|c. 7 to 10 million|
|Regions with significant populations|
| Islam (majority)|
Sunnism · Bektashism · Sufism
Catholicism (Albanian Greek Catholic · Italian Albanian Catholic) · Eastern Orthodoxy (Albanian Orthodox) · Protestantism
a 502,546 Albanian citizens, an additional 43,751 Kosovo Albanians and 260,000 Arbëreshë people
b Albanians are not recognized as a minority in Turkey. However approximately 500,000 people are reported to profess an Albanian identity. Of those with full or partial Albanian ancestry and others who have adopted Turkish language, culture and identity their number is estimated at 1,300,000–5,000,000 many whom do not speak Albanian.
c The estimation contains Kosovo Albanians.
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The Albanians ( // ; Albanian : Shqiptarët, pronounced [ʃcipˈta:ɾət]) are an ethnic group native to the Balkan Peninsula and are identified by a common Albanian ancestry, culture, history and language. They primarily live in Albania, Kosovo , North Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia as well as in Croatia, Greece and Italy. They also constitute a diaspora with several communities established in the Americas, Europe and Oceania.
Albanian is an Indo-European language spoken by the Albanians in the Balkans and the Albanian diaspora in the Americas, Europe and Oceania. With about 7.5 million speakers, it comprises an independent branch within the Indo-European languages and is not closely related to any other language in Europe.
An ethnic group, a people group, a people, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other, usually on the basis of a presumed common genealogy or ancestry or on similarities such as common language, history, society, culture or nation. Ethnicity is often used synonymously with the term nation, particularly in cases of ethnic nationalism, and is separate from but related to the concept of races.
Cultural heritage is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that is inherited from past generations.
The ethnogenesis of the Albanians and the Albanian language is a matter of controversy among the historians and ethnologists. They appear for the first time in historical records from the 11th century mentioning a tribe of people living in the area which today constitutes the mountainous region around the Mat and Drin.The Shkumbin splits the Albanians into two cultural and linguistical subgroups, the Ghegs and Tosks, though both groups identify with a common ethnic and national culture.
Ethnogenesis is "the formation and development of an ethnic group." This can originate through a process of self-identification as well as come about as the result of outside identification.
A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race; as well as the study of all history in time. If the individual is concerned with events preceding written history, the individual is a historian of prehistory. Some historians are recognized by publications or training and experience. "Historian" became a professional occupation in the late nineteenth century as research universities were emerging in Germany and elsewhere.
The Mat is a river in north-central Albania. Its overall length is 115 km (71 mi), while its catchment surface is 2,441 km2 (942 sq mi). Its average discharge is 103 m3/s (3,600 cu ft/s). The main tributary is Fan, flowing from the northeast, while the Mat flows from the southwest down to the confluence with Fan and then towards the Adriatic Sea.
The history of the Albanian diaspora is centuries old and has its roots in migration from the Middle Ages, initially established in Southern Europe and subsequently on across other parts of the world. Between the 13th and 18th centuries, sizeable numbers of Albanians migrated to escape either various social, economic or political difficulties.
The Albanian diaspora are the ethnic Albanians and their descendants living outside of Albania, Kosovo, Southeast Montenegro, West North Macedonia, Southeast Serbia and Northwest Greece.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages.
Southern Europe is the southern region of the European continent. Most definitions of Southern Europe, also known as Mediterranean Europe, include Italy, Malta, Corsica, Greece, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Slovenia, Spain, East Thrace of European Turkey, Cyprus and Northern Cyprus. Portugal, Andorra, Vatican City, San Marino, Serbia, Kosovo and North Macedonia are also often included despite not having a coast in the Mediterranean. Some definitions may also include mainland Southern France and Monaco, which are otherwise considered parts of Western Europe, and Bulgaria, which is otherwise considered part of Eastern Europe.
One population who became the Arvanites settled Southern Greece between the 13th and 16th centuries assimilating into and now self-identifying as Greeks.Another population who emerged as the Arbëreshës settled Sicily and Southern Italy constituting the oldest continuous Albanian diaspora. Smaller populations such as the Arbanasis whose migration dates back to the 18th century are located in Southern Croatia and scattered across Southern Ukraine.
Arvanites are a bilingual population group in Greece who traditionally speak Arvanitika, a dialect of Albanian, along with Greek. They settled in southern Greece during the late Middle Ages and were the dominant population element in parts of the Peloponnese, Attica and Boeotia until the 19th century. Arvanites today self-identify as Greeks as a result of a process of assimilation, and do not consider themselves Albanian. They call themselves Arvanites and Arbëror. Arvanitika is in a state of attrition due to language shift towards Greek and large-scale internal migration to the cities and subsequent intermingling of the population during the 20th century.
Hellenization or Hellenisation is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC. The result of Hellenization was that elements of Greek origin combined in various forms and degrees with local elements; these Greek influences spread from the Mediterranean basin as far east as modern-day Pakistan. In modern times, Hellenization has been associated with the adoption of modern Greek culture and the ethnic and cultural homogenization of Greece.
The Arbëreshë, also known as Albanians of Italy or Italo-Albanians, are an Albanian ethnolinguistic group in Southern Italy, mostly concentrated in scattered villages in the regions of Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Molise and Sicily. They are the descendants of mostly Tosk Albanian refugees, who fled from Albania between the fourteenth and eighteenth centuries in consequence of the Ottoman invasion of the Balkans.
In the 13th century, the Ghegs converted to Roman Catholicism from Eastern Orthodoxy as a means to resist the Slavic Serbs.In the 15th century, Skanderbeg led the medieval Albanian resistance to the Ottoman conquest. During the 17th and 18th centuries, Albanians in large numbers converted to Islam, in part due to the privileged legal and social position of Muslims in the empire and coercion by Ottoman authorities in times of war.
The Ghegs are one of two major ethnic subgroups of Albanians differentiated by their cultural, linguistic, social and religious characteristics. The Ghegs live in Albania, Kosovo, North Macedonia and Montenegro. The name Gheg is derived from the term initially used by Orthodox population of pre-Ottoman Albania for confessional denotation when referring to their Catholic neighbors who converted to Catholicism to better resist the Orthodox Serbs. The Ghegs speak Gheg Albanian, one of the two main dialects of Albanian language. The social organization of the Ghegs was traditionally tribal, with several distinct tribal groups of Ghegs.
