Royal National Lifeboat Institution

Last updated

Royal National Lifeboat Institution
AbbreviationRNLI
Formation4 March 1824 [1]
TypeLife savers
Legal statusRegistered charity
Headquarters Poole, Dorset, England
Region served
Chief executive
Mark Dowie [2]
Main organ
The Lifeboat
Budget (2019)
£197.2 million [3]
Staff (2019)
2,319 [3]
Volunteers (2019)
32,280 [3]
Website rnli.org OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
1892 Punch cartoon celebrating the RNLI "on the occasion of Queen Victoria conveying her appreciation in saving the crew and passengers of the steamship Eider, 1892" Royal National Lifeboat Institution - Punch cartoon - Project Gutenberg eText 14845.png
1892 Punch cartoon celebrating the RNLI "on the occasion of Queen Victoria conveying her appreciation in saving the crew and passengers of the steamship Eider , 1892"

The Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) is the largest charity that saves lives at sea around the coasts of the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, the Channel Islands, and the Isle of Man, as well as on some inland waterways. It is one of several lifeboat services operating in the same area.

Contents

Founded in 1824 as the National Institution for the Preservation of Life from Shipwreck, soon afterwards becoming the Royal National Institution for the Preservation of Life from Shipwreck, under the patronage of King George IV. On 5 October 1854, the institution’s name was changed to its current name (RNLI), and in 1860 was granted a royal charter.

The RNLI is a charity in the UK and in the Republic of Ireland and has enjoyed royal patronage since its foundation, the most recent being Queen Elizabeth II until her death on 8 September 2022. The RNLI is principally funded by legacies (65%) and donations (28%), with the remainder from merchandising and investment. Most of the members of its lifeboat crews are unpaid volunteers.

The RNLI is based in Poole, Dorset. It has 238 lifeboat stations and operates 444 lifeboats. RNLI lifeguards operate on more than 200 beaches: the lifeguards are paid by local authorities, but the RNLI provides equipment and training. The institution also operates flood rescue teams nationally and internationally, the latter prepared to travel to emergencies overseas at short notice.

Considerable effort is put into training and education by the institution, particularly for young people; in 2013, more than 6,000 children a week were spoken to by education volunteers about sea and beach safety, and over 800 children a week received training. Crews rescued on average 22 people a day in 2015. The institution has saved some 140,000 lives since its foundation, at a cost of more than 600 lives lost in service.

History

Memorial in Douglas, Isle of Man, to one of RNLI's earliest endeavours: rescuing the sailors from the St George in 1830 RNLI Memorial - Loch Promenade - Isle of Man - kingsley - 20-APR-09.jpg
Memorial in Douglas, Isle of Man, to one of RNLI's earliest endeavours: rescuing the sailors from the St George in 1830

Sir William Hillary moved to the Isle of Man in 1808. Being aware of the treacherous nature of the Irish Sea, with many ships being wrecked around the Manx coast, he drew up plans for a national lifeboat service manned by trained crews. Initially he received little response from the Admiralty. However, on appealing to the more philanthropic members of London society, the plans were adopted and, with the help of Member of Parliament Thomas Wilson and former MP and merchant George Hibbert, [4] the Institution for the Preservation of Life from Shipwreck was founded at a very well-attended public meeting at the London Tavern on 4 March 1824, presided over by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton. [5] The Institution gained the patronage of King George IV, and not long afterwards the granting of the Royal prefix, [6] making it Royal National Institution for the Preservation of Life from Shipwreck. [7] The first president of the Institution was the then Prime Minister, Lord Liverpool. [5]

In 1826, George Palmer joined the society, and was deputy chairman of the society for over 25 years. [8] He created a new design for a lifeboat which was officially adopted by the Institution in 1828 [9] and retained until superseded by the system of self-righting lifeboats in 1858. [8] Palmer's role was crucial in getting Algernon Percy, 4th Duke of Northumberland appointed as president of the Institution, [9] an office he held from 1851 to 1865. [10]

At the age of 60, Sir William took part in the 1830 rescue of the packet St George, which had foundered on Conister Rock at the entrance to Douglas Harbour. He commanded the lifeboat and was washed overboard with others of the lifeboat crew, yet finally everyone aboard the St George was rescued with no loss of life. It was this incident which prompted Sir William to set up a scheme to build The Tower of Refuge on Conister Rock – a project completed in 1832 which stands to this day at the entrance to Douglas Harbour. In 1849 Prince Albert added his support to the Institution [4] ) and the first of the new lifeboats to be built was stationed at Douglas in recognition of the work of Sir William. [11]

The Institution underwent a reorganisation under the presidency of the Duke of Northumberland, leading to a description of him as "second founder", [10] and on 5 October 1854, the its name was changed to the Royal National Lifeboat Institution, abbreviated as RNLI. [7]

1974 postage stamp marking the RNLI's 150th anniversary (rescue of Daunt Lightship's crew by Ballycotton lifeboat RNLB Mary Stanford. Artist: B. F. Gribble) DauntRescueGribble.png
1974 postage stamp marking the RNLI's 150th anniversary (rescue of Daunt Lightship's crew by Ballycotton lifeboat RNLB Mary Stanford. Artist: B. F. Gribble )

Algernon Percy, 6th Duke of Northumberland was President from 1866(7?) to 1899, and Henry Percy, 7th Duke of Northumberland presided from 1911 until his death in 1918. It was he who founded the Duke of Northumberland's Life-boat Essay Competition in Elementary Schools. Alan Percy, 8th Duke of Northumberland, a British Army officer, first became a member upon the death of his father in 1918, then was elected Vice-President in 1921, and was also president and patron of a couple of branches. He died on 23 August 1930. [10]

The RNLI was a founder member of the International Lifeboat Federation, now known as the International Maritime Rescue Federation (IMRF).

