|Starring|| Eric Fleming |
Raymond St. Jacques
|Theme music composer|| Dimitri Tiomkin (Music)|
Ned Washington (Lyrics)
|Opening theme||"Rawhide" performed by Frankie Laine|
|Composers|| Bernard Herrmann |
Don B. Ray
|Country of origin||United States|
|No. of seasons||8|
|No. of episodes||217 (list of episodes)|
|Executive producer||Ben Brady|
Vincent M. Fennelly
Bernard L. Kowalski
Charles Marquis Warren
Robert E. Thompson
|Production locations|| California |
Tucumcari, New Mexico
Philip H. Lathrop
John M. Nickolaus, Jr.
Gene Fowler Jr.
George A. Gittens
|Running time||50 min.|
|Production company||CBS Television Network Productions|
|Distributor||CBS Television Distribution|
|Picture format||Black-and-white 4:3|
|Original release||January 9, 1959 –|
December 7, 1965
Rawhide is an American Western TV series starring Eric Fleming and Clint Eastwood. The show aired for eight seasons on the CBS network on Friday nights, from January 9, 1959,to September 3, 1965, before moving to Tuesday nights from September 14, 1965, until January 4, 1966, with a total of 217 black-and-white episodes. The series was produced and sometimes directed by Charles Marquis Warren, who also produced early episodes of Gunsmoke .
Spanning seven and a half years, Rawhide was the sixth-longest-running American television Western, exceeded only by eight years of Wagon Train , nine years of The Virginian , fourteen years of Bonanza , eighteen years of Death Valley Days , and twenty years of Gunsmoke .
Set in the 1860s, Rawhide portrays the challenges faced by the drovers of a cattle drive. Most episodes are introduced with a monologue by Gil Favor (portrayed by Eric Fleming), trail boss. In a typical Rawhide story, the drovers come upon people on the trail and involve themselves in other people's affairs, usually encountering various and sundry corrupt individuals. Many times, one or more of the crew venture into a nearby town and encounter some trouble from crooked townspeople or lawless politicians from which they need to be rescued. Rowdy Yates (Clint Eastwood) was young and at times impetuous in the earliest episodes, and Favor had to keep a tight rein on him.
Favor is a savvy and strong leader who always plays "square" with his fellow men – a tough customer who can handle the challenges and get the job done. (Producer Charles Warren called on the diary written in 1866 by trail boss George C. Duffieldto shape the character of Favor.) Although Favor had the respect and loyalty of the men who worked for him, the people, including Yates, are insubordinate to him a few times, after working too hard or after receiving a tongue lashing. Favor has to fight at times and usually wins.
Some Rawhide stories were easy in production terms, but the peak form of the show was convincing and naturalistic, and sometimes brutal. Its story lines ranged from parched plains to anthrax, ghostly riders to wolves, cattle raiding, bandits, murderers, and others. A frequent story line was the constant need to find water for the cattle. The scout spent much of his time looking for water, sometimes finding that water holes and even rivers had dried up. In some ways, the show was similar to the TV series Wagon Train , which had debuted on NBC on September 18, 1957. For example, neither the wagon train nor the herd moved very much.
Rawhide frequently dealt with controversial topics. Robert Culp played an ex-soldier on the drive who had become dangerously addicted to morphine. Mexican drover Jesús faced racism at times from outside of the crew.
Several shows deal with the aftermath of the American Civil War, which ended four years earlier. The "Poco Tiempo" episode reveals that Yates' father's name was Dan, that Yates' came from Southwestern Texas, that he joined the Confederate States Army at 16, and that he was later held in a federal prison camp.