Slavs are modern Indo-European peoples who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe all the way north and eastwards to Northeast Europe, Northern Asia (Siberia), and Central Asia, as well as historically in Western Europe and Western Asia. From the early 6th century they spread to inhabit the majority of Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. Today, there is a large Slavic diaspora throughout North America, particularly in the United States and Canada as a result of immigration.
The Serbs are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans. The majority of Serbs inhabit the nation state of Serbia, as well as the disputed territory of Kosovo, and the neighboring countries of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Montenegro. They form significant minorities in North Macedonia and Slovenia. There is a large Serb diaspora in Western Europe, and outside Europe there are significant communities in North America and Australia.
Albanians attained important political and military positions within the Ottoman Empire and culturally contributed to the wider Muslim world.Following the Albanian National Awakening, during the Balkan Wars, in 1912, Albanians were partitioned between the newly-formed Independent Albania and Serbia, Greece and Montenegro. From 1945 to 1992, Albania was ruled by a communist government. Albanians in neighbouring Yugoslavia underwent periods of discrimination that concluded with the breakup of that state in the early 1990s and eventually the independence of Kosovo in 2008.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced. In a modern geopolitical sense, these terms refer to countries where Islam is widespread, although there are no agreed criteria for inclusion. The term Muslim-majority countries is an alternative often used for the latter sense.
The Albanian National Awakening, commonly known as the Albanian Renaissance or National Renaissance or National Revival, refers to a social, cultural and political movement in the history of Albania from the 19th century until the declaration of independence in 1912 that advocated the revival of Albanian culture, language, customs, and the creation of the country of Albania. The activists are called Revivalists.
The Balkan Wars consisted of two conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula in 1912 and 1913. Four Balkan states defeated the Ottoman Empire in the first war. In the Second Balkan War, Bulgaria fought against all four original combatants of the first war along with facing a surprise attack from Romania from the north. The conflicts ended catastrophically for the Ottoman Empire, which lost the bulk of its territory in Europe. Austria-Hungary, although not a combatant, became relatively weaker as a much enlarged Serbia pushed for union of the South Slavic peoples. The war set the stage for the Balkan crisis of 1914 and thus served as a "prelude to the First World War".
The Albanians (Albanian : Shqiptarët) and their country Albania (Albanian : Shqipëria) have been identified by many ethnonyms. The most common native ethnonym is "Shqiptar", plural "Shqiptarë"; the name "Albanians" (Byzantine Greek: Albanoi/Arbanitai/Arbanites; Latin: Albanenses/Arbanenses) was used in medieval documents, that gradually entered European languages from which other similar derivative names emerged.
From these ethnonyms, names for Albanians were also derived in other languages, that were or still are in use.In English "Albanians"; Italian "Albanesi"; German "Albaner"; Greek "Arvanites", "Alvanitis" (Αλβανίτης) plural: "Alvanites" (Αλβανίτες), "Alvanos" (Αλβανός) plural: "Alvanoi" (Αλβανοί); Turkish "Arnaut", "Arnavut"; South Slavic languages "Arbanasi" (Арбанаси), "Albanci" (Албанци); Aromanian "Arbineş" and so on.
The term "Albanoi" (Αλβανοί) is first encountered twice in the works of Byzantine historian Michael Attaliates, and the term "Arvanitai" (Αρβανίται) is used once by the same author. He referred to the "Albanoi" as having taken part in a revolt against the Byzantine Empire in 1043, and to the "Arbanitai" as subjects of the Duke of Dyrrachium (modern Durrës).These references have been disputed as to whether they refer to the people of Albania. Historian E. Vranoussi believes that these "Albanoi" were Normans from Sicily. She also notes that the same term (as "Albani") in medieval Latin meant "foreigners".
The reference to "Arvanitai" from Attaliates regarding the participation of Albanians in a rebellion around 1078 is undisputed.In later Byzantine usage, the terms "Arbanitai" and "Albanoi" with a range of variants were used interchangeably, while sometimes the same groups were also called by the classicising name Illyrians. The first reference to the Albanian language dates to the latter 13th century (around 1285).
The ethnonym Albanian has been hypothesized to be connected to and stem from the Albanoi ,an Illyrian tribe mentioned by Ptolemy with their centre at the city of Albanopolis. Linguists believe that the alb part in the root word originates from an Indo-European term for a type of mountainous topography, from which other words such as alps are derived. Through the root word alban and its rhotacized equivalents arban, albar, and arbar, the term in Albanian became rendered as Arbëneshë/Arbëreshë for the people and Arbënia/Arbëria for the country. The Albanian language was referred to as Arbnisht and Arbërisht. While the exonym Albania for the general region inhabited by the Albanians does have connotations to Classical Antiquity, the Albanian language employs a different ethnonym, with modern Albanians referring to themselves as Shqip(ë)tarë and to their country as Shqipëria. Two etymologies have been proposed for this ethnonym: one, derived from the etymology from the Albanian word for eagle (shqipe, var., shqiponjë). In Albanian folk etymology, this word denotes a bird totem, dating from the times of Skanderbeg as displayed on the Albanian flag. The other is within scholarship that connects it to the verb 'to speak' (me shqiptue) from the Latin "excipere". In this instance the Albanian endonym like Slav and others would originally have been a term connoting "those who speak [intelligibly, the same language]". The new ethnonyms Shqip(ë)tarë and Shqipëria emerged and replaced the older ethnonyms Arbëneshë/Arbëreshë and Arbënia/Arbëria between the late 17th and early 18th centuries. That era brought about religious and other sociopolitical changes. As such a new and generalised response by Albanians based on ethnic and linguistic consciousness to this new and different Ottoman world emerging around them was a change in ethnonym.
A text, compiled around the beginning of the 11th century in the Bulgarian language, contains possibly a reference to the Albanian people.It is preserved in a manuscript written in the Serbo-Croatian language traced back to the 17th century but published in the 20th century by Radoslav Grujic. It is a fragment of a once longer text that endeavours to explain the origins of peoples and languages in a question-and-answer form similar to a catechism.
The fragmented manuscript differentiated the world into seventy-two languages and three religious categories including Christians, half-believers and non-believers. Grujic dated it to the early 11th century and if this and the identification of the Arbanasi, as Albanians, are correct it would be the earliest written document referring to the Albanian people as a people or language group.