Design of the flag

The first design of the RNLI flag was created by Leonora Preston in 1884 after her brother was rescued by Ramsgate lifeboat volunteers. The design depicts Saint George's Cross bordered by a dark blue line and within the white cantons, initials of the charity name coloured red, the first design included the Tudor crown worn by King George VI at the centre of the cross with a foul anchor below it, representing the charity's dedication to the royal charter and to the sea. The design was formally adopted in 1908 and was flown at every lifeboat station thereafter. In 1953, following Queen Elizabeth II's coronation, the design was altered to exchange the Tudor crown with St. Edward's crown to represent the newly appointed monarch. [12] [13]

Financial difficulties

In its first year of existence the RNLI had raised £10,000; however by 1849, income had dropped to £354. [14] In 1850, 28-year-old Welshman Richard Lewis became secretary, with the 4th Duke of Northumberland's presidency commencing in the following year, and along with a new management committee and a new Inspector of Lifeboats, Captain John Ross Ward (later Vice Admiral) of the Royal Navy, big changes were made. Captain Ward was responsible for the design and introduction of new cork lifejackets for lifeboat volunteers, while Lewis was largely responsible for turning the financial fortunes around. [15]

The RNLI accepted a government subsidy of £2,000, which rose in subsequent years. This lasted until 1869, when the RNLI ceased accepting subsidies – it had found that voluntary donations had fallen by more than the subsidies; in addition, the government's imposition of bureaucracy and regulations were detrimental to the service. [16] By 1883, the annual income was over £40,000. [15] The loss of 27 lifeboat crew of Southport and St Annes in 1886 gave new impetus to fundraising and an 1889 appeal raised £10,000. The first Lifeboat Saturday was held in that year. [14]

Growth in services under Lewis

When Lewis became secretary in 1850, the institution had care of 96 lifeboats, but only about 12 were actually usable. By the time Lewis died 30 years later, it had 274 lifeboats, ready for use by trained crews at short notice. In 1850, 470 lives were saved; in 1883, 955 were rescued. [15]

Wartime

During the First World War, lifeboat crews launched 1,808 times, rescuing 5,332 people. With many younger men on active service, the average age of a lifeboatman was over 50. Many launches were to ships that had been torpedoed or struck mines, including naval or merchant vessels on war duty; a notable example was the hospital ship SS Rohilla which foundered in 1914 and was attended by six lifeboats, saving 144 lives over a 50-hour rescue mission. [17]

The Second World War placed considerable extra demands on the RNLI, particularly in south and east England where the threat of invasion and enemy activity was ever-present, [18] rescuing downed aircrew a frequent occurrence, and the constant danger of mines. [19] During the war, 6,376 lives were saved. [20]

Dunkirk evacuation

Nineteen RNLI lifeboats sailed to Dunkirk between 27 May and 4 June 1940 to assist with the Dunkirk evacuation. Lifeboats from Ramsgate, (RNLB Prudential (ON 697), now Trimilia), and Margate, (RNLB Lord Southborough (ON 688)), went directly to France with their own crews, Ramsgate's crew collecting 2,800 troops. Both Coxswains, Edward Parker from Margate and Howard Primrose Knight from Ramsgate, were awarded the Distinguished Service Medal for their "gallantry and determination when ferrying troops from the beaches". [21] Of the other lifeboats and crews summoned to Dover by the Admiralty, the first arrivals questioned – reasonably in their view – the details of the service, in particular the impracticality of running heavy lifeboats on to the beach, loading them with soldiers, then floating them off. The dispute resulted in the first three crews being sent home. Subsequent lifeboats arriving were commandeered without discussion, much to the disappointment of many lifeboatmen. A later RNLI investigation resulted in the dismissal of two Hythe crew members, who were nevertheless vindicated in one aspect of their criticism, as Hythe's Viscountess Wakefield was run on to the beach at La Panne and unable to be refloated; she was the only lifeboat to be lost in the operation. Some RNLI crew members stayed in Dover for the emergency to provide repair and refuelling facilities, and after the end of the evacuation most lifeboats returned to their stations with varying levels of damage and continued their lifesaving services. [18] [19] [22]

21st century

Migrant crisis

In 2021, the RNLI received press attention for its rescue of migrants attempting to cross the English Channel via boat. Its actions received a polarising response, with the British government praising its "vital work" while politician Nigel Farage criticised the organisation as being a "taxi service" for human traffickers. [23] After its chief executive Mark Dowie disclosed verbal abuse received by RNLI volunteers from members of the public due to its rescuing of migrants, [24] the charity saw a 3000% rise in daily donations and a 270% increase in people viewing its website's volunteering opportunities page. [25]

Rescues, losses and honours

Rescues and lives saved

The RNLI's lifeboat crews and lifeguards have saved more than 140,000 lives since 1824. [26] The RNLI makes a distinction between people aided and lives saved. There were 8,462 lifeboat launches in 2014, rescuing 8,727 people, including saving 460 lives. Lifeguards helped or rescued 19,353 people. Flood rescuers deployed seven times. [27] In 2015 crews rescued on average 22 people a day. [28]