Favor also served in the CSA as a captain. "Incident on the Edge of Madness" in season one, guest-starring Lon Chaney Jr., had Favor's old commanding officer attempting to enlist the aid of Favor and his men to start the "New Confederacy of Panama" much to Favor's dismay. In that same episode Favor and Nolan were revealed to have been in the Confederate forces up on Marye's Heights at the Battle of Fredericksburg, and they "felt shamed" at killing so many Union soldiers. Some American Indians demanded cattle as payment for going through their land. Rough characters were in the shows, and in one episode Gil Favor is tortured by having his face held near a fire. In "Incident of the Town in Terror," people think that a sick Yates has "the plague" (anthrax) and they enforce by gunpoint a quarantine of the cattle drovers outside the town. Also, cattle rustlers were around, including Commancheros.
On occasions, Rawhide was eerily atmospheric. "Incident with an Executioner" featured a mysterious dark rider (Dan Duryea) seen on the hillside following the herd, "Incident of the Haunted Hills" featured a sacred Indian burial ground, "Incident of the Druid Curse" and season two's "Incident of the Murder Steer" (where anyone sighting a rogue steer with "Murder" carved on its side soon after dies, based on an actual legend of the Old West). The series also featured episodes with ghost towns, cattle with horns lit up by St. Elmo's fire at dusk, cowboys struck by lightning, plus a strange totally enclosed gypsy wagon, apparently steering itself, repeatedly turning up, all stand out as curiously "spooky" tales for a bustling dusty cattle drive; the show's often stark incidental music suited these stories perfectly.
In episode 67, "Incident Near the Promised Land" (most episode titles began with "Incident" until Bruce Geller and Bernard L. Kowalski became the producers for season six), the cattle drive finally reached Sedalia for the first time in the series. Unusually, episode 68 continues on from that, where the cattle have been sold and the men celebrate in town and decide on their futures with even Favor thinking of leaving the business. Instead of the usual ending, wherein Favor gives the command "Head 'em up! Move 'em out!" and the cattle move off, this episode had the end titles over a view of a Sedalia street.
Episode 69 has Favor visiting his two daughters, Gillian and Maggie, who live with their aunt Eleanor Bradley in Philadelphia. In episode 70, a number of the men are back together and heading back to San Antonio about 650 miles away, with a herd of horses (used in the titles) instead of cattle. Episode 71 has a new cattle drive ready to go, but the owner of 1600 of the cattle wants to be in charge, so Favor reluctantly signs on as a ramrod, but after problems, Favor becomes boss again at the end of the show. These five episodes made up one storyline instead of the usual single-episode stories which could have been set anywhere in the West.
Favor had many bad moments in the series, but none worse than the "Lost Herd" episode. Close to drive's finish, Favor wants to beat another herd to town to get the best prices. He takes a narrow shortcut; there is thunder and lightning, and the herd stampedes over the cliffs, leaving him just 9 out of 3000 cattle when the drive reaches town. He does not have the money to pay the drovers and has to face the owner (Royal Dano) whose cattle he has lost, knowing that he might never work in the business again.
From the second season, episodes began to feature individual cast members, notably Clint Eastwood's Yates (sole star in "Incident on the Day of The Dead" which opens season two); later, both Scout Pete Nolan (Sheb Wooley) and even cook G. W. Wishbone (Paul Brinegar) were featured as leads, while Fleming's Gil Favor remained in overall charge.
Pete Nolan (Wooley), the scout, departs as a regular cast member after "The Deserter's Patrol" (season four, episode 18, 9 Feb 1962), but returns for a single episode "Reunion" (episode 26, 6 April 1962), and for a further nine episodes in season seven from "Texas Fever" (episode 18, 5 February 1965).
Charles H. Gray's character Clay Forester, having played a villain in three episodes of season four (from "The Inside Man", episode 6), then reforms and replaces Nolan as scout from "The Greedy Town" (season four, episode 19). Gray remained in the regular cast for the rest of seasons four and five (though in a number of later episodes he is credited but not seen). Forrester reappeared later in "Incident of El Toro" in season six (episode 26, 9 April 1964).
Two other minor semiregular cast members were "Toothless" (William R. Thompkins) in seasons five and six, plus one season-seven appearance (sometimes uncredited), and "Yo Yo" (Paul Comi), who makes six appearances in season seven.