It can be seen that there are various languages on earth. Of them, there are five Orthodox languages: Bulgarian, Greek, Syrian, Iberian (Georgian) and Russian. Three of these have Orthodox alphabets: Greek, Bulgarian and Iberian. There are twelve languages of half-believers: Alamanians, Franks, Magyars (Hungarians), Indians, Jacobites, Armenians, Saxons, Lechs (Poles), Arbanasi (Albanians), Croatians, Hizi and Germans.
The first undisputed mention of Albanians in the historical record is attested in Byzantine source for the first time in 1079–1080, in a work titled History by Byzantine historian Michael Attaliates, who referred to the Albanoi as having taken part in a revolt against Constantinople in 1043 and to the Arbanitai as subjects of the duke of Dyrrachium. It is disputed, however, whether the "Albanoi" of the events of 1043 refers to Albanians in an ethnic sense or whether "Albanoi" is a reference to Normans from Sicily under an archaic name (there was also a tribe in Italy by the name of "Albanoi").However a later reference to Albanians from the same Attaleiates, regarding the participation of Albanians in a rebellion around 1078, is undisputed. At this point, they are already fully Christianized, although Albanian mythology and folklore are part of the Paleo-Balkan pagan mythology, in particular showing Greek influence.
From the late 11th century the Albanians were called Arbën/Arbër and their country as Arbanon,a mountainous area to the west of Lake Ochrida and the upper valley of the river Shkumbin. It was in 1190, when the rulers of Arbanon (local Albanian noble called Progon and his sons Dhimitër and Gjin) created their principality with its capital at Krujë. After the fall of Progon Dynasty in 1216, the principality came under Grigor Kamona and Gulam of Albania. Finally the Principality was dissolved in 1255. Around 1230 the two main centers of Albanian settlements, one around Devoll river in what is now central Albania, and the other around the region which was known with the name Arbanon.
In 1271 Charles of Anjou created the Kingdom of Albania, after he captured a part of the Despotate of Epirus.A major attempt to advance further in direction of Constantinople failed at the Siege of Berat (1280–1281). A Byzantine counteroffensive soon ensued, which drove the Angevins out of the interior by 1281. The Sicilian Vespers further weakened the position of Charles, and the Kingdom was soon reduced by the Epirotes to a small area around Durrës. The kingdom however held out until 1368, when the city was captured by Karl Thopia. The presence of the kingdom reinforced the influence of Catholicism and the conversion to its rite, not only in the region of Durrës but in other parts of the country. A new wave of Catholic dioceses, churches and monasteries were founded, a number of different religious orders began spreading into the country, and papal missionaries also reached the territories of the Kingdom of Albania. Those who were not Catholic in Central and North Albania converted and a great number of Albanian clerics and monks were present in the Dalmatian Catholic institutions.
In the 14th century a number of Albanian principalities were created. These included Principality of Kastrioti, Principality of Dukagjini, Princedom of Albania, and Principality of Gjirokastër. At the beginning of the 15th century these principalities became stronger, especially because of the fall of the Serbian Empire. Some of these principalities were united in 1444 under the military alliance called League of Lezha.
At the dawn of the establishment of the Ottoman Empire in Southeast Europe, the geopolitical landscape was marked by scattered kingdoms of small principalities. The Ottomans erected their garrisons throughout southern Albania by 1415 and established formal jurisdiction over most of Albania by 1431.However, in 1443 a great and longstanding revolt broke under the lead of the Albanian national hero Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg, which lasted until 1479, many times defeating major Ottoman armies led by sultans Murad II and Mehmed II. Skanderbeg united initially the Albanian princes and later established a centralized authority over most of the non-conquered territories, becoming Lord of Albania. He also tried relentlessly but rather unsuccessfully to create a European coalition against the Ottomans. He frustrated every attempt by the Turks to regain Albania, which they envisioned as a springboard for the invasion of Italy and western Europe. His unequal fight against the mightiest power of the time won the esteem of Europe as well as some support in the form of money and military aid from Naples, the papacy, Venice, and Ragusa. Finally after decades of resistance, Ottomans captured Shkodër in 1479 and Durrës in 1501. Skanderbeg's long struggle to keep Albania free became highly significant to the Albanian people, as it strengthened their solidarity, made them more conscious of their national identity, and served later as a great source of inspiration in their struggle for national unity, freedom, and independence. The invasion triggered a several waves of migration of Albanians from Albania, Epirus and Peloponnese to the south of Italy, constituting an Arbereshe community. Albanians were recruited all over Europe as a light cavalry known as stratioti. The stratioti were pioneers of light cavalry tactics during this era. In the early 16th century heavy cavalry in the European armies was principally remodeled after Albanian stradioti of the Venetian army, Hungarian hussars and German mercenary cavalry units (Schwarzreitern). By the 16th century, Ottoman rule over Southeast Europe was largely secure. The Ottomans proceeded in stages, first appointing a qadi along with governors and then military retainers in the cities. Timar holders, not necessarily converts to Islam, would occasionally rebel, the most famous case of which is Skanderbeg. His figure would be used later in the 19th century as a central component of Albanian national identity. Ottoman control over the Albanian territories was secured in 1571 when Ulcinj, presently in Montenegro, was captured.
The most significant impact on the Albanians was the gradual Islamization process of a large majority of the population, although such a process only became widespread in the 17th century.Mainly Catholics converted in the 17th century, while the Orthodox Albanians became Muslim mainly in the following century. Initially confined to the main city centres of Elbasan and Shkodër, by this time the countryside was also embracing the new religion. In Elbasan Muslims made up just over half the population in 1569–70 whereas in Shkodër this was almost 90% and in Berat closer to 60%. In the 17th century, however, Catholic conversion to Islam increased, even in the countryside. The motives for conversion according to scholars were diverse, depending on the context. The lack of source-material does not help when investigating such issues. Reasons in various different contexts included the incentive to escape high taxes levied on Christian subjects, ecclesiastical decay, coercion by Ottoman authorities in times of war, and the privileged legal and social position Muslims had over that of Christians within the empire.