The biggest rescue in the RNLI's history was on 17 March 1907, when the 12,000 tonne liner SS Suevic hit the Maenheere Reef near Lizard Point in Cornwall. In a strong gale and dense fog, RNLI lifeboat volunteers rescued 456 passengers, including 70 babies. Crews from The Lizard, Cadgwith, Coverack and Porthleven rowed out repeatedly for 16 hours to rescue all of the people on board. Six silver RNLI medals were later awarded, two to Suevic crew members. [29]

Losses

More than 600 people have lost their lives in the RNLI's service; [26] their names are inscribed on the RNLI Memorial sculpture at RNLI HQ, Poole. [30] [31]

Honours

Bust of Henry Blogg of Cromer The Bust of Henry Blogg of Cromer 11,04,2007.JPG
Bust of Henry Blogg of Cromer

More than 2,500 medals have been awarded by the RNLI to its crews for bravery, with 150 gold, 1,563 silver and 791 bronze medals earned up to 2004. [32] The Thanks of the Institution Inscribed on Vellum or a framed Letter of Appreciation may be given for other notable acts, such as those awarded to crews of Aberystwyth Lifeboat Station. [33] The Ralph Glister Award is a monetary award made for the most meritorious service in each year and was inaugurated in 1968. [34] [35] The Walter and Elizabeth Groombridge Award is given annually for the most outstanding service by an Atlantic 21 (and successors) lifeboat crew. Established in 1986 as the Walter Groombridge Award in memory of Brighton Lifeboat Station's Administration Officer it was renamed in memory of his wife who died in 1989. [36]

The most decorated lifeboatman was Henry Blogg, coxswain of Cromer for 37 years, with three gold medals and four silver. He also received the George Cross and the British Empire Medal and is known as "The Greatest of all Lifeboatmen". [37] The youngest recipient was Frederick Carter (11) who with Frank Perry (16) was awarded a Silver Medal for a rescue at Weymouth in 1890. Other notable lifeboatmen include Henry Freeman of Whitby, coxswain for 22 years, [38] Robert William Hook (1828–1911), coxswain at Lowestoft from 1853 to 1883 and credited with saving over 600 lives plus two dogs and a cat, [39] Henry "Shrimp" Davies, coxswain of the Cromer Lifeboat with 45 years service [40] and James Haylett, coxswain of Caister-on-Sea. [41] One lifeboat has received an award: for the Daunt lightship rescue in 1936, the RNLB Mary Stanford and her entire crew were decorated (see illustration in history section, above). [42]

Heritage

The RNLI maintains or encourages a number of entities in respect of the history and activity of the Institution along with preserved lifeboats, including:

Operations

Throughout the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, ships in distress, or the public reporting an accident, contact the emergency services by telephone or radio. Calls are redirected to HM Coastguard or the Irish Coast Guard as appropriate, who will coordinate air-sea rescue operations and may call on the RNLI (or independent lifeboats), or their own land-based rescue personnel and rescue helicopters to help. [51]

Lifeboat stations

Lifeboat station and slipway at Douglas, Isle of Man Douglas lifeboat station.jpg
Lifeboat station and slipway at Douglas, Isle of Man

As of 2018 there are 238 RNLI lifeboat stations [52] around the coasts of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. Tower Lifeboat Station on the River Thames in London is the RNLI's busiest, in 2013 rescuing 372 people and saving 25 lives. [53] In 2015 Tower's launches had increased to 465. [28]

For public access the RNLI classifies stations as one of three types: Explore, which are normally open all year round and have a shop, Discover, normally open during the summer months and Observe which, because of their location, still welcome visitors but may not be easily accessible. [54]

From time to time the RNLI may close a station; some of these are later reopened by independent services. The history of some former lifeboat stations can be found in Wikipedia articles on the places where those stations were. (See also: List of lifeboat disasters in Britain and Ireland for further information on closed stations.) [55]

Rescue craft

Severn-class lifeboat, carrying a Y-boat Lifeboat.17-31.underway.arp.jpg
Severn-class lifeboat, carrying a Y-boat
Atlantic 21-class ILB Falmouth irb 02.jpg
Atlantic 21-class ILB

As of 2016, the RNLI operates 444 lifeboats: 332 on station, 112 in the relief fleet. [56] The ship prefix for all RNLI lifeboats from the D-class (IB1) to the Tamar-class is RNLB(Royal National Lifeboat). [57]

Personnel and equipment

Lifeboat crews are composed almost entirely of volunteers, numbering 4,600 in 2013, including over 300 women. They are supported by 3,000 volunteer shore crew and station management. [58] Lifejackets have evolved from cork, kapok and synthetic foam to today's light and non-cumbersome designs. ALB and ILB crews wear different styles of lifejacket. ALB crews wear lifejackets that inflate automatically when submerged in water, while ILB crews wear lifejackets that are already inflated. [14]

RNLI lifeguards are placed on more than 200 beaches around England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Channel Islands, and aided almost 20,000 people in 2014. [27] [61] The lifeguards are paid by the appropriate town or city council, while the RNLI provides their equipment and training. [62]

Standard lifeguard set-up at water's edge Lifeguards.jpeg
Standard lifeguard set-up at water's edge