In the eighth and final season of Rawhide, Fleming left the series after an apparent disagreement with the producers. Rawhide had fallen in the ratings, from sixth in 1960-61 to 13th, 22nd, then 44th. Eric Fleming, who played Favor, was let go. "They fired me because they were paying me a million dollars a year" (actually $220,000), Fleming told TV Guide in 1965. Cast members Sheb Wooley, James Murdock, Rocky Shahan, and Robert Cabal were also let go.Eastwood was promoted to series star as Yates finally becomes the trail boss. This outcome was hinted at in earlier episodes when Favor indicates he is training Yates to replace him as trail boss. The impression given is this was a later cattle drive with Yates now in charge, at a time after Favor had either "retired" or given up as boss, presumably having made his money or opted for a career change, since no mention is ever made onscreen of him or the reason for his absence in the final season's episodes.
John Ireland as Jed Colby and Raymond St Jacques as Simon Blake also joined the Rawhide cast at this time, plus semi-regular minor cast member David Watson as Ian Cabot. With Fleming gone, ratings plunged and the revised format only lasted 13 episodes before Rawhide was suddenly cancelled in midseason.
Regular cast members included:
|First aired||Last aired|
|1||22||January 9, 1959||July 10, 1959|
|2||31||September 18, 1959||June 17, 1960|
|3||30||September 30, 1960||June 16, 1961|
|4||30||September 29, 1961||May 18, 1962|
|5||29||September 21, 1962||May 24, 1963|
|6||31||September 26, 1963||May 14, 1964|
|7||30||September 25, 1964||May 21, 1965|
|8||13||September 14, 1965||December 7, 1965|
Series producer Charles Marquis Warren based Rawhide on three sources:
Filming for the first season of Rawhide took place at Universal-International Studios in Hollywood.
The premiere episode of Rawhide reached the top 20 in the Nielsen ratings.
The show had a grueling production schedule, being mostly weekly with a three- to four-month break between seasons. After the first season of 22 episodes, seasons 2–7 were each 30 episodes. Often, the only way the lead actors could get a break was if they were said to be off on business. On rare occasions, the show would feature a small number of the actors and some misfortune, maybe in a town, which would give the others time off.
Eric Fleming drowned at the age of 41 when a canoe flipped over on location while filming the movie High Jungle in 1966.
The theme song's lyrics were written by Ned Washington in 1958. It was composed by Dimitri Tiomkin and sung by pop singer Frankie Laine. The theme song became very popular, and was covered several times and featured in movies such as The Blues Brothers and Shrek 2 .
The title sequence was animated by Ken Mundie of DePatie-Freleng Enterprises.(Final Season)
CBS DVD (distributed by Paramount) has released all eight seasons of Rawhide on DVD in Region 1.
On May 12, 2015, CBS DVD released Rawhide- The Complete Series on DVD in Region 1.
In Region 2, Rawhide has been released in Scandinavia. Season 1, by Noble Entertainment, two boxes, 2009-2010. Season one re-releasing in January 2014 by Soulmedia. Season 2 and season 3, by Soulmedia (season 2 in two boxes, and season 3 in four boxes). No more seasons will be released in Scandinavia.
Revelation Films has released the first three seasons on DVD in the UK.Season 4 will be released on March 23, 2015, followed by season 5 on June 22, 2015. They are released as complete season sets rather than two volumes.
