ITV (TV network)

Last updated

ITV
ITV (TV network) channels 2015 map.svg
Branding:    ITV    STV    UTV
Launched22 September 1955;63 years ago (1955-09-22)
Owned by ITV plc and STV Group plc
Audience shareITV Network:
9.52%
0.77% (+1)
5.01% (HD)
(June 2019 (2019-06), BARB)
CountryUnited Kingdom
LanguageEnglish
Affiliates STV
Headquarters London, England, UK
Website itv.com
stv.tv

ITV is a British free-to-air television network with its headquarters in London. It was launched in 1955 as Independent Television, under the auspices of the Independent Television Authority (ITA) (later the Independent Broadcasting Authority, after the Sound Broadcasting Act 1972, and currently Ofcom), to provide competition to BBC Television which had been established in 1932. [1] ITV is the oldest commercial network in the UK. Since the passing of the Broadcasting Act 1990, its legal name has been Channel 3, to distinguish it from the other analogue channels at the time, namely BBC 1, BBC 2 and Channel 4. In part, the number 3 was assigned because television sets would usually be tuned so that the regional ITV station would be on the third button, with the other stations being allocated to the number within their name.

Free-to-air (FTA) are television (TV) and radio services broadcast in clear (unencrypted) form, allowing any person with the appropriate receiving equipment to receive the signal and view or listen to the content without requiring a subscription, other ongoing cost or one-off fee. In the traditional sense, this is carried on terrestrial radio signals and received with an antenna.

A television network is a telecommunications network for distribution of television program content, whereby a central operation provides programming to many television stations or pay television providers. Until the mid-1980s, television programming in most countries of the world was dominated by a small number of terrestrial networks. Many early television networks evolved from earlier radio networks.

London Capital of the United Kingdom

London is the capital of and largest city in England and the United Kingdom, with the largest municipal population in the European Union. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.

Contents

ITV is a network of television companies that operate regional television services and also share programmes between each other to be shown on the entire network. In recent years, several of these companies have merged, so currently the fifteen regional franchises are in the hands of two companies.

The ITV network is to be distinguished from ITV plc, the company that resulted from the merger of Granada plc and Carlton Communications in 2004 and which holds the Channel 3 broadcasting licences in England, Wales, southern Scotland, the Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and Northern Ireland. With the exception of Northern Ireland, the ITV brand is the brand used by ITV plc for the Channel 3 service in these areas. In Northern Ireland, ITV plc uses the brand name UTV. STV Group plc uses the STV brand for its two franchises of central and northern Scotland.

ITV plc British-based media company

ITV plc is a British media company based in London, England. It holds 13 of the 15 regional television licences that make up the ITV network, the oldest and largest commercial terrestrial television network in the United Kingdom. The network, which is branded ITV by ITV plc, has vied with BBC One for the status of the UK's most watched channel since the 1950s.

Granada plc former British company

Granada plc was a British conglomerate best known as the former parent of the Manchester-based Granada Television.

Carlton Communications

Carlton was a British media company. It was led by Michael P. Green and listed on the London Stock Exchange from 1983 until 2 February 2004, when it was bought by Granada plc in a corporate takeover to form ITV plc. Carlton shareholders gained approximately 32% of ITV plc.

History

Granada Studios, was built in 1954 to house the broadcaster of ITV Granada. Granada opened in 1956 and is the only franchise to remain an ITV contractor since creation in the studios closed in 2013. Granada TV.jpg
Granada Studios, was built in 1954 to house the broadcaster of ITV Granada. Granada opened in 1956 and is the only franchise to remain an ITV contractor since creation in the studios closed in 2013.

The origins of ITV lie in the passing of the Television Act 1954, designed to break the monopoly on television held by the BBC Television Service. [1] The act created the Independent Television Authority (ITA, then IBA after the Sound Broadcasting Act) to heavily regulate the industry and to award franchises. The first six franchises were awarded in 1954 for London, the Midlands and the North of England, with separate franchises for Weekdays and Weekends. [1] The first ITV network to launch was London's Associated-Rediffusion on 22 September 1955, [2] with the Midlands and North services launching in February 1956 and May 1956 respectively. Following these launches, the ITA awarded more franchises until the whole country was covered by fourteen regional stations, all launched by 1962.

Television Act 1954 United Kingdom legislation

The Television Act 1954 was a British law which permitted the creation of the first commercial television network in the United Kingdom, ITV.