Areas such as Albania, Western Macedonia, Southern Serbia, Kosovo, parts of northern Greece and southern Montenegro in Ottoman sources were referred to as Arnavudluk or Albania.The Ottoman period that followed in Albania after the end of Skanderbeg's resistance was characterized by other changes. Many Albanians gained prominent positions in the Ottoman government such as: Iljaz Hoxha, Hamza Kastrioti, Koca Davud Pasha, Zağanos Pasha, Köprülü Mehmed Pasha (head of the Köprülü family of Grand Viziers), the Bushati family, Sulejman Pasha, Edhem Pasha, Nezim Frakulla, Haxhi Shekreti, Hasan Zyko Kamberi, Ali Pasha of Gucia, Muhammad Ali of Egypt and Ali Pasha of Tepelena who rose to become one of the most powerful Muslim Albanian rulers in western Rumelia. During the Ottoman era Albanians involved in imperial service could also be found across the empire in Egypt, Algeria and across the Maghreb as vital military and administrative retainers.
The Albanian Renaissance characterised a period when the Albanian people gathered spiritual and intellectual strength to establish their right for an independent political and social life as well as for own culture and education. Its foundation arose in the Albanian diaspora in Italy and Romania in the late 18th and early 19th centuries and often linked to the influence of Romanticism and Enlightenment principles.
In the 1870s, the Sublime Porte's reforms aimed at checking the Ottoman Empire's disintegration had clearly failed. The image of the "Turkish yoke" had become fixed in the nationalist mythologies and psyches of the people in the Balkan peninsula, and their march toward independence quickened. Because of the higher degree of Islamic influence, the Albanians internal social divisions, and the fear that they would lose their Albanian-inhabited territories to the emerging Balkan states, Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, and Greece, were the last of the peoples in the Balkans to desire division from the Ottomans.
The national awakening as a coherent political movement began after the Treaty of San Stefano, according to which Albanian-inhabited territories were to be ceded to other states of the Balkans, and focused on preventing that partition.The Treaty of San Stefano was the impetus for the nation-building movement, which was based more on fear of partition than national identity. Even after, Albania declared independence on 28 November 1912, national identity was fragmented and possibly non-existent in much of the newly proposed country. The state of disunity and fragmentation would remain until the communist period following second World War, when the communist nation-building project would achieve greater success in nation-building and reach more people than any previous regime, thus creating Albanian national communist identity.
Approximately 5 million Albanians are geographically distributed across the Balkan Peninsula with about half this number living in Albania, Kosovo, North Macedonia and Montenegro as well as to a much smaller extent in Croatia and Serbia. There are also significant Albanian populations in Greece while much smaller communities are available in nearby Bulgaria and Romania.
In Montenegro, the Albanian population of Montenegro is currently estimated to be around 30.000 forming as well as one of the constituent minority groups of the country.They predominantly live in the coastal region of Montenegro around the municipalities of Ulcinj and Bar but also around Plav and the capital city of Podgorica.
In North Macedonia, there are approximately 500.000 Albanians constituting the largest minority group in the country.The vast majority of the Albanians are largely concentrated around the municipalities of Tetovo, Gostivar, Struga and Skopje largely in the northwest and southwest of North Macedonia.
In Romania, the Albanians are recognized as a minority group and are hence represented in Parliament of Romania and enjoy ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious rights in the country.The migration of Albanian to the territory of Romania dates back to the 16th century however the actual number of Albanians in Romania is unofficially estimated at around 500 to 10.000.
An estimated 2.2 million Albanians live in the territory of Former Yugoslavia, the greater part, which is close to two million, in Kosovo. Rights to use the Albanian language in education and government were given and guaranteed by the 1974 Constitution of SFRY and were widely utilized in Macedonia and in Montenegro before the Dissolution of Yugoslavia.
The presence of Albanians in Kosovo as well as in the adjacent regions of Toplica and Morava is recorded since the Middle Ages.As the Serbs expelled many Albanians from the wider Toplica and Morava regions in Southern Serbia, which the 1878 Congress of Berlin had given to the Principality of Serbia, many of them settled in Kosovo. In Kosovo, they and their descendants are known as Muhaxher (meaning the exiled, from the Arabic muhajir).
During the First Balkan War, Serbia and Montenegro, after expelling the Ottoman forces in present-day Albania and Kosovo, committed numerous war crimes against the Albanians, which were reported by the European, American and Serbian opposition press.Further during the Kosovo War, Serbian paramilitary forces committed war crimes in Kosovo, although the Serbian government claims that the army was only going after suspected Albanian terrorists. This triggered a 78-day NATO campaign in 1999. Nowadays, Albanians in Kosovo constitute the majority with 1,616,869 million.
Culturally, Albanians in Kosovo are very closely related to Albanians in Albania. Traditions and customs differ even from town to town in Kosovo itself. The spoken dialect is Gheg, typical of northern Albanians. The language of state institutions, education, books, media and newspapers is the standard dialect of Albanian, which is closer to the Tosk dialect. The most widespread religion among Albanians in Kosovo is Islam, mostly Sunni, and Roman Catholicism.
The second known as the Албанці (Albantsi) are located in scattered communities across southern Ukraine and descend from Albanian warriors who fought against the Ottoman Empire during the Russo-Turkish wars and allowed to settle in the Russian Empire.
The Albanian migration to Italy can be broadly categorised into several migration cycles that occurred throughout history which in turn can be attributed to factors such as political or religious difficulties that emerged in the Balkan Peninsula. It dates back between the 15th and 17th centuries as once numerous Albanian and other Balkan soldiers, known as the Stratioti, were recruited to the Italian Peninsula as prominent mercenaries by the Neapolitans, Sicilians and Venetians.The Stratiotis, composed of Christians and Muslims, served initially for the Republic of Venice in their campaigns, among others, against the Ottoman Empire.
The Arbëreshës are the traditional Albanian population of Italy and started to settle Southern Italy following the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans and Constantinople between the 14th and 16th centuries.Today, the Albanian community constitute one of the largest ethnolinguistic minority in Italy which is protected by law.
The total number of Arbëreshës is approximately 260,000 scattered across Sicily, Calabria and Apulia.There are as well numbers outside of Italy such as in North and South America, especially in such countries as Argentina, Canada, Chile, Uruguay and the United States.
Centuries later in the end of the 20th century occurred another and simultaneously the largest migration cycle of Albanians to Italy surpassing the earlier migration of the Arbëreshë. Their migration stems from severe political and social oppression during decades of isolation from the outside world under the communist regime leaded by Enver Hoxha.