In Region 4, Madman Entertainment has released all eight seasons on DVD in Australia. Each season in one box.Season 8, the Final Season, was released on October 5, 2011. DVD releases play heavily on Clint Eastwood's later fame, depicting him in the foreground as the chief character and crediting: "Clint Eastwood in...", however the original show credits for seasons one to seven actually depict the late Eric Fleming (as Gil Favor) being the lead cast member, with Eastwood as co-star (excepting a few later episodes where Eastwood is the sole star).
|DVD name||Ep No.||Region 1||Region 2 (UK)||Region 2 (Scandinavia)||Region 4|
|Season 1||22||July 25, 2006||November 15, 2010||October 28, 2009January 13, 2010||January 20, 2010|
|Season 2, Volume 1||16||May 29, 2007||April 11, 2011||September 22, 2010||March 9, 2010|
|Season 2, Volume 2||16||December 18, 2007||September 22, 2010|
|Season 3, Volume 1||15||May 27, 2008||July 11, 2011||September 28, 2011January 11, 2012||August 11, 2010|
|Season 3, Volume 2||15||December 9, 2008||February 15, 2012August 29, 2012|
|Season 4, Volume 1||15||June 7, 2011||June 6, 2016||Seasons 4–8, not to be released||September 27, 2010|
|Season 4, Volume 2||15||November 1, 2011|
|Season 5, Volume 1||15||September 18, 2012||September 5, 2016||February 2, 2011|
|Season 5, Volume 2||14|
|Season 6, Volume 1||16||June 4, 2013||TBA||May 2, 2011|
|Season 6, Volume 2||15||TBA|
|Season 7, Volume 1||15||March 4, 2014||TBA||August 3, 2011|
|Season 7, Volume 2||15||TBA|
|Season 8||13||June 3, 2014|
|The Complete Series||217||May 12, 2015|
On the Region 1 DVD sets, the episode "Incident of the Roman Candles" is included on both the Season One DVD set as well as the Season Two Volume One DVD set. Similarly, the episode "Abilene" is included on both the Season Four Volume Two DVD set as well as the Season Five Volume Two DVD set.
|Season||Time slot (ET)||Rank||Rating|
|1958–59||Friday at 8:00 pm (Episodes 1-15)|
Friday at 7:30 pm (Episodes 16-23)
|1959–60||Friday at 7:30 pm||18||25.8|
|1963–64||Thursday at 8:00 pm||Not in the Top 30|
|1964–65||Friday at 7:30 pm|
|1965–66||Friday at 7:30 pm (Episode 1)|
Tuesday at 7:30 pm (Episodes 2-12)
In 1961, Signet Books published a paperback original novel called Rawhide by Frank C. Robertson based upon the television show. Eric Fleming as Gil Favor and Clint Eastwood as Rowdy Yates are both on the front cover of the book. The book follows Favor, Yates, Wishbone and others as they try to get their herd to Sedalia ahead of a rival's herd. The book was published multiple times with the last run printed in 1986.
The TV show was also adapted into a comic book by Dan Spiegle, distributed by Dell Comics.
Clinton Eastwood Jr. is an American actor, film director, composer, and producer. After achieving success in the Western TV series Rawhide, he rose to international fame with his role as the "Man with No Name" in Italian filmmaker Sergio Leone's "Dollars Trilogy" of Spaghetti Westerns during the mid-1960s, and as antihero cop Harry Callahan in the five Dirty Harry films throughout the 1970s and 1980s. These roles, among others, have made Eastwood an enduring cultural icon of masculinity. His accolades include four Academy Awards, four Golden Globe Awards, three César Awards, and an AFI Life Achievement Award.
Shelby Fredrick "Sheb" Wooley was an American actor and singer. He recorded a series of novelty songs including the 1958 novelty song "The Purple People Eater" and under the name Ben Colder the #6 country hit "Almost Persuaded No. 2". He portrayed Cletus Summers, the principal of Hickory High School & assistant coach in the 1986 film Hoosiers; Ben Miller, brother of Frank Miller in the film High Noon; Travis Cobb in The Outlaw Josey Wales, and also had a co-starring role as scout Pete Nolan in the television series Rawhide. Wooley is also credited as the voice actor who produced the Wilhelm scream sound effect.