BBC One is the first and principal television channel of the British Broadcasting Corporation in the United Kingdom, Isle of Man and Channel Islands. It was launched on 2 November 1936 as the BBC Television Service, and was the world's first regular television service with a high level of image resolution. It was renamed BBC TV in 1960, using this name until the launch of the second BBC channel BBC2 in 1964, whereupon the BBC TV channel became known as BBC1, with the current spelling adopted in 1997.

Independent Television Authority

The Independent Television Authority (ITA) was an agency created by the Television Act 1954 to supervise the creation of "Independent Television" (ITV), the first commercial television network in the United Kingdom. The ITA existed from 1954 until 1972. It was responsible for determining the location, constructing, building, and operating the transmission stations used by the ITV network, as well as determining the franchise areas and awarding the franchises for each regional commercial broadcaster. The Authority began its operations on 4 August 1954, a mere four days after the Television Act received Royal Assent, under the Chairmanship of Sir Kenneth Clark. The Authority's first Director General, Sir Robert Fraser was appointed by Clark a month later on 14 September.

The network has been modified several times through franchise reviews that have taken place in 1963, [3] 1967, [4] 1974, [5] 1980 [6] [7] and 1991, [8] during which broadcast regions have changed and service operators have been replaced. Only one service operator has ever been declared bankrupt, WWN in 1963, [9] with all other operators leaving the network as a result of a franchise review. Separate weekend franchises were removed in 1968 (with the exception of London) [3] and over the years more services were added; these included a national breakfast franchise from 1983 onward—operating between 6:00 am and 9:25 am—and a teletext service. [6] The Broadcasting Act 1990 changed the nature of ITV; the then regulator the IBA was replaced with a light-touch regulator, the ITC; companies became able to purchase other ITV regional companies [10] and franchises were now being awarded based upon a highest-bidder auction, with few safeguards in place. [8] This heavily criticised part of the review saw four operators replaced, and the operators facing different annual payments to the Treasury: Central Television, for example, paid only £2000—despite holding a lucrative and large region—because it was unopposed, while Yorkshire Television paid £37.7 million for a region of the same size and status, owing to heavy competition. [8] [11]

Wales West and North Television

Wales Television, known on screen as Teledu Cymru and often abbreviated to WWN, was the Welsh "Independent Television" contractor awarded the franchise area serving North and West Wales, from 1962. It began transmitting on 14 September 1962, and ceased on 26 January 1964 through financial failure; the franchise area was soon combined with the South Wales and West of England area, operated by TWW. TWW retained the Teledu Cymru name in the former WWN franchise area, as did successor Harlech during their emergency transitional franchise, only retiring the name when they were able to officially take over.

The Broadcasting Act 1990 is a law of the British parliament, initiated in part due to a 1989 European Council Directive (89/552), also known as the Television Without Frontiers directive. The aim of the Act was to liberalise and deregulate the British broadcasting industry by promoting competition; ITV, in particular, had earlier been described by Margaret Thatcher as "the last bastion of restrictive practices". The act came about after the finding from the Peacock Committee.

Independent Broadcasting Authority British television organisation

The Independent Broadcasting Authority (IBA) was the regulatory body in the United Kingdom for commercial television – and commercial and independent radio broadcasts. The IBA came into being when the Sound Broadcasting Act 1972 gave the Independent Television Authority responsibility for organising the new Independent Local Radio (ILR) stations. The Independent Television Commission formally replaced the IBA on 1 January 1991 in regulatory terms; however, the Authority itself was not officially dissolved until 2003.

Following the 1993 changes, ITV as a network began to consolidate with several companies doing so to save money by ceasing the duplication of services present when they were all separate companies. By 2004, ITV was owned by five companies, of which two, Carlton and Granada had become major players by owning between them all the franchises in England, Wales, the Scottish borders and the Isle of Man. [12] [13] [14] That same year, the two merged to form ITV plc [12] [13] [14] with the only subsequent acquisitions being the takeover of Channel Television, the Channel Islands franchise, in 2011. [15] and UTV, the franchise for Northern Ireland, in 2015.

ITV Channel Television British television station

ITV Channel Television, previously Channel Television, is a British television station which has served as the ITV contractor for the Channel Islands since 1962. It is based in Jersey and broadcasts regional programme for insertion into the network ITV schedule. Until November 2011, Channel Television was one of four ITV companies independent from ITV plc alongside the two STV regions in Scotland and UTV in Northern Ireland. The station has been owned by ITV plc since 2012 and the licence was transferred to ITV Broadcasting Limited in March 2017.

Organisation (other networks)

UTV 2016.svg
UTV (ITV plc)
The logos of the ITV brands.

