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Balkanisation (British English), or Balkanization (American English), is a geopolitical term for the process of fragmentation or division of a region or state into smaller regions or states that are often hostile or uncooperative with one another.
The term refers to the division of the Balkan peninsula, formerly ruled almost entirely by the Ottoman Empire, into a number of smaller states between 1817 and 1912.It was coined in the early 19th century and has a strong negative connotation. The term however came into common use in the immediate aftermath of the First World War, with reference to the numerous new states that arose from the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Ottoman Empire.
The larger countries within Europe, often being the result of the union of several historical regions or nations, have faced the perceived issue of Balkanisation. The Iberian Peninsula and Spain especially has from the time of Al-Andalus had to come to terms with Balkanisation,with several separatist movements existing today including the Basque Country and Catalan independentism.
Canada is a stable country but does harbor separatist movements, the strongest of which is the Quebec sovereignty movement which seeks to create a nation-state that would encompass the majority of Canada's French-Canadian population. Two referendums have been held to decide this question, one in 1980 and the last one in 1995 being lost by the separatist side by a small margin. Less mainstream, smaller movements also exist in the western provinces, namely Alberta, to protest what is seen as a domination by Quebec and Ontario of Canadian politics. Saskatchewan premier Roy Romanow had also considered separation from Canada if the 1995 Quebec independence referendum had succeeded; which maybe had led to the balkanisation of Canada.
Quebec has been the scene of a small but vociferous partition movement from the part of anglophone activist groups opposed to the idea of Independence of Quebec, as such a country would be dominated by Francophones on the order of 80%. One such project is the Proposal for the Province of Montreal, which wishes for the establishment of a separate province from Quebec for Montreal's strongly anglophone and immigrant communities.
In January 2007, regarding the growing support for Scottish independence, the then-Chancellor of the Exchequer of the United Kingdom, and later Prime Minister, Gordon Brown had talked of a "Balkanisation of Britain".Independence movements within Great Britain also exist in England, Wales, Cornwall, and Northern Ireland.
As Bates, Coatsworth & Williamson would argue, Balkanisation had been observed to a great extent in Africa. During the 1960s, countries in the Communauté Financière Africaine started to opt for "autonomy within the French community" in this post-colonial era.
Countries within the CFA zone were not only allowed to impose tariffs, but also regulate trade and manage transport services. Zambia, Malawi, Uganda and Tanzania achieved independence in the post-colonial era. This period also saw the break down of the Federation of the Rhodesias and Nyasaland as well as the East African High Commission. Balkanisation was a result of the movement further towards a closed economy. Countries were adopting antitrade and anti-market policies. Tariff rates were around 15% higher than OECD countries during the 1970s and 1980s.Furthermore, countries took approaches to subsidise their own local industries yet the market within the country was small-scale. Transport networks were fragmented; regulations on labor and capital flow were more regulated; prices were under control. Between 1960 and 1990, Balkanisation led to disastrous results. The GDP of these regions were one-tenth of OECD countries. Balkanisation also resulted in what van de Valle called "typically fairly overvalued exchanged rates" in Africa. Balkanisation contributed to what Bates, Coatsworth & Williamson claimed to be a lost decade in Africa.
Economic situations only took a turn during the mid-1990s. Countries within the region started to input more stabilization policies. What was originally a high exchange rate eventually fell to a more reasonable exchange rate after devaluations in 1994. Eighteen countries had an exchange rate 50% higher than the official exchange rate, by 1994, the number of countries that had such exchange rate was decreased to four.However, there is still limited progress in improving trade policies within the region according to van de Walle. In addition, the post-independent countries still rely heavily on donors for development plans. Balkanisation still has an impact on today's Africa.
Balkanisation has been claimed to apply to Lebanon's political division between Muslims and Christians and to the Syrian civil war , as an attempt to create buffer states based on ethnic backgrounds in the Levant near Israel for its protection.
Secession is the withdrawal of a group from a larger entity, especially a political entity, but also from any organization, union or military alliance. Some of the most famous and significant secessions have been: the former Soviet republics leaving the Russian Federation, and Algeria leaving France. Threats of secession can be a strategy for achieving more limited goals. It is, therefore, a process, which commences once a group proclaims the act of secession. A secession attempt might be violent or peaceful, but the goal is the creation of a new state or entity independent from the group or territory it seceded from.
A common definition of separatism is that it is the advocacy of a state of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group. While it often refers to full political secession, separatist groups may seek nothing more than greater autonomy. While some critics may equate separatism with religious segregation, racist segregation, or sexist segregation, most separatists argue that separation by choice may serve useful purposes and is not the same as government-enforced segregation. There is some academic debate about this definition, and in particular how it relates to secessionism, as has been discussed online.
The Quebec sovereignty movement is a political movement as well as an ideology of values, concepts and ideas that advocates independence for the Canadian province of Quebec.
The politics of Quebec are centred on a provincial government resembling that of the other Canadian provinces, namely a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy. The capital of Quebec is Quebec City, where the Lieutenant Governor, Premier, the legislature, and cabinet reside.
Quebec nationalism or Québécois nationalism asserts that the Québécois people are a nation, distinct from the rest of Canada; it promotes the unity of the Québécois people in the province of Quebec.
