sercquiais". BBC . Retrieved 21 February 2008.
  67. "Inaugural Economic Policy for Sark" (PDF). Government of Sark. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
  68. "Contacts". Government of Sark.
  69. "Proposals of the Finance & Commerce Committee, Sark" (PDF). Government of Sark. 12 November 2014.
  70. "Direct Taxes for 2020 (Sark) Ordinance, 2019". Guernsey Legal Resources. 6 November 2019. Retrieved 11 June 2020.
  71. "Seigneur gives up right to treizieme". Guernsey Press. 28 December 2006. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  72. "Direct Taxes (Sark) Law, 2002". Guernsey Legal Resources. 20 March 2012. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  73. "Concerns raised over company registry". BBC News Online . 8 June 2017.
  74. Website of the Sark Company Registry
  75. "Classes". Sark School. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  76. "Sark School closed by streptococcal infection". BBC News. 1 September 2010. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  77. "History of Sark Island, The Channel Islands, Island Parish Sark, Channel Island Sark". Sark Island Hotels. Archived from the original on 9 January 2014.
  78. 1 2 3 "Census 1971". Bailiwick of Guernsey. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  79. "Guernsey – States of Guernsey – Sark's new look Chief Pleas". BBC. 12 December 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  80. "Sark Election 2012: Two conseillers lose seats". BBC News. 12 December 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  81. "Company Bio". Sark Shipping Company Ltd. 4 July 2012. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  82. "Manches Îles Express". Manche-iles-express.com. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
  83. "States of Alderney Visit Alderney website". Visitalderney.com. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  84. "Traffic lights on car-free Sark". BBC News. 13 December 2010.
  85. "Official Report of the Midsummer Meeting of Chief Please of the Island of Sark" (PDF). Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  86. "History and Constitution". Guernsey Deanery. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
  87. "Sark Methodist Church". Archived from the original on 14 December 2007. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  88. Methodism in the Channel Islands, Moore, London, 1952.
  89. McCormack, John (1986). Channel Island churches : a study of the medieval churches and chapels. Chichester, Sussex: Phillimore. ISBN   0-85033-541-8.
  90. "Neighbourhood Policing Team". Guernsey Police. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  91. "Sark Ambulance Service" . Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  92. "Sark Fire Service". Sark Fire Service. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  93. "Sport – Sark". BBC Jersey. 22 June 2007. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
  94. "Guernsey dominate Sark to Jersey". BBC News – Sport. 1 September 2008. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  95. "London 2012: Team GB dressage team announced by BOA". BBC Sport. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
  96. La Nouvelle Chronique de Jersey, 24 August 1910
  97. La Gazette de Guernesey, 18 July 1925
  98. Jersey Evening Post , 15 August 1969
  99. Le Bailliage, 10 September 1892
  100. "Death of a Dame". Time . 29 July 1974. Archived from the original on 15 December 2008. Retrieved 11 December 2008. Nearly all 560 subjects of the medieval fiefdom of Sark gathered last week around a gnarled oak tree in their parish churchyard to mourn Dame Sibyl Mary Collings Beaumont Hathaway, 21st Seigneur of Sark.
  101. "Series 7, An Island Parish". BBC Two. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  102. "An Island Parish, Series 8 – Sark Winter, Tis the Season". BBC Two. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  103. "Bergerac". The Island Wiki. 9 March 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  104. "The Sark Football Team and Hovercraft Enthusiasm: Citation Needed 7x02". Youtube. 30 November 2017. Retrieved 30 November 2018.

Further reading

Coordinates: 49°25′59″N2°21′39″W / 49.43306°N 2.36083°W / 49.43306; -2.36083