The ITV network is not owned or operated by one company, but by a number of licensees, which provide regional services while also broadcasting programmes across the network. Since 2016, the fifteen licences are held by two companies, with the majority held by ITV Broadcasting Limited, part of ITV plc.

The network is regulated by the media regulator Ofcom who is responsible for awarding the broadcast licences. The last major review of the Channel 3 franchises was in 1991, with all operators' licences having been renewed between 1999 and 2002 and again from 2014 without a further contest. While this has been the longest period that the ITV Network has gone without a major review of its licence holders, Ofcom announced (following consultation) that it would split the Wales and West licence from 1 January 2014, creating a national licence for Wales and joining the newly separated West region to Westcountry Television, to form a new licence for the enlarged South West of England region.

Ofcom british government agency

The Office of Communications, commonly known as Ofcom, is the UK government-approved regulatory and competition authority for the broadcasting, telecommunications and postal industries of the United Kingdom.

ITV Westcountry former ITV franchise holder for the south west of England, covering Cornwall, Devon, Isles of Scilly, southern and western Somerset and western Dorset

ITV Westcountry, formerly known as Westcountry Television and Carlton Westcountry, was the ITV franchise holder for the south west of England, covering Cornwall, Devon, Isles of Scilly, southern and western Somerset and western Dorset. The company replaced its predecessor, TSW, from 1 January 1993. The station was owned and operated by ITV plc under the licensee of ITV Broadcasting Limited.

All companies holding a licence were part of the non-profit body ITV Network Limited, which commissioned and scheduled network programming, with compliance previously handled by ITV plc and Channel Television. However, due to amalgamation of several of these companies since the creation of ITV Network Limited (and given Channel Television is now owned by ITV plc), it has been replaced by an affiliation system. [16] Approved by Ofcom, this results in ITV plc commissioning and funding the network schedule, with STV and UTV paying a fee to broadcast it. [16] All licensees have the right to opt out of network programming (except for the national news bulletins), however many do not due to pressures from the parent company or because of limited resources. [16] Prior to the affiliate system being introduced, STV would frequently (and sometimes controversially) opt out of several popular network programmes – such as the original run of the first series of Downton Abbey – citing the need to provide more Scottish content to its viewers. [17]

As a public service broadcaster, the ITV network is obliged to broadcast programming of public importance, including news, current affairs, children's and religious programming as well as party election broadcasts on behalf of the major political parties and political events, such as the Budget. The network also needs to produce accessible output containing subtitles, signing and audio description. In exchange for this programming, the ITV network is available on all platforms free to air and can be found at the top of the EPG of all providers.

Since the launch of the platform in 1998, all of the ITV licensees have received gifted capacity on the digital terrestrial television platform. At present, the companies are able to broadcast additional channels and all choose to broadcast the ITV plc owned ITV2, ITV3, ITV4 and CITV in their region. UTV and STV (formerly Scottish Television and Grampian Television) previously broadcast their own services – UTV2 in Northern Ireland and S2 in central and northern Scotland – until 2002, when they adopted the ITV plc channels. The broadcasters all make use of the Digital 3&4 multiplex, shared with Channel 4. ITV Encore launched on June 2014 and ITVBe launched in October 2014. ITV Box Office launched in February 2017.

ITV plc

The Leeds Studios, used by ITV Yorkshire. Each ITV region originally had its own studios, however the rise of publisher-broadcasters like Carlton Television and the takeover of regions caused several studios to be closed. YorkshireTVstudiosLeedsJan07.jpg
The Leeds Studios, used by ITV Yorkshire. Each ITV region originally had its own studios, however the rise of publisher-broadcasters like Carlton Television and the takeover of regions caused several studios to be closed.

ITV plc owns thirteen of the fifteen franchises and broadcasts to England, Wales, southern Scotland, the Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and Northern Ireland through its subsidiary companies ITV Broadcasting Limited, and UTV Limited [15] The company also owns the breakfast contractor [18] that broadcasts across the network between 6:00 and 9:25am each morning using the Good Morning Britain (previously Daybreak ) and Lorraine names. The company broadcasts a centralised service under the ITV brand. In Northern Ireland, ITV uses the UTV brand name.

The group also owns ITV Studios, the production arm of the company and formed from an amalgamation of all the production departments of the regional licences they own. The company produces a large proportion of ITV's networked programming (around 47%, but previously as high as 66% according to some reports [19] ), with the rest coming primarily from independent suppliers (under the Broadcasting Act 1990, at least 25% of ITV's total output must be from independent companies). [20] ITV plc hope to increase the amount of in-house programming to as close to the 75% limit as possible.