Strike Force is an American action-adventure/police procedural television series that aired on ABC during the 1981–1982 television season, and was produced by Aaron Spelling Productions. The program starred Robert Stack as Capt. Frank Murphy, the leader of a special unit of specialized detectives and police officers whose job is to stop violent criminals at any cost. Mixing elements of Stack's classic television series The Untouchables from 20 years earlier with doses of Mission: Impossible and Dirty Harry, the series immediately provoked controversy over its violence – at one point the series was labeled the most violent in American TV history – though the series attempted to interject liberal amounts of humor into its regular characters and balanced the violence by focusing on the detectives' personal lives.
"The Purple People Eater" is a novelty song written and performed by Sheb Wooley, which reached No. 1 in the Billboard pop charts in 1958 from June 9 to July 14, reached No. 12 overall in the UK Singles Chart and topped the Australian chart.
The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp is the first Western television series written for adults, premiering four days before Gunsmoke on September 6, 1955. Two weeks later came the Clint Walker western Cheyenne. The series is loosely based on the life of frontier marshal Wyatt Earp. The half-hour, black-and-white program aired for six seasons on ABC from 1955 to 1961, with Hugh O'Brian in the title role.
Rawhide (material) is a hide or animal skin that has not been tanned.
Television westerns are a subgenre of the Western, a genre of film, fiction, drama, television programming, etc., in which stories are set primarily in the later half of the 19th century in the American Old West, Western Canada and Mexico during the period from about 1860 to the end of the so-called "Indian Wars". More recent entries in the Western genre have placed events in the modern day but still draw inspiration from the outlaw attitudes prevalent in traditional Western productions.
Cattle drives were a major economic activity in the 19th and early 20th century American West, particularly between 1850s and 1910s. In this period, 27 million cattle were driven from Texas to railheads in Kansas, for shipment to stockyards in Louisiana and points east. The long distances covered, the need for periodic rests by riders and animals, and the establishment of railheads led to the development of "cow towns" across the frontier.
"Rawhide" is a Western song written by Ned Washington (lyrics) and composed by Dimitri Tiomkin in 1958. It was originally recorded by Frankie Laine. The song was used as the theme to Rawhide, a western television series that ran on CBS from 1959 to 1966. Members of the Western Writers of America chose it as one of the Top 100 Western songs of all time.
Paul Alden Brinegar Jr. was an American character actor best known for his roles in three Western series: The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp, Rawhide, and Lancer.
Eric Fleming was an American actor known primarily for his role as Gil Favor in the CBS television series Rawhide.
Peter Whitney was an American actor in film and television. Tall and heavyset, he played brutish villains in many Hollywood films in the 1940s and 1950s.
The Boy from Oklahoma is a 1954 Western movie directed by Michael Curtiz and starring Will Rogers, Jr.
Ben Cooper was an American actor of film and television, who won a Golden Boot Award in 2005 for his work in westerns.
Charles Marquis Warren was an American motion picture and television writer, producer, and director who specialized in Westerns. Among his notable career achievements were his involvement in creating the television series Rawhide and his work in adapting the radio series Gunsmoke for television.
Ronald R. Foster was an American actor.
Clint Eastwood was born May 31, 1930 in San Francisco, California to Clinton Eastwood Sr. and Margaret Ruth.
Dan Sheridan was an Irish-American actor who appeared in more than thirty-five television series between 1957 and his death at the age of forty-six in 1963. He was cast in forty-one episodes of the ABC/Warner Brothers western series, Lawman, starring John Russell and Peter Brown. In most of his Lawman appearances, Sheridan played the bartender, Jake Summers.
Cattle Empire is a 1958 Western DeLuxe Color movie in CinemaScope directed by Charles Marquis Warren, starring Joel McCrea and released by 20th Century Fox. The film also features Gloria Talbott, Don Haggerty, Phyllis Coates and Bing Russell and serves as something of a forerunner for director Warren's subsequent television series Rawhide starring Eric Fleming and Clint Eastwood, which used the picture's writer Endre Bohem as well as some of its supporting cast.
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