The institution has operated an International Flood Rescue Team since the 2000 Mozambique floods, with six strategically placed teams each with two boats, support transport and equipment. The teams are formed of volunteer lifeboat crew with a range of additional skills, prepared to travel to emergencies overseas at short notice. [63] They have trained alongside other teams for the common purpose in the United States. [64]

Women in the RNLI

In the early days of the service, lifeboat launch and recovery was usually undertaken by women. There were deeply-held views about women crewing the boats – it was considered extremely bad luck. Along all parts of the coastline, women supported their men on the lifeboat crews by working together to get the lifeboat afloat and then later recovering it from the water in readiness for when the next call came. [65] While lifeboat crew are still predominantly male (92%), [66] the first female (inshore) crew member was Elizabeth Hostvedt in 1969, and Frances Glody was the first woman crew member on an all-weather lifeboat, at Dunmore East Lifeboat Station, in 1981. [65] Lauren McGuire, at the age of 27, became the RNLI's youngest station manager in 2011, at Clovelly, Devon. [67] In 2017 at Harwich Lifeboat Station, Di Bush became the RNLI’s first female full-time mechanic. Four years later she was appointed coxswain of the Harwich Lifeboat, making her the first female full-time coxswain in the RNLI’s history. [68]

Voluntary support

Apart from lifeboat crew and lifeguards, the Institution provides a variety of volunteering opportunities. One of these is as "Deckhand" where signed-up volunteers are notified by email or mobile phone when there is a local need, such as marshalling at fundraising events, helping with collections or in an RNLI shop. Voluntary internships in RNLI offices are available three times a year. [69]

Patronage

Since its establishment in 1924, the RNLI has enjoyed royal patronage. Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth was patron until her death on 8 September 2022. [70]

Safety advice

RNLI lifeguard hut in Widemouth Bay, Cornwall Lifeguardbude in Widemouth Bay, Cornwall.jpg
RNLI lifeguard hut in Widemouth Bay, Cornwall

In addition to safety advice given in its publications, [71] the RNLI offers safety advice to boat and beach users when the opportunity arises, and to at-risk groups such as anglers, divers and kayakers. [58] The Institution runs sea and beach safety sessions for young people, particularly in inner-city areas; [72] in 2013, more than 6,000 children a week were spoken to by education volunteers about sea and beach safety, and over 800 children a week received training. [58] 500 children were taught to swim in 2014. [73] In an effort to reduce the estimated 400,000 drownings a year worldwide, more than half of them children, the RNLI extends practical or strategic safety advice to lifesaver organisations overseas, in some cases providing training at the Lifeboat College. [74] [75]

Attitude to salvage

The RNLI does not support or encourage salvage (the recovery of a ship and its cargo). This is for two reasons: firstly, because they exist to save lives at sea, and secondly, to become involved in salvage might discourage those whose lives are at risk from calling for help. The RNLI's Sea Safety Guidelines state that "There is no 'salvage' fee when you are towed by a lifeboat, but a voluntary contribution to the RNLI is always very welcome!". This stance was reinforced in Newquay in 2009, when the RNLI was criticised for not launching a lifeboat in order to aid an unmanned fishing vessel that had run aground. A spokesman for the RNLI declared that "We are not a salvage firm and our charity's aim is to provide immediate assistance for people in trouble at sea and lives are at risk." [76]

There have been a few isolated cases where RNLI crew members (but not the RNLI itself) have claimed salvage. [77] There is no legal reason why crew members of the RNLI could not salvage a vessel, [78] [79] since they frequently tow small vessels to safety, often over long distances. [80]

Infrastructure

The Lifeboat College, Poole RNLI 5.JPG
The Lifeboat College, Poole
Capsize training at the College, Poole RNLI capsize training.JPG
Capsize training at the College, Poole

The RNLI's chief executive is Mark Dowie, formerly lifeboat operations manager at Salcombe RNLI; he succeeded Vice Admiral Paul Boissier, RN, on 15 May 2019. [81]

The Institution used to be split into six administrative divisions: East (East Anglia and South East England), South (South West England), West (Wales and the Isle of Man), North (East and west coasts of northern England), Scotland and Ireland (Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland). [82] Since 2017 (2020 for non-operational departments) the Divisions became Regions: North & East (Berwick upon Tweed to Burnham on Crouch), South East (Southend to Swanage including River Thames), South West (Weymouth to Portishead including Channel Islands), Wales & West England (including Isle of Man), Scotland and Ireland.[ citation needed ]

The RNLI's main base is in Poole, Dorset, adjacent to Holes Bay in Poole Harbour. It includes RNLI HQ, lifeboat maintenance and repair facilities, the Lifeboat Support Centre and RNLI College (the training centre). The support centre and college were opened by Queen Elizabeth II in 2004. [83] Specialist training facilities include a wave and capsize pool, a fire simulator, a ship's bridge simulator and an engineering workshop. The College's accommodation is available for RNLI members and their guests when training is not taking place and offers facilities for weddings, conferences and other events. [84] About half of the RNLI's staff work at Poole. Other locations are Dublin, London, Perth, Saltash, St Asaph and Stockton-on-Tees, while some roles are at lifeboat stations or home-based and include operations, estate and financial management, public relations and information technology. [85] A new headquarters for RNLI Ireland was opened at Airside in Swords, County Dublin, in June 2006 by President Mary McAleese, attended by the then Chairman of the Executive Committee of the RNLI, Admiral Sir Jock Slater, RN. [86]