The group cut the number of regional news programmes offered from 17 in 2007 to 9 by 2009, resulting several regions being merged to form one programme, including the Border Television and Tyne Tees Television regions, the Westcountry Television and West regions and the removal of sub regional programming, with some regions only represented by pre-recorded segments. [21]

STV Group

STV Group plc owns two franchises, covering central and northern Scotland, through subsidiary companies STV Central and STV North, broadcasting a central service under the STV brand.

The company has had several disputes with ITV plc in recent years over network programming. STV aims to broadcast more Scottish programmes at peak times and so removed several key ITV plc programmes from their schedule in July 2009 including The Bill , Midsomer Murders and Lewis . [22] Despite STV's explanation of expense, ITV plc were angered by the decision, as a recent schedule change had made The Bill central to their programming, and broadcast the programmes on ITV3 as well to ensure Scottish viewers could see the programmes. On 23 September ITV was reported to be in the process of suing STV for £20 million, as ITV plc felt dropping the shows constituted a breach of network agreements; [23] STV subsequently counter-sued ITV plc for £35 million.

The dispute was ended in 2011 with STV agreeing to pay ITV plc £18 million. The signing of the new affiliation deal has resulted in STV paying a flat fee for all networked programming, and so to drop any programmes is unlikely due to the large costs involved. [24]

Current licensees

There are fourteen regional licences and one national licence for the breakfast service. Other licences exist to provide specific programming services, such as Teletext and national news, but are not listed here. All licences listed here were renewed until the end of 2024. Licences in England and Wales were held by the individual regional ITV plc owned companies prior to November 2008. [25]

Regional Channel 3 Licences
Licence Service Area [26] Licence Holder [27] Licence held sinceParent CompanyService NameOn Air Name
North of Scotland STV North Limited30 September 1961 STV Group plc STV North STV
Central Scotland STV Central Limited31 August 1957STV Group plc STV Central STV
Northern Ireland UTV Limited31 October 1959 ITV plc [28] Ulster Television UTV
Channel Islands ITV Broadcasting LimitedMarch 2017ITV plc ITV Channel TV ITV [Note 1]
England–Scotland Border ITV Broadcasting LimitedNovember 2008ITV plc ITV Border ITV
North East England ITV Broadcasting LimitedNovember 2008ITV plc ITV Tyne Tees ITV
Yorkshire and Lincolnshire ITV Broadcasting LimitedNovember 2008ITV plc ITV Yorkshire ITV
North West England [Note 2] and Isle of Man [Note 3] ITV Broadcasting LimitedNovember 2008ITV plc ITV Granada ITV
Wales [Note 4] ITV Broadcasting LimitedNovember 2008ITV plc ITV Cymru Wales ITV Cymru Wales [Note 5]
East, West and South Midlands [Note 6] [Note 7] ITV Broadcasting LimitedNovember 2008ITV plc ITV Central ITV
East of England ITV Broadcasting LimitedDecember 2006 [Note 8] ITV plc ITV Anglia ITV
London (weekdays)ITV Broadcasting LimitedNovember 2008ITV plc ITV London (weekdays)ITV
London (weekends)ITV Broadcasting LimitedNovember 2008ITV plc ITV London (weekends)ITV
South and South East England [Note 7] ITV Broadcasting LimitedNovember 2008ITV plc ITV Meridian ITV
South West and West of England [Note 9] ITV Broadcasting LimitedNovember 2008ITV plc ITV West Country ITV
National Channel 3 Licences
Licence Service AreaLicence Holder [27] Licence held sinceParent CompanyService NameOn Air Name
National breakfast time [Note 10] ITV Breakfast Broadcasting Limited1993ITV plc [Note 11] ITV Breakfast ITV

Programming

ITV share of viewing 1981-2008 Broadcasters' Audience Research Board figures. ITV share of viewing 1992-2007.png
ITV share of viewing 1981–2008 Broadcasters' Audience Research Board figures.

For over 60 years of ITV, its homegrown programmes have become among the best remembered as well as being extremely successful. Before the 1990s, nearly all of the content for the channel was produced by the fifteen franchise licensees: the regional companies.

However, in the last decade, and following legislation in the Broadcasting Act 1990 imposing a 25% quota for commissioning of independent productions, [20] the number of programmes from independent production companies not connected to the traditional ITV Network, has increased rapidly. Notable examples include Talkback Thames (one half of which, Thames Television, was itself a former ITV franchisee), producers of The Bill and co-producers of The X Factor , and 2waytraffic (previously Celador), producers of Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? .