Between 2015 and 2016, the number of Albanians regularly residing in Italy was numbered to be around 480,000 and 500,000.Tuscany, Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna represent the regions with the strongest presence of the modern Albanian population in Italy. In 2012, 41.5% of the Albanian population were counted as Muslim, 38.9% as Christian including 27.7% as Roman Catholic and 11% as Eastern Orthodox and 17.8% as Irreligious.
In Croatia, the Albanian language is one of the officially recognized minority languages of the country and is primarily spoken by the Albanians and Arbanasis.As defined in the 2011 census, the number of Albanians in the country was estimated to be 17,513. They are mostly concentrated in the coastal cities of Croatia and the capital city of Zagreb.
The history of Albanian presence in Croatia can be traced back to the Middle Ages [ vague ]. In this period, there was a significant Albanian community in Ragusa with numerous families of Albanian origin inclusively the Sorgo family who came from the Cape of Rodon in central Albania, across Kotor in eastern Montenegro, to Dalmatia.
By the 13th century, Albanian merchants were trading directly with the peoples of the Republic of Ragusa which increased familiarity between Albanians and Ragusans.The capture of Albania by the Ottoman Empire and the death of Skanderbeg caused many Christian Albanians to flee to Dalmatia and other countries including Italy and Greece.
In the 18th century, the suppression of Catholicism increased rapidly and dramatically which led the Arbanasis to flee to Dalmatia.They found initially refuge in Kotor and moved further north to Zadar where they established the village Borgo Erizzo which is at the present day a neighbourhood of Zadar.
An estimated 275,000–600,000 (Includes dual citizens, temporary migrants, and undocumented) Albanians live in Greece, forming the largest immigrant community in the country.They are economic migrants whose migration began in 1991, following the collapse of the Socialist People's Republic of Albania.
The Arvanites and Albanian-speakers of Western Thrace are a group descended from Tosks who migrated to southern and central Greece between the 13th and 16th centuries.They are Greek Orthodox Christians, and though they traditionally speak a dialect of Tosk Albanian known as Arvanitika, they have fully assimilated into the Greek nation and do not identify as Albanians. Arvanitika is in a state of attrition due to language shift towards Greek and large-scale internal migration to the cities and subsequent intermingling of the population during the 20th century.
The Cham Albanians were a group that formerly inhabited a region of Epirus known as Chameria, nowadays Thesprotia in northwestern Greece. Many Cham Albanians converted to Islam during the Ottoman era. Muslim Chams were expelled from Greece during World War II, by an anti-communist resistance group, as a result of their participation in a communist resistance group and the collaboration with the Axis occupation, while Orthodox Chams have largely assimilated into the Greek nation..[ citation needed ]
During the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st centuries, the conflicts in the Balkans and the Kosovo War set in motion large population movements of Albanians to Central, Western and Northern Europe.The collapse of communism in Albania triggered as well a new wave of migration and led to the emergence of a new diaspora, mainly in Southern Europe, in such countries as Greece and Italy.
In Central Europe, there are approximately 200,000 Albanians in Switzerland with the main concentration in the cantons of Zürich, Basel, Lucerne, Bern and St. Gallen.The neighbouring Germany is home to around 250,000 to 300,000 Albanians while in Austria there are around 40,000 to 80,000 Albanians concentrated in the states of Vienna, Styria, Salzburg, Lower and Upper Austria.
In Western Europe, the Albanian population of approximately 10,000 people living in the Benelux countries is in comparison to other regions relatively small. There are more than 6,000 Albanian people living in Belgium and 2,800 in the nearby Netherlands. The smallest number of Albanian people in the Benelux region is to be found in Luxembourg with a population of 2,100.
Within Northern Europe, Sweden possesses the largest population of Albanians in Scandinavia however there is no exact answer to the their number in the country. The populations also tend to be lower in Norway, Finland and Denmark with more than 18,000, 10,000 and 8,000 Albanians respectively.The population of Albanians in the United Kingdom is officially estimated to be around 39.000 while in Ireland there are less than 2,500 Albanians.
The Albanian diaspora in Turkey was formed during the Ottoman era through economic migration and early years of the Turkish republic through migration due to sociopolitical discrimination and violence experienced by Albanians in Balkan countries.According to a 2008 report prepared for the National Security Council of Turkey by academics of three Turkish universities in eastern Anatolia, there were approximately 1,300,000 people of Albanian descent living in Turkey. According to that study, more than 500,000 Albanian descendants still recognize their ancestry and or their language, culture and traditions. There are also other estimates regarding the Albanian population in Turkey that range from being 3–4 million people up to a total of 5 million in number, although most of these are Turkish citizens of either full or partial Albanian ancestry being no longer fluent in Albanian (cf. German Americans). This was due to various degrees of either linguistic and or cultural assimilation occurring amongst the Albanian diaspora in Turkey. Nonetheless, a sizable proportion of the Albanian community in Turkey, such as that of Istanbul, has maintained its distinct Albanian identity. Albanians are active in the civic life of Turkey.
In Egypt there are 18,000 Albanians, mostly Tosk speakers.Many are descendants of the Janissaries of Muhammad Ali Pasha, an Albanian who became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan. In addition to the dynasty that he established, a large part of the former Egyptian and Sudanese aristocracy was of Albanian origin. Albanian Sunnis, Bektashis and Orthodox Christians were all represented in this diaspora, whose members at some point included major Renaissance figures (Rilindasit), including Thimi Mitko, Spiro Dine, Andon Zako Çajupi, Milo Duçi, Fan Noli and others who lived in Egypt for a time. With the ascension of Gamal Abdel Nasser in Egypt and rise of Arab nationalism, the last remnants of Albanian community there were forced to leave. Albanians have been present in Arab countries such as Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan, and for about five centuries as a legacy of Ottoman Turkish rule.
The first immigration of Albanians to Canada began already in the 19th and 20th centuries though the largest wave of migration from the Balkan Peninsula to Canada was in 1999, when 7,000 people mostly Albanians from Kosovo, arrived in that country. They primarily settled in Canada's industrial cities, mostly Toronto, Montreal and Edmonton, which was besides the United States a major centre of Albanian migration to North America.
Albanian Canadians have their roots in Albania, although the country of their birth could be Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Italy or Greece. In 2016, Canada was home to approximately 36,185 Albanians from Albania and 2,870 Albanians from Kosovo predominantly distributed in Toronto, Montreal, Ottawa and Vancouver.
The largest population of Albanians in the Americas is predominantly to be found in the United States. According to the 2013 American Community Survey, there are 194,028 Albanian Americans (American citizens of full or partial Albanian descent).