Funding

The RNLI is principally funded by legacies (65%) and voluntary donations (28%), with the remainder from merchandising and investment. In 2021, the RNLI's income was £197.2 million, which included government contracts worth £3.4 million, while its expenditure on delivering a lifeboat service was £165.5 million. [3] [73] The Institution encourages corporate partnerships, which included in 2014 Waitrose, Yamaha and Fred. Olsen Cruise Lines. [87]

There are 1,100 RNLI fundraising branches [58] throughout the regions served by the Institution, many far from the sea, which may support a particular station, or a project such as a new lifeboat. The Institution estimated their volunteer network at 31,500 in 2014. [88] The largest regular contributor is The Communications and Public Service Lifeboat Fund (known simply as 'The Lifeboat Fund') established in 1886 for civil servants to support the RNLI collectively; the Fund has provided the Institution with 52 lifeboats as well as other support. [87]

The lifeboat collection boxes [89] [90] are seen nationwide, [91] and have even become the target for thieves. [92] A fixed, cast iron collection box in Porthgwarra, Cornwall, is Grade II listed. [93] The Institution's annual fundraising day ("SOS Day") is at the end of January, but many lifeboat stations hold open days during the summer, hosting displays, stalls and other events, [94] [95] as well as in-station shops which are open full or part-time. [96]

Nationally and internationally known celebrities in various fields are, or have been supporters and fundraisers for the RNLI; for example, the cartoonist Giles was a Life President of the RNLI and donated many cartoons which are still being used for RNLI charity cards and other illustrations, and Ross Brawn, the former Formula 1 team boss, in 2012 raised funds through a business challenge, for a new lifeboat for Chiswick Lifeboat Station on the River Thames in London. [97] Other names include Bear Grylls, Ben Cohen, Daniel Craig, Bernard Hill, Celia Imrie, David Morrissey, James and Oliver Phelps, [98] and Rebecca Newman, whose Coast to Coast tour in 2012 [99] earned her an Outstanding Achievement Award. [100]

Membership

Membership classes involve differing levels of contribution

Publications

From March 1852 to October 1854) the Royal National Institution for the Preservation of Life from Shipwreck published The life-boat, or, Journal of the National Shipwreck Institution. Volume 2, no. 1 started with a new name in 1855: The life-boat, or, Journal of the National Life-Boat Institution. The last issue under this name was volume 31, no. 341 in April 1940; Life-boat War Bulletins were published from No. 1 in September 1940; from 1945 to December 1946 simply entitled Life-boat Bulletin. From volume 32, no. 342 (June 1947), the journal has been called The Life-boat, more recently The Lifeboat and then Lifeboat. [102] [103]

Lifeboat is the quarterly magazine for all members, containing regional and national news from the Institution, featured rescues, book reviews and lifeboat launch listings, with a related news and features section in the RNLI's website. [104] Archived copies are available in searchable form online. [105]

Life-boat International is an annual publication, apparently a conference report, since 1974. [102] [106]

The website contains full details of the organisation and its activities, including fundraising, lifeboats and stations, history and projects. [107]

See also

Similar organisations of other nations

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Penlee lifeboat disaster</span> Disaster at sea off Cornwall

The Penlee lifeboat disaster occurred on 19 December 1981 off the coast of Cornwall, England. The Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) lifeboat Solomon Browne, based at the Penlee Lifeboat Station near Mousehole, went to the aid of the vessel Union Star after its engines failed in heavy seas. After the lifeboat had rescued four people, both vessels were lost with all hands; sixteen people died, including eight volunteer lifeboatmen.

RNLB Mary Stanford was a Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) Liverpool-class pulling and sailing type lifeboat stationed in Rye Harbour.

A rescue lifeboat is a boat rescue craft which is used to attend a vessel in distress, or its survivors, to rescue crew and passengers. It can be hand pulled, sail powered or powered by an engine. Lifeboats may be rigid, inflatable or rigid-inflatable combination-hulled vessels.

RNLB <i>Mary Stanford</i> (ON 733)

RNLB Mary Stanford was the Ballycotton Lifeboat from 1930 to 1959. Ballycotton is on Ireland's southern coast, a trade route to the Americas. There are many dangerous rocks and shallows with on-shore prevailing winds. Ballycotton has a long tradition of life-saving. Mary Stanford had 41 rescues, or "shouts", and saved 122 lives. She performed the notable Daunt Lightship rescue on 11 February 1936. After her withdrawal from service she lay for some years in a backwater of Dublin's Grand Canal Dock, but has now been returned to Ballycotton and restored.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ramsgate Lifeboat Station</span> Station located in the Port of Ramsgate in Kent

Ramsgate Lifeboat Station is a Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) station located in the Port of Ramsgate in the English county of Kent. The station is one of the oldest to operate in the British Isles and has launched to many notable services. Among the awards won by its crews over the years are 42 RNLI medals, including 2 gold, 39 silver and 1 bronze, the last being awarded in 2000.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wells-next-the-Sea Lifeboat Station</span> Lifeboat station in Norfolk, UK