From the late 1990s, ITV's long-standing commitment to strong current affairs and documentary programming began to diminish with the ending of productions such as World in Action (Granada Television), This Week (Rediffusion London/Thames Television), First Tuesday (Yorkshire Television), Network First , Survival (Anglia Television), and Weekend World (LWT) and their replacement with populist shows such as Tonight . News at Ten was also axed in 1999, although it was reinstated in 2001. In December 2009, the final edition of ITV's long-running arts programme, The South Bank Show was broadcast.

ITV's primetime schedules are dominated by its soap operas, such as the flagship Coronation Street and Emmerdale . At the start of the 21st century, Independent Television faced criticism for including a large amount of "reality TV" programmes in the schedule, such as Celebrity Fit Club , Celebrity Wrestling and Love Island. In its defence, ITV does continue to show its major strengths in the fields of sports coverage and drama productions, and it continues to schedule national news in primetime.

ITV's strong daytime line-up helped by programmes such as This Morning , Loose Women , Good Morning Britain , Dickinson's Real Deal and game shows Tipping Point and The Chase are very popular, achieving the highest audience share during the daytime slot. [29]

National and international news

Since the network started, Independent Television News Limited (ITN) has held the contract to produce news for the ITV Network, with 30-minute national news bulletins broadcast at 1:30 pm, 6:30 pm, and 10:00 pm. These bulletins were broadcast under the ITN brand between 1955 and 1999, when a new network identity reinforced the ITV brand, resulting in the new bulletins being broadcast under the ITV News brand. [30] [31]

ITN has long been respected in the news industry as a source of reliable information and news, and as a result the service has won many awards for their programmes, the latest being in May 2011 when News at Ten was named best news programme by the Royal Television Society and BAFTA.

Breakfast

Between 6 am and 9.25 am on Monday to Friday, ITV broadcast two breakfast programmes called Good Morning Britain and Lorraine . Good Morning Britain keeps viewers up to date with all the latest news, sports, features and weather, whilst Lorraine predominantly focuses on celebrity interviews, recipes, fashion and showbiz.

Regional news

The regional ITV companies are required to provide local news as part of their franchise agreement, with the main local bulletin at 6pm and regional bulletins located after each national news programme. In addition to this, traditionally ITV companies would provide other regional programming based on current affairs, entertainment or drama. However, apart from a monthly political programme, most non-news regional programming in the English regions was dropped by ITV plc in 2009, although it continues in Wales and the Channel Islands, as well as on STV and UTV & from 2014 ITV Border Scotland. [32] On 14 January 2013, ITV plc regional news programmes titles were discontinued in favour of more generic branding under the ITV News title with the region listed as the subheading. However some "heritage" brand names were retained including Calendar, Granada Reports and Lookaround. On the 28 June 2014, ITV Cymru Wales News returned to its historic name of Wales at Six.

Current regions

ITV News regions since 2013 ITV microregions map 2015.svg
ITV News regions since 2013
  1. Anglia: ITV News Anglia (with East and West variations)
  2. Border: ITV News Lookaround
  3. Central: ITV News Central (With East and West variations)
  4. Channel: ITV News Channel TV
  5. Granada: ITV News Granada Reports
  6. London: ITV News London
  7. Meridian: ITV News Meridian (With South and a Thames Valley opt-out and South East variations)
  8. STV Central: STV News (non-ITV plc) (With East and West variations)
  9. STV North: STV News (non-ITV plc) (With a Dundee opt-out)
  10. Tyne Tees: ITV News Tyne Tees
  11. UTV: UTV Live
  12. Wales: ITV News: Wales at Six
  13. West Country: ITV News West Country (With East and West variations)
  14. Yorkshire: ITV News Calendar (With North and South variations)

Former programmes

Weather

The ITV National Weather forecast was first broadcast in 1989, using data supplied by the Met Office, and was presented by a number of weather forecasters. The forecasts are sponsored in which the sponsors message, would appear prior to and following the forecast. The forecasts are made immediately after the main national news bulletins.

Prior to the creation of the national forecast, regional forecast provided by each regional companies were shown in each region only. The regional forecasts today are incorporated into the main regional news bulletins, and in the summer months, includes a Pollen Count.

Sports

ITV covers many popular sports. The channel emphasises coverage of football, with the channel previously holding the UK terrestrial rights to the UEFA Champions League and with the channel sharing coverage of international football events such as the World Cup with the BBC. On 30 March 2007, The Football Association announced that it had agreed a new four-year £425m television deal for ITV and Setanta Sports to show FA Cup and England international matches (the Scottish regional broadcaster STV blacks out those games and replaces them with regular programming). The deal with the FA represented a 42% increase on the existing deal with BBC Sport and BSkyB.