The descendants of the Arbëreshës from Italy were the first ethnic Albanians to arrive in the United States.The immigration of the Arbëreshës to the country occurred at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Having a strong sense of identity, the Arbëreshë Americans are often distinguishable from other Albanian Americans with regard to their italianized names and a common religion. They are often indistinguishable from Italian Americans because of being assimilated into the Italian American community.
Albanian immigration to Australia took place in the late 19th century and much of the 20th century.Following the introduction of migration quotas by the United States, people who had planned to immigrate to the States were forced to choose Australia instead. The majority of them had Muslim and Orthodox backgrounds and tended to live in Victoria and Queensland but also in Western and Northern Australia.
Italy's annexation of Albania and its alliance with Nazi Germany against the allies marked a difficult time for Albanian and Italian Australians as they were thought by Australian authorities to pose a fascist threat. However, the number of Albanian immigrants slowed consequently during that time but also due to immigration restrictions placed by the communist regime in Albania.
The most recent Albanian immigrants came mostly from Kosovo and the former Yugoslavian countries inclusively North Macedonia and Serbia and Montenegro. The immigrants were mostly Muslims but also Orthodox and Catholics among them the relatives of the renowned Albanian nun and missionary Mother Teresa.
In 2016, approximately 4,041 persons resident in Australia identified themselves as having been born in Albania, while 15,901 persons identified themselves as having Albanian ancestry, either alone or in combination with another ancestry.There are many Albanian Australians that were born in Italy, Macedonia as well as Kosovo, due to this they are recorded under those statistics.
The majority of the Albanian people speak the Albanian language which comprise an independent branch within the Indo-European languages. It is a language isolate to any other known living language in Europe and indeed no other language in the world has been conclusively associated to its branch.
The Albanian language is spoken by approximately 5 million people throughout the Balkan Peninsula as well as by a higher number by communities around the Americas, Europe and Oceania. Numerous variants and dialects of Albanian are used as an official language in Albania, Kosovo and North Macedonia.The language is also spoken in other countries whence it is officially recognised as a minority language in such countries as Croatia, Italy, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia.
There are two principal dialects of the Albanian language, Gheg and Tosk.The geographical dividing line is traditionally considered to be the Shkumbin with Gheg spoken in the north of it and Tosk in the south. Dialects spoken in Croatia (Arbanasi), Kosovo, Montenegro and Northwestern Macedonia are Geg dialects, while those spoken in Greece (Arvanites, Çam), Southwestern Macedonia and Italy (Arbëreshë) are Tosk dialects.
The origin of the Albanian language is a contentious subject that has given rise to numerous hypotheses. The hypothesis of Albanian being one of the descendant of the Illyrian languages is based on geography where the languages were spoken however not enough archaeological evidence is left behind to come therefore to a definite conclusion.
Another hypothesis associates the Albanian language with the Thracian language. This theory takes exception to the territory, since the language was spoken in an area distinct from Albania, and no significant population movements have been recorded in the period when the shift from one language to the other is supposed to have occurred.
Most of the Albanians in Albania and the Former Yugoslavia are polyglot and have the ability to understand, speak, read, or write a foreign language. As defined by the Institute of Statistics of Albania, 39.9% of the 25 to 64 years old Albanians in Albania are able to use at least one foreign language including English (40%), Italian (27.8%) and Greek (22.9%).
Arbëreshë and Arvanitika are both varieties of the Albanian language spoken by the Arbëreshës and Arvanites in Southern Italy and Southern Greece respectively. They retains elements of vocabulary and pronunciation that are no longer used in modern Albanian language however both varieties are classified as endangered languages in the UNESCO Red Book of Endangered Languages.
The cuisine of the Albanians is diverse and has been widely influenced by their traditions, their varied environment in the Balkans and turbulent history throughout the course of the centuries.The enjoyment of food had and has a high priority in the lives of the Albanians especially when it comes to celebrating religious festivals such as Christmas, Easter, Hanukkah or Ramadan.
In general, Albanian cuisine is different from region to another and each Albanian-speaking territory preserves a distinctive regional cuisine characterised by local specialties and different styles within Albanian cuisine. Therefore, there is a considerable diversity between the Italian and Greek-influenced cuisines of the Arbëreshës and Chams as well as of the Mediterranean and Balkan-influenced cuisines of the Albanians in the western Balkans.
Among the main characteristic in traditional Albanian cuisine is undoubtedly the generous use of a wide range of ingredients and spices specific to their locations. It includes many varieties of fruits such as lemons, oranges, figs and most notably olives. Spices and other herbs such as basil, lavender, mint, oregano, rosemary and thyme are widely used, as are vegetables such as garlics, onions, peppers, potatoes and tomatoes.
The Albanian diet, for those Albanians who lives closer to the oceans and lakes, are able to complement their diet with fresh and saltwater fish and seafood. Otherwise lamb is often considered as the traditional meat for different religious festivals and poultry, beef and pork are also in plentiful supply.
In Albania, Tavë Kosi is a national dish consisting of garlicky lamb and rice baked under a thick, tart veil of yogurt. Fërgesë is another national dish and is made up with peppers, tomatoes and cottage cheese. Another beloved dish in Albania and other Albanian-speaking territories is called Pite which is generally a filled and baked pastry with a filling of a mixture of spinach and gjizë or mish. Also famous is Flia consisting of multiple crepe-like layers brushed with crea. Petulla, a traditionally fried dough, and Krofne, similar to Berliner, constitute as well a popular speciality in Albanian cuisine.
The roots of literature of the Albanians can be traced to the late Middle Ages with surviving works about history, theology and philosophy dating from the Renaissance period.The earliest known use of written Albanian is a baptismal formula (1462) written by the Archbishop of Durrës Paulus Angelus. In 1555, a Catholic clergyman Gjon Buzuku from the Shestan region published the earliest known book written in Albanian titled Meshari (The Missal) regarding Catholic prayers and rites containing archaic medieval language, lexemes and expressions obsolete in contemporary Albanian. Other Christian clergy such as Luca Matranga in the Arbëresh diaspora published (1592) in the Tosk dialect while other notable authors were from northern Albanian lands and included Pjetër Budi, Frang Bardhi, and Pjetër Bogdani.