Wells-next-the-Sea Lifeboat Station is a lifeboat station in the town of Wells-next-the-Sea in the English county of Norfolk. The station, run by the Royal National Lifeboat Institution, operates both inshore and offshore lifeboats. The inshore boat is called Jane Ann III (D-661) and is a D-class (IB1) lifeboat, whilst the offshore boat is called Doris M, Mann of Ampthill (ON 1161), and is a Mersey class lifeboat. The station boathouse is located at the beach on the western side of Wells Harbour mouth.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fishguard Lifeboat Station</span> RNLI Lifeboat Station in Wales, UK

Fishguard Lifeboat Station is a Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) station.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Palling Volunteer Rescue Service</span> Lifeboat Station in Norfolk, England

Palling Volunteer Rescue Service was originally an independent, voluntary-manned and charitably-funded inshore rescue service located in the village of Sea Palling in North Norfolk, England. First established by private funds in 1840, it was taken over by the Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) in 1858 and operated until 1931, when it was closed in a rationalisation of regional lifeboat stations. Revived in 1974 by local people through monies raised from private, business and charitable donations, today the charitable Sea Palling Independent Lifeboat, runs a single 5.7-metre (19 ft) Ocean Pro RIB, an Arancia ILB and a shoreline rescue quad bike, all covering the area between Eccles-on-Sea and Winterton-on-Sea.

RNLB <i>Julia Park Barry of Glasgow</i> (ON 819)

RNLB Julia Park Barry of Glasgow is a former RNLI Watson-class lifeboat that was in active service in Peterhead, Scotland from 15 June 1939 to 14 January 1969.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Skegness Lifeboat Station</span> RNLI Lifeboat Station in Lincolnshire, England

Skegness Lifeboat Station is a lifeboat station located in the town of Skegness, Lincolnshire, England, operated by the Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI). The station is located on the seafront of the south-east coast, north of the Wash and south of the Humber Estuary. This area of the British coastline is characterised by many shoals and constantly changing sandbanks, many of which lie between the town and the East Dudgeon Lightship. The building dates from 1990 and was the first in the British Isles constructed especially for a Mersey-class lifeboat. The boathouse also accommodates an Inshore Lifeboat and a souvenir shop.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Selsey Lifeboat Station</span> RNLI Lifeboat Station in West Sussex, England

Selsey Lifeboat Station is a Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) station located in Selsey, West Sussex on the south coast of England.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bembridge Lifeboat Station</span> RNLI Lifeboat Station in Isle of Wight, England

Bembridge Lifeboat Station is an RNLI station located in the village of Bembridge on the Isle of Wight in the United Kingdom.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yarmouth Lifeboat Station</span> RNLI Lifeboat Station in Isle of Wight, England

Yarmouth Lifeboat station is an RNLI station located in the town of Yarmouth on the Isle of Wight in the United Kingdom. The station has been based in Yarmouth's harbour since 1924. Previously the station had been in Totland Bay, west of Yarmouth, until it was decided that the station need a motor lifeboat. The current Severn-class lifeboat is moored afloat and shore facilities are on the quayside in Yarmouth. The station covers the western Solent with its all-weather lifeboat Eric and Susan Hiscock (Wanderer) (ON-1249) which has been on service at Yarmouth since 2001.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Shoreham Harbour Lifeboat Station</span> RNLI Lifeboat Station in West Sussex, England

Shoreham Harbour Lifeboat Station is a Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) station located in the town of Shoreham-by-Sea in the English county of West Sussex. It underwent extensive re-development in 2010 with a new purpose built boathall to accommodate its new Tamar-class all-weather lifeboat (AWB). It operates two lifeboats, the AWB RNLB Enid Collett (ON 1295) and the D-class (IB1) Inshore lifeboat RNLB Joan Woodland (D-784).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">St Davids Lifeboat Station</span> RNLI Lifeboat Station in Wales, UK

St Davids Lifeboat Station is a Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) station. It was opened in 1869 and to date has been involved in saving over 360 lives at sea in more than 420 launches. The station operates both an all-weather (ALB) and an inshore (ILB) lifeboat.

RNLB <i>Margaret Russell Fraser</i> (ON 1108) Former British rescue ship (launched 1986

RNLB Margaret Russell Fraser was an Arun-class lifeboat which served in the Royal National Lifeboat Institution(RNLI) Relief Fleet for 16 years before being placed on station at the Calshot Lifeboat Station in Calshot, Hampshire, United Kingdom.

Independent lifeboat services in Britain and Ireland began to be established around the coasts towards the end of the 18th century in response to the loss of life at sea. More recently, independent services have been set up in response to the increasing popularity of coastal and river sport and leisure activities.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Aberystwyth Lifeboat Station</span> RNLI Lifeboat Station in Wales, UK

Aberystwyth Lifeboat Station is a Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) lifeboat station in the coastal resort of Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, West Wales. It was established in 1861, but there has been a lifeboat serving the town since 1843.

A number of Royal National Lifeboat Institution awards have been established by the Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) since its creation in 1824. None are approved by the Crown, and are therefore unofficial awards. As such, they do not appear in the official British order of wear, although the principal lifesaving award, the Medal of the RNLI, can be worn on the right breast in uniform by members of the British armed forces.