Quebec has played a special role in French history; the modern province occupies much of the land where French settlers founded the colony of Canada in the 17th and 18th centuries. The population is predominantly French-speaking and Roman Catholic, with a large Anglophone minority, augmented in recent years by immigrants from Asia. The political alienation of the Francophones from the Anglophones has been a persistent theme since the late 19th century. Tensions were especially high during the First World War. Historically, British merchants and financiers controlled the economy and dominated Montreal. The Catholic Church, in close cooperation with the landowners, led a highly traditional social structure in rural and small town Quebec. Much of that changed during the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s. Quebec's separatists, calling for an independent nation, gained strength but were narrowly defeated in two referenda. Quebec imposed increasingly stringent laws favouring the French language; many Anglophones left, as did many of the national and international corporations that had been based in Montreal. From 1966, Montreal's population fell until the 1980s, according to census data. Montreal had been twice the size of Toronto for almost all of the 20th Century. But by 2001, it was finally, no longer the largest city in Canada.
The Parti Acadien was a political party in New Brunswick, Canada, in the 1970s and 1980s. The party was founded in 1972 by Acadians who were upset over poorer living conditions in predominantly francophone areas of the province versus those areas dominated by anglophones. The economy of New Brunswick was concentrated in the cities of Fredericton, Saint John and Moncton, while the eastern and northern parts of New Brunswick, predominantly Francophone, was relatively poorer as a result of an economy based primarily on entrenched and seasonal commercial fishing and lumber industries.
The Mouvement Souveraineté-Association was a separatist movement formed on November 19, 1967 by René Lévesque to promote the concept of sovereignty-association between Quebec and the rest of Canada.
Saint-Hubert is a borough in the city of Longueuil, located in the Montérégie region of Quebec, Canada. It had been a separate city prior to January 1, 2002, when it along with several other neighbouring south shore municipalities were merged into Longueuil. According to the Quebec Statistics Institute, Saint-Hubert had 78,336 in 2006. The area of the borough is 65.98 km2 (25.48 sq mi). Longueuil's city hall is now located in Saint-Hubert. Saint-Hubert is located about 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) from downtown Montreal.
Ambazonia, also known as Amba Land, is a proto-state in the territory also known as Southern Cameroons. In 2017, the Southern Cameroons Ambazonia Consortium United Front (SCACUF) declared Ambazonia to be an independent nation, while the Cameroonian government stated that the declaration has no legal weight. Violence and war ensued to the declaration and this is known as the Anglophone Crisis. Efforts by Cameroon to divide Ambazonia internally through her imprisoned former leader Julius Ayuk Tabe in the 2019 Ambazonian leadership crisis have met unparalleled resolve for independence in Ambazonia, evidence in boycotted presidential polls and parliamentary elections.
In politics, regionalism is a political ideology focusing on the "development of a political or social system based on one or more" regions and/or the national, normative or economic interests of a specific region, group of regions or another subnational entity, gaining strength from or aiming to strengthen the "consciousness of and loyalty to a distinct region with a homogeneous population", similarly to nationalism. More specifically, "regionalism refers to three distinct elements: movements demanding territorial autonomy within unitary states; the organization of the central state on a regional basis for the delivery of its policies including regional development policies; political decentralization and regional autonomy".
There have been various movements within Canada for secession.
Anti-Quebec sentiment is opposition or hostility expressed toward the government, culture, or the francophone people of Quebec.
The partition of Quebec refers to the secession of regions of the province of Quebec, rather than to partitions in a strict political sense. It is usually discussed as a possibility in the event of Quebec secession from Canada. It was not a key issue in either the 1980 Referendum on Quebec Sovereignty or the 1995 Referendum on Quebec Sovereignty, but dominated the politics of national unity for about two years in the aftermath of the second referendum. Since then, the issue has occasionally resurfaced.
Left-wing nationalism or leftist nationalism, also known as social nationalism and referred to as Nationalist Socialism or socialist nationalism, is a form of nationalism based upon social equality, popular sovereignty and national self-determination. Left-wing nationalism can also include anti-imperialism and national liberation movements.
Sino-Serbian relations are foreign relations between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Serbia. Relations have been maintained since SFR Yugoslavia's recognition of PR China on October 1, 1949, while diplomatic relations between the two countries were formally established by the exchange of diplomatic notes between the two Foreign Ministers on January 2, 1955. China has an embassy in Belgrade and also maintains an office in Priština based on consent of the Government of Serbia from November 2006. Serbia has an embassy in Beijing and a consulate-general in Shanghai. In 2017, Serbia and China mutually abolished the requirement of obtaining an entry visa for its citizens.
There has historically been, and continues to be, several rival nationalisms in Canada. Canadians have differing cultural and political identifications which often overlap. Loyalty towards Canada is tempered by strong regional and ethnic identities, and an affinity toward a common North American culture shared with the United States.
The Anglophone Crisis, also known as the Ambazonia War, or the Cameroonian Civil War, is a conflict in the Southern Cameroons region of Cameroon, part of the long-standing Anglophone problem. In September 2017, separatists in the Anglophone territories of Northwest Region and Southwest Region declared the independence of Ambazonia and began fighting against the Government of Cameroon. Starting as a low-scale insurgency, the conflict spread to most parts of the Anglophone regions within a year. As of the summer of 2019, the government controls the major cities and parts of the countryside, while the separatists hold parts of the countryside and regularly appear in the major cities.
The Interim Government of Ambazonia is the provisional government in exile of the internationally unrecognized Federal Republic of Ambazonia.
The Ambazonia Governing Council (AGC) is an Amabzonian political organization.