In May 2009, ITV acquired the rights to broadcast live cricket from the Indian Premier League. The network also covers motorsport, rugby, and other sports.

Children's programming

The network broadcasts children's programming under the CITV (Children's ITV) strand. Children's programming was originally provided during weekday afternoons and weekend mornings, however following the launch of the CITV Channel in 2006, all children's programming, with the exception of the weekend ITV Breakfast slot, were relocated from the ITV line-up to the CITV channel in 2007, a move which was challenged by Ofcom in April 2007.

Teletext provider

The Public Teletext Licence [33] allows the holder to broadcast a text-based information service around the clock on Channel 3 (as well as Channel 4 and S4C) frequencies. Teletext on ITV was provided by ORACLE from 1974 until 1993 and from 1993 to 2010 by Teletext Ltd., whose news, sport and TV listings pages rivalled the BBC's offering, Ceefax on terrestrial and BBC Red Button on digital. Teletext Ltd. also provided digital teletext for the Channel 3 services, as well as the text output for both Channel 4 and S4C under the same licence and Channel 5. However, the licence was revoked by Ofcom on 29 January 2010 for failing to provide news and local non-news information on ITV and there is currently no teletext licence holder for ITV. [34]

Schools programming

Schools programming on the network began in 1957 in some regions and expanded as more regions began broadcasting. It is a contractual obligation for the ITV company to broadcast schools programming, and this was initially broadcast as part of the normal scheduling. The programmes were moved into a segment for broadcast during the day in the 1960s, under the banner Independent Television for Schools and Colleges and from 1987 were broadcast on Channel 4 in the ITV Schools on Channel 4 segment. In 1993, this segment became Channel 4 Schools and later in 2000 4Learning. These strands of programming consisted of schools programming from all the ITV companies or from independent sources. The schools strand itself is now defunct, with no particular branding segment used.

Availability outside the UK

ITV (as UTV) is widely available in Ireland, where it is received directly in areas bordering Northern Ireland, or in coastal areas from Wales (as ITV Cymru Wales). Until 2015, it was also carried on cable, when it was replaced by UTV Ireland, which was itself replaced by be3, now Virgin Media Three. It is also available on cable and IPTV in Switzerland and Liechtenstein. Since 27 March 2013, it has been offered by the British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) to members of HM Forces and their families around the world, replacing the BFBS3 TV channel, which already carried a selection of ITV programmes. [35]

Criticism

Since the launch of ITV, there have been concerns from politicians and the press that ITV faced a conflict concerning programme audiences and advertisers. As advertisers are reluctant to buy advertising space around low viewing programmes, there is a pressure on ITV to broadcast more popular programmes in peak times. This has become more profound in recent years following a relaxation in regulation and significantly more competition in the advertising market following the huge increase in commercial channels. In recent years, programmes have started to dominate from the reality television genre including the celebrity and talent show subgenres. This has led to accusations of ITV 'dumbing down' their programmes and appealing to the 'lowest common denominator', accusations that are at odds with the network's status as a public service broadcaster. [36] [37] [38] ITV was also heavily criticised for scaling back its regional programmes, including regional news.

Awards and nominations

YearAssociationCategoryNominee(s)Result
2017Diversity in Media AwardsBroadcaster of the YearITVNominated

On-air identity

See also

Notes

  1. Since 2013 all presentation has only carried the ITV name, however the name ITV Channel Television was previously used on-screen. This is now restricted to voice announcements before regional programmes.
  2. Up to 1968, the service for a single Northern area consisting of both the current North West region and most of the current Yorkshire region was provided by Granada Television for Monday to Friday and by ABC Television for weekends.
  3. Coverage was transferred from ITV Border and Tyne Tees to ITV Granada following DSO in the Isle of Man in July 2009.
  4. Wales and West of England until 31 December 2014
  5. Usually just ITV.
  6. Up to 1968, the service for the Midlands region was provided by ATV for Monday to Friday and by ABC Television for weekends.
  7. 1 2 The Oxford area was transferred from the Central to the Meridian licence on 1 January 2015
  8. "Anglia Television Limited", which had provided the service since 1959, had its name changed to "ITV Broadcasting Limited" on 29 December 2006.
  9. South West of England only until 31 December 2014
  10. The current breakfast holder, ITV Breakfast Ltd, is a rebrand of GMTV, which took over from the previous incumbent, TV-am in 1993.
  11. ITV plc purchased the remaining stake of GMTV (now ITV Breakfast) from The Walt Disney Company in November 2009.