With the conversion to Islam of many Albanians, Muslim poetic and other literary traditions were adopted giving rise to authors such as the Bejtexhinj (Albanian poets) and included individuals like Nezim Frakulla, Hasan Zyko Kamberi, Muhamet Kyçyku, and brothers Shahin and Dalip Frashëri.They compiled Albanian literature infused with expressions, language and themes stemming from the Middle East and their local socio-cultural environment. Albanian literature was composed in the Arbëresh diaspora by individuals such as Giulio Variboba, Nicola Chetta, Giuseppe Schirò, Giuseppe Serembe, Girolamo de Rada and others relating to religious, secular, poetic and eventually patriotic themes like Skanderbeg.
The Albanian Renaissance dominates a literary period in the spiritual and cultural life of the Albanians in the Balkans spanning from the 19th to the 20th centuries during which Albanian art and culture blossomed.A corpus of literary works emerged calling for Albanian unity and celebrating Albanian culture, mythology, legends and other figures of sociopoltical, cultural and historic importance with the most notable authors of the period being Pashko Vasa and both Naim and Sami Frashëri.
The middle of the 20th century marked a transition from patriotic and political Albanian Renaissance related literature to more distinctive, expressive and matured forms of Albanian literature, prose and poetry focusing upon additional themes of contemporary life.Faik Konica, Fan Noli and most importantly Gjergj Fishta played central roles in the history of Albanian literature of that time.
Albania, post World War Two emerged as a communist state and Socialist realism became part of the literary scene.Authors and poets emerged such as Sejfulla Malëshova, Dritero Agolli and Ismail Kadare who has become an internationally acclaimed novelist and others who challenged the regime through various sociopolitical and historic themes in their works. Martin Camaj wrote in the diaspora while in neighbouring Yugoslavia, the emergence of Albanian cultural expression resulted in sociopolitical and poetic literature by notable authors like Adem Demaçi, Rexhep Qosja, Jusuf Buxhovi. The Albanian literary scene at the beginning of the 21st century remains vibrant producing new novelists, authors, poets and other writers.
Many different spiritual traditions, religious faiths and beliefs are practised by the Albanian people who historically have succeeded to coexist peacefully through the centuries in Southeast Europe.They are traditionally both Christians and Muslims, Catholic and Orthodox, Bektashi and Sunni as well as Evangelists, Protestants and Jews.
In the medieval era, prior to the arrival of Islam into the Albanian inhabited lands, Christianity was the predominant religion among the Albanians. They were mostly following Orthodox traditions and practices until the middle of the 13th century as Gheg Albanians began to convert to Catholicism as a mean to resist the oppression of the Slavs.During the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans, Christianity began to be overtaken by Islam, and Catholicism and Orthodoxy continued to be practiced with less frequency.
During the modern era, the monarchy and communism in Albania as well as the socialism in Kosovo, historically part of Yugoslavia, followed a systematic secularisation of its people. This policy was chiefly applied within the borders of both territories and produced a secular majority of its population.
All forms of Christianity, Islam and other religious practices were prohibited except for old non-institutional pagan practices in the rural areas, which were seen as identifying with the national culture. The current Albanian state has revived some pagan festivals, such as the Spring festival (Albanian : Dita e Verës) held yearly on 14 March in the city of Elbasan. It is a national holiday.
The communist regime which ruled Albania after World War II persecuted and suppressed religious observance and institutions, and entirely banned religion to the point where Albania was officially declared to be the world's first atheist state. Religious freedom returned to Albania following the regime's change in 1992. Albanian Sunni Muslims are found throughout the country, Albanian Orthodox Christians as well as Bektashis are concentrated in the south, while Roman Catholics are found primarily in the north of the country.
In Albania, 58.79% of the population adheres to Islam, making it the largest religion in the country. Christianity is practiced by 16.99% of the population, making it the second largest religion in the country. The remaining population is either irreligious or belongs to other religious groups.Before World War II, there was given a distribution of 70% Muslims, 20% Eastern Orthodox, and 10% Roman Catholics. Today, Gallup Global Reports 2010 shows that religion plays a role in the lives of only 39% of Albanians, and ranks Albania the thirteenth least religious country in the world.
For part of its history, Albania has also had a Jewish community. Members of the Jewish community were saved by a group of Albanians during the Nazi occupation.Many left for Israel c. 1990–1992 when the borders were opened after the fall of the communist regime, but about 200 Jews still live in Albania.
|Religion||Albanians in Albania||Albanians in Kosovo||Albanians in Macedonia||Albanians in Montenegro||Albanians in Croatia||Albanians in Italy|
|Islam||21% to 82%||88.8 to 95.60||98.62||73.15||54.78||41.49|
|Bektashi||2.09 to 7.5||—||—||—||—||—|
|Christians||9 to 28.64||3.69 to 6.20||1.37||26.37||40.69||38.85|
|Catholic||3% to 13.82||2.20 to 5.80||1.37||26.13||40.59||27.67|
|Orthodox||6 to 13.08||1.48||—||0.12||0.01||11.02|
|Protestants||0.14 to 1.74||0.16||—||—||—||—|
|Unaffiliated or Irreligious||24.21% to 62.7%|
|Atheist||2.50% to 9%||0.07 to 2.9||—||0.11||1.80||17.81|
|Prefer to not answer||1% to 13.79%||0.55||0.19||2.36||—||—|
|Believers without denomination||5.49||—||—||—||—||—|
|Not relevant/not stated||2.43||0.06||0.16||0.36||—|
For Albanians, music is a vital component to their culture and characterised by its own peculiar features and diverse melodic pattern. Albanian music differ from region to region with two essential stylistic differences between the music of the Ghegs and Tosks that are contrasted by the heroic tone of the Ghegs and the relaxed sounds of the Tosks.
Modern popular music has developed around the centers of Korca, Shkodër and Tirana. Since the 1920s, some composers such as Fan S. Noli have also produced works of Albanian classical music.
In international competitions, Albania participated in the Eurovision Song Contest for the first time in 2004. Prior to this, Albanians have participated in the contest for other countries as for instance Anna Oxa for Italy in 1989 but also in 2018 such as Ermal Meta for Italy and Eleni Foureira for Cyprus. Kosovo has never participated in the contest but is currently applying to become a member of the European Broadcasting Union and therefore debut in the contest.
The oldest preserved relics of visual arts of the Albanians are sacred in nature and represented by numerous frescoes, murals and icons created with an admirable use of color and gold. They reveal a wealth of various influences and traditions that converged in the historical region of medieval Albanian lands throughout the course of the centuries.