References

  1. Report from the Select Committee on the Royal National Lifeboat Institution. Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 1897. p. 634. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
  2. Mark Dowie RNLI, May 2019
  3. 1 2 3 4 "THE ROYAL NATIONAL LIFEBOAT INSTITUTION Charity number: 209603". Charity Commission for England & Wales. Retrieved 8 August 2021.
  4. 1 2 Henning Trüper (2015). Historical Teleologies in the Modern World. Bloomsbury. ISBN   978-1-4742-2108-5 . Retrieved 7 May 2016.
  5. 1 2 Lewis, Richard (1874). "History of the life-boat, and its work". MacMillan & Co. Retrieved 8 December 2020 via Internet Archive.
  6. Note: It's not clear from sources if the Royal prefix was part of the name from the beginning.
  7. 1 2 "How the RNLI was Founded in 1824 – One Man's Vision". RNLI. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  8. 1 2 Lee, Sidney, ed. (1895). "Palmer, George"  . Dictionary of National Biography . Vol. 43. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  9. 1 2 "MP of the Month: George Palmer, a 'firm friend of the shipwrecked'". The Victorian Commons. 22 October 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  10. 1 2 3 . Lifeboat Magazine Archive. "The Duke of Northumberland, K.G." The Lifeboat . Royal National Lifeboat Institution. 28 (303). September 1930. Retrieved 8 December 2020.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  11. "The RNLI". Isle of Man Government. Archived from the original on 2 March 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  12. "How a Ramsgate rescue prompted the design of the RNLI flag". 29 April 2020.
  13. "1884: Design of the RNLI flag - Timeline - Our history".
  14. 1 2 3 "History of the RNLI Factsheet" (PDF). RNLI. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 June 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  15. 1 2 3 "From the brink of disaster: Richard Lewis and the making of the modern RNLI". RNLI. 3 March 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  16. Kealey, Terence (2010). Sex, Science and Profits. Random House. ISBN   978-1-4464-0047-0 . Retrieved 6 May 2016.
  17. "RNLI Exhibition: Hope in the Great War". RNLI. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
  18. 1 2 Leach, Nicholas (2014). The Lifeboat Service in South East England. Amberley Publishing. ISBN   978-1-4456-1757-2 . Retrieved 30 September 2014.
  19. 1 2 Foley, Michael (2013). Essex at War. Amberley Publishing. ISBN   978-1-4456-2818-9 . Retrieved 1 October 2014.
  20. Cameron, Ian (2002). Riders of the Storm: The Story of the Royal National Lifeboat Institution. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN   978-0-7528-8344-1.
  21. "No. 34953". The London Gazette (Supplement). 24 September 1940. p. 5711.Margate's Coxswain named as Edward Drake Palmer.
  22. Hastings, Max (2011). All Hell Let Loose. Harper Press, London. p. 66. ISBN   978-0-00-745072-5.
  23. "RNLI donations increase after migrant rescue criticism". BBC News. 29 July 2021. Retrieved 8 August 2021.
  24. "Channel crossings: RNLI chief hits out over migrant rescue abuse". BBC News. 28 July 2021. Retrieved 8 August 2021.
  25. "Donations to RNLI rise 3,000% after Farage's migrant criticism". The Guardian. 29 July 2021. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  26. 1 2 "RNLI have saved 140,000 lives". Yachting Monthly. 30 November 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  27. 1 2 "Review of the year: Rescue". RNLI. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
  28. 1 2 Riley, Dave. "Storms and statistics - another lifesaving year for the RNLI". RNLI. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  29. "Biggest RNLI rescue is remembered". BBC News. 11 March 2007. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  30. 1 2 "The RNLI Heritage Trust preserves the history of the RNLI". RNLI. Archived from the original on 5 May 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
  31. "RNLI Memorial – List of names". RNLI. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
  32. "Lifeboats and Lifeguards In Action". The Lifeboat. 59 (570): 13. Winter 2004–05.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  33. "Aberystwyth Lifeboat - Station History". RNLI. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
  34. "RNLI: Ralph Glister Award". RNLI. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
  35. "Open Charities - Ralph Glister Award". Open Charities. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
  36. "Groombridge Award". The Lifeboat. 61 (593): 15. Autumn 2010.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  37. Jolly, Cyril (2002). Henry Blogg of Cromer : the greatest of the lifeboat-men (PDF) ([New ed.]. ed.). Cromer: Poppyland Pub. ISBN   0-946148-59-7.
  38. "RNLI History Whitby Lifeboat Disaster". RNLI. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
  39. 'Heroic lifeboat beards of past and present', RNLI Magazine - 2 August 2015
  40. Leach, Nicholas; Russell, Paul (2004). Cromer Lifeboats 1804–2004. Tempus Publishing. ISBN   0-7524-3197-8.
  41. Britannia's Calendar of Heroes. Luton: Andrews UK. 2012. p. 333. ISBN   978-1-78149-231-4.
  42. MacSweeney, Tom (16 February 2006). "Seascapes". Raidió Teilifís Éireann. Archived from the original (smil) on 24 November 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012. the boat also being awarded one, the only time this has happened in lifeboat history
  43. "RNLI Chatham Museum". RNLI. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
  44. "RNLI – Grace Darling Museum". RNLI. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
  45. "Grace Darling Story" (PDF). RNLI. 16 February 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 February 2012.
  46. "Henry Blogg Museum". RNLI. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  47. "British National Bibliography: RNLI Lifeboat Enthusiasts' Society" . Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  48. "Historic Lifeboat Owners Association – Ex RNLI Lifeboats and their Owners". Historic Lifeboats Owners Association. Archived from the original on 20 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  49. "National Memorial Arboretum: Memorial Listing". The National Memorial Arboretum. Archived from the original on 4 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  50. "Shows". Mikron Theatre Co. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
  51. "How to call for help in an emergency at sea". nidirect.gov.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  52. "RNLI: Lifeboat stations". RNLI. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  53. "Thames lifeboat rescue". The Independent. 4 April 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  54. "RNLI – Learn how you can visit a station". RNLI. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