Related Research Articles

ITV (TV channel) British free-to-air television channel

ITV is a British free-to-air television channel. Previously a network of separate uniquely identifiable regional television channels, ITV currently operates in England, Wales, Scotland, the Isle of Man, and the Channel Islands.

ITV Border

ITV Border, previously Border Television, is the Channel 3 service provided by ITV Broadcasting Limited for the England/Scotland border region, covering most of Cumbria, Dumfries and Galloway, the Scottish Borders and parts of Northumberland. The TV service previously covered the Isle of Man from 26 March 1965 until 15 July 2009.

ITV Meridian holder of the ITV franchise for the South and South East of England

ITV Meridian is the holder of the ITV franchise for the South and South East of England. The station was launched at 12:00 am on 1 January 1993, replacing previous broadcaster Television South, and is owned and operated by ITV plc, under the licensee of ITV Broadcasting Limited. Meridian Broadcasting Ltd was one of several ITV plc-owned regional companies to have its legal name changed on 29 December 2006, when it became ITV Meridian Ltd. This company is, along with most other regional companies owned by ITV plc, listed with Companies House as a "Dormant company".

The history of ITV, the United Kingdom "Independent Television" commercial network, goes back to 1954. As of 29 February 2016, there are fifteen regional licences for the ITV Network, shared between two owners: ITV plc, and the STV Group.

ITV West Country

ITV West Country is the British television service provided by ITV Broadcasting Limited for the South West England franchise area on the ITV network. Previously, between 2009 and 2013, the area was a non-franchise region, branded with the same name, incorporating the former ITV Westcountry franchise area and the ITV West sub-region of the ITV Wales & West franchise. Each company that makes up the new region still legally exists. ITV Wales & West Ltd, ITV Wales & West Group Ltd and Westcountry Television Ltd are each, along with most other regional companies owned by ITV plc, listed on www.companieshouse.gov.uk as a "dormant company".

ITV Thames Valley

ITV Thames Valley was a non-franchise ITV news region covering the Thames Valley area of the United Kingdom from 4 December 2006 until 8 February 2009. It served the south/south-eastern area of the legal Central franchise and the north/north-western area of the legal Meridian franchise. In its first year, its flagship news programme Thames Valley Tonight won the Royal Television Society's Southern Centre Award for News Magazine Programme of the Year for its coverage of the 2007 summer floods.

STV (TV channel) television channel in Scotland

STV is a television channel serving Scotland. It operates the two Channel 3 Network licences in northern and central Scotland, formerly known as Grampian Television and Scottish Television. The brand was adopted on Tuesday 30 May 2006 replacing both franchises' identities. STV celebrated its 60th birthday in 2017, with special programmes broadcast on STV and the now defunct STV2.

Analogue terrestrial television in the United Kingdom was originally the method by which the significant majority of viewers in the UK, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man received television. Analogue terrestrial television broadcasts have ceased everywhere in the UK with Northern Ireland being the last region to have ceased broadcasting analogue terrestrial television broadcasts. Northern Ireland switched off the last analogue television signals, making all of the United Kingdom only capable of receiving digital television, in the early hours of 24 October 2012. It has been completely replaced by digital terrestrial television and other non-terrestrial means as of the end of 2012.

The Crown dependency of the Isle of Man does not have any television channels of its own but receives United Kingdom television channels.

ITV Tyne Tees & Border

ITV Tyne Tees & Border was a non-franchise ITV regional service covering County Durham, Northumberland, North Yorkshire, Teesside, Tyne and Wear, Cumbria, Dumfries and Galloway, and the Scottish Borders.

<i>Lookaround</i> television series

Lookaround is a regional television news and current affairs programme, produced by ITV Border from its studios in Gateshead, and serving central and northern Cumbria, Dumfries and Galloway, parts of South Ayrshire, the Scottish Borders and overlap areas of Northumberland.

ITV Cymru Wales

ITV Cymru Wales, previously known as Harlech Television and HTV Wales, is the ITV franchise for Wales. The new separate licence began on 1 January 2014, replacing the long-serving dual franchise region serving Wales and the West of England.

STV Group plc Scottish media company

STV Group plc, previously known as Scottish Television plc and Scottish Media Group plc, is a Scottish media company. It is a constituent of the FTSE SmallCap Index. Originally formed as Scottish Television, the ITV licence holder for central Scotland, the company changed its name to Scottish Media Group in 1996 and acquired the licence holder for Northern Scotland, Grampian Television, in 1997. The Scottish and Grampian channels were rebranded as STV in 2006.