  55. "St Abbs splits from RNLI to set up independent station". scotsman.com. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  56. "Lifeboat fleet". RNLI. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  57. Putt, Bernice. "The Lizard RNLI lifeboat station says goodbye to RNLB David Robinson". RNLI. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  58. 1 2 3 4 5 6 RNLI 2013 – Annual Report and Accounts (PDF). RNLI. 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 May 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
  59. 1 2 "RNLI expands lifeboat building activity". Maritime Journal. 11 May 2016. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  60. "Hovercraft 'flies' into lifeboat service". BBC News. 13 May 2002. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  61. "List of RNLI lifeguarded beaches". RNLI. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  62. "About lifeguards and the lifeguard service". RNLI. p. RNLI lifeguards. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
  63. "RNLI Flood Rescue". RNLI. Archived from the original on 18 May 2014. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
  64. "RNLI volunteers from near Plymouth head west for flood training". The Herald (Plymouth). 28 September 2013. Archived from the original on 22 February 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
  65. 1 2 Hennessy, Sue (2010). Hidden Depths: Women of the RNLI. Great Britain: The History Press. p. 111. ISBN   978-0-7524-5443-6.
  66. "Cleethorpes RNLI call out – for new crew!". RNLI. 18 April 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  67. "Lifesaving woman becomes youngest ever lifeboat station manager". Metro. 13 January 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
  68. "Harwich lifeboat appoints charity's first female coxswain". BBC News. 10 August 2021. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
  69. "Volunteering opportunities at the RNLI". RNLI. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
  70. "The RNLI's Patrons: a history of royal heritage" . Retrieved 9 September 2022.
  71. "RNLI sea safety advice". RNLI. Archived from the original on 5 May 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
  72. "RNLI Safety and Education". RNLI. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
  73. 1 2 "RNLI Annual Report, 2014" (PDF). RNLI. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  74. "RNLI: International work". RNLI. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  75. Gwyneth Rees (21 May 2019). "Swansea RNLI man saving Bangladeshi children from drowning". BBC News. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  76. "Newquay RNLI launched to stand by fishermen attempting to salvage stranded vessel". RNLI. Archived from the original on 1 June 2014.
  77. Brice, Geoffrey (2011). Maritime Law. Sweet and Maxwell. pp. 75–77. ISBN   978-0-414-04579-8 . Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  78. Danton, G.L. (1978). The Theory and Practice of Seamanship. Routledge and Kegan Paul. ISBN   978-0-7100-8853-6 . Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  79. Mandakara-Sheppard, Aleka (2006). Modern Admiralty Law. Cavendish Publishing. p. 682. ISBN   978-1-84314-196-9 . Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  80. "Ten hour yacht rescue for Angle lifeboat". Western Telegraph. 5 June 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  81. "Mark Dowie appointed chief executive of the RNLI" . Retrieved 20 May 2019.
  82. "RNLI Map 2014" (PDF). RNLI. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2016. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
  83. "Royal opening for lifeboat centre". BBC News. 28 July 2004. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  84. "RNLI College". RNLI. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  85. "Working for us". RNLI. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  86. "Irish lifeboat HQ in Swords is opened by the President". The Independent. 14 June 2006. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  87. 1 2 "RNLI Corporate partnerships". RNLI. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
  88. "Volunteering for the RNLI". RNLI. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  89. "National Maritime Museum Cornwall - Collections". National Maritime Museum Cornwall. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  90. "alamy: lifeboat collection box". alamy.com. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  91. "British Council: LearnEnglish: Rescue at sea – the RNLI". British Council. Archived from the original on 20 April 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  92. "RNLI collection box stolen during Extravaganza weekend". Daily Post. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
  93. Historic England. "RNLI Collection Box (1422554)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  94. Richmond, Maurice (4 May 2016). "Southend Lifeboat Station hosts its open day". Echo. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
  95. Astrup, Juliette (2 August 2015). "Dee Caffari joins celebrations at Poole Lifeboat Station's open day". Daily Echo. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
  96. Hargreaves, Andy (2 July 2014). "RNLI Shop Moves To New Home in Lifeboat Station". scillytoday.com. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
  97. "Ross Brawn names RNLI lifeboat". Motor Boats Monthly. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  98. "Look to the stars: RNLI" . Retrieved 1 December 2020.
  99. "Rebecca sings for Exmouth RNLI Shannon appeal". RNLI. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
  100. "Award: RLWC: pre-penultimate para". nothingbutleague.com. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  101. "RNLI: Become a member". RNLI. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
  102. 1 2 "Explore the British Library [search]". British Library . Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  103. "[all]". Lifeboat. Royal National Lifeboat Institution. ISSN   0024-3086.
  104. "RNLI: News and features" . Retrieved 1 December 2019.
  105. "About the RNLI Lifeboat Magazine Archive". RNLI. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  106. "Lifeboat International, No. 1 (1974)". Lifeboat International. Royal National Lifeboat Institution. ISSN   0308-7441.
  107. "Royal National Lifeboat Institution website". RNLI. Retrieved 1 December 2019.

Further reading