This is a timeline of the history of ITV.

This is a timeline of the history of Tyne Tees Television.

This is a timeline of the history of Westcountry Television.

This is a timeline of the history of HTV West.

This is a timeline of television in Scotland.

References

  1. 1 2 3 "Commercial Television: A Guide to the constitution and working of the new service". The Times. 19 August 1955. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
  2. "1955: New TV channel ends BBC monopoly". BBC Online . Retrieved 20 September 2015.
  3. 1 2 "No New Independent Tv Companies Appointed". Times. 9 January 1964. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
  4. "BIG five' pattern for Independent TV". Times. 22 December 1966. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
  5. "Discussions start on TV contract extensions". Times. 11 October 1974. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
  6. 1 2 Gosling, Kenneth (25 January 1980). "Breakfast-time television and dual regions for Midlands and the South planned by IBA". Times. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
  7. Gosling, Kenneth (29 December 1980). "Southern and Westward TV lose franchises and others to be restructured". Times. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
  8. "Rescue Operation' For Tv Company". Times. 24 September 1963. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
  9. Frean, Alexandra (25 November 1993). "ITV rule changes herald takeovers". Times. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
  10. ITC, quoted in Encouraging Bidding In The Single Licence National Lottery Framework report, UK National Lottery Commission, 19 November 2004
  11. 1 2 "History". ITV plc. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
  12. 1 2 Madslein, Jorn (2 February 2004). "ITV: A third force in broadcasting". BBC News. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
  13. 1 2 Tryhorn, Chris (2 February 2004). "Finally, ITV plc is born". Guardian. London. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
  14. 1 2 Mark Sweney, Tara Conlan (18 October 2011). "ITV plc buys Channel Television". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
  15. 1 2 3 McIvor, Jamie (5 March 2012). "Broadcaster STV reaches new deal with ITV". BBC News. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
  16. McIvor, Jamie (25 August 2011). "STV counts cost of ITV peace deal". BBC News. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
  17. Robinson, James (26 November 2009). "ITV takes full control of breakfast TV broadcaster GMTV". Guardian. London. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
  18. "Lygo quits Channel 4". C21 Media. 30 April 2010. Archived from the original on 25 October 2007. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
  19. 1 2 Evans, Richard (20 June 1990). "Dispute over ITV and BBC quotas". Times. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
  20. Holmwood, Leigh (12 September 2007). "Unions slam ITV regional cuts". London: MediaGuardian. Retrieved 27 September 2007.
  21. Holmwood, Leigh (21 July 2009), The Bill to be shown on ITV3 so Scottish viewers don't miss out, London: The Guardian, retrieved 2 November 2010
  22. "ITV launches £38m STV legal claim". BBC News. 22 September 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
  23. McCulloch, Scott (5 March 2012). "Business7 – Business News – Scottish Business News – STV agrees new Channel 3 licensing deal with ITV". Business7. Archived from the original on 9 March 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
  24. "Television Broadcast Licensing Update November 2008". Ofcom. November 2008. Archived from the original on 31 July 2010. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
  25. "Channel 3 (ITV & STV)", Ofcom, accessed 11 May 2019
  26. 1 2 "Channel 3 (ITV)". Ofcom. Retrieved 27 September 2007.
  27. "ITV buys Irish broadcaster UTV for £100m". Independent. 20 August 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  28. Brown, Maggie (25 January 2013). "BBC1 daytime revamp hits BBC2 and Channel 4 ratings". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
  29. "About ITN". ITN. Archived from the original on 12 November 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
  30. "ITV News". ITN. Archived from the original on 11 March 2013. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
  31. Douglas, Torin (25 September 2008). "Analysis: Ofcom's regional news proposals". BBC News. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
  32. "Public Teletext Licence" (PDF). Ofcom. 17 December 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2007. Retrieved 27 September 2007.
  33. "Teletext Revocation Notice" (PDF). Ofcom. 29 January 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 December 2010. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
  34. BFBS TV IS CHANGING Archived 17 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  35. Murray-Watson, Andrew (10 September 2006). "ITV 'dumbing down' threatens ad revenues". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  36. Thomas, Liz (3 November 2010). "ITV has dumbed down and appeals to 'lowest common denominator' say its bosses". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  37. Sherryl Wilson (2005). "9". In Catherine Johnson and Rob Turnock (ed.). ITV Cultures: Independent Television over Fifty years. Maidenhead: Open University Press. pp. 159–176. ISBN   9780335217298.

Parent companies