The nineteenth century was characterised by a resurgence of nationalist pride and patriotism among the Albanians, starting with the League of Prizren that essentially led to the Independence of Albania. The period, collectively known as the Albanian Renaissance, established a remarkable climate for a new artistic movement in where artists found new methods and illustrated courage and curiosity in motif and technique.Memorable works were produced among others by Kolë Idromeno with many of them depicting the traditions and customs of the people together with their environment.
The Kulla, a traditional Albanian dwelling built entirely from natural materialsis, is a cultural relic from the medieval period particularly widespread in the southwestern region of Kosovo and northern region of Albania. The rectangular shape of a Kulla is made with irregular stone ashlars, river pebbles and chestnut woods however, the size and number of floors resulted in each case from the size of the family and their financial resources.
The Balkans, also known as the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various definitions and meanings, including geopolitical and historical. The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains that stretch throughout the whole of Bulgaria from the Serbian-Bulgarian border to the Black Sea coast. The Balkan Peninsula is bordered by the Adriatic Sea on the northwest, the Ionian Sea on the southwest, the Aegean Sea in the south and southeast, and the Black Sea on the east and northeast. The northern border of the peninsula is variously defined. The highest point of the Balkans is Mount Musala, 2,925 metres (9,596 ft), in the Rila mountain range.
The Culture of Albania is a term that embodies the artistic, culinary, literary, musical, political and social elements that are representative of Albania and Albanians. Albanian culture has been considerably shaped by the geography and history of Albania. It grew from that of the Illyrians, with their pagan beliefs and specific way of life in the wooded areas of far Southern Europe.
Greater Albania is an irredentist concept of lands that are considered to form the national homeland by many Albanians, based on claims on the present-day or historical presence of Albanian populations in those areas. In addition to the existing Republic of Albania, the term incorporates claims to regions in the neighbouring states, the areas include Kosovo and the Preševo Valley of Serbia, territories in southern Montenegro, northwestern Greece, and a part of western North Macedonia.
The Treaty of London (1913) was signed on 30 May during the London Conference of 1912–13. It dealt with the territorial adjustments arising out of the conclusion of the First Balkan War.
The origin of the Albanians has long been a matter of dispute among historians.
The toponym Albania may indicate several different geographical regions: a country in the Balkans; an ancient land in the Caucasus; as well as Scotland, Albania being a Latinization of a Gaelic name for Scotland, Alba; and even a city in the U.S. state of New York.
Shqiptar is an Albanian language ethnonym (endonym), by which Albanians call themselves. They call their country Shqipëria.
The Albanians, also commonly called or Kosovars, Kosovo Albanians, Kosovar Albanians or Kosovan Albanians, constitute the largest ethnic group in Kosovo.
Albanian Americans are Americans of full or partial Albanian ancestry and heritage in the United States. They trace their ancestry to the territories with a large Albanian population in the Balkans among others to Albania, Italy, Kosovo, Macedonia and Montenegro. They are adherents of different religions and are predominantly Muslims, Christians as well as Irreligious.
Arnaut is a Turkish ethnonym used to denote Albanians. Arvanid (اروانيد), Arnavud (آرناوود), plural: Arnavudlar (آرناوودلار): modern Turkish: Arnavut, plural: Arnavutlar; are ethnoyms used mainly by Ottoman and contemporary Turks for Albanians with Arnavutça being called the Albanian language.
The traditional clothing of Albania includes more than 200 different varieties of clothing in all Albania and the Albanian-speaking territories and communities. Albania's recorded history of clothing goes back to classical times. It is one of the factors that has differentiated this nation from other European countries, dating back to the Illyrian period.
Albanians in Greece are divided into distinct communities as a result of different waves of migration. Albanians first migrated into Greece during the late Middle Ages. The descendants of populations of Albanian origin who settled in Greece during the Middle Ages are the Arvanites, who have been fully assimilated into the Greek nation and self-identify as Greeks. Today, they still maintain their distinct subdialect of Tosk Albanian, known as Arvanitika.
Albanian-speakers form a linguistic minority in Greek Macedonia and Western Thrace along the border with Turkey. They speak the Northern Tosk subbranch of Tosk Albanian and are descendants of the Albanian population of Eastern Thrace who migrated during the Population exchange between Greece and Turkey in the 1920s. They are known in Greece as Arvanites, a name applied to all groups of Albanian origin in Greece, but which primarily refers to the southern dialectological group of Arbëreshë. The Albanian-speakers of Western Thrace and Macedonia use the common Albanian self-appellation, Shqiptar.
Anti-Albanian sentiment or Albanophobia is discrimination or prejudice towards Albanians as an ethnic group, described in countries with large Albanian population as immigrants, especially Greece and Italy though in Greece the sentiment has existed mainly in the post-communist Albania era where many criminals escaped to Greece.
Serbia was one of the main parties in the Balkan Wars, victorious in both phases. It gained significant territorial areas of the Central Balkans and almost doubled its territory. During the First Balkan War, most of the Kosovo Vilayet was taken by Serbia, while the region of Metohija was taken by the Kingdom of Montenegro, its main allies. Over the centuries, populations of ethnic Serbs and Albanians tended to shift following territorial handovers. As a result of the multi-ethnic composition of Kosovo, the new administration provoked a mixed response from the local population. Whilst according to Noel Malcolm the Albanians did not welcome Serbian rule, the non-Albanian population in the Kosovo Vilayet considered this a liberation. Kosovo Vilayet was internationally recognised as a part of Serbia and northern Metohija as a part of Montenegro at the Treaty of London in May 1913. In 1918, Serbia transformed into the newly Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, later named Yugoslavia. Disagreements regarding the territory of Macedonia among the members of the Balkan League led to the Second Balkan War. Here, Serbia and Greece fought against Bulgaria in 1913. Finalisations concerning which country took which parts were ratified at the Treaty of Bucharest the same year. Serbia came to control the land which became known as Vardar Macedonia, which today stands independent as the Republic of Macedonia.
Shkije or Shkje, is a term used in the Gheg dialect of Albanian language to refer to Serbs, while the Albanian communities in Greece or Italy use it to refer to Greeks or Latins, or just non-Albanian speakers. The Arvanites in Greece use the version shkla to refer to the Greek population, while the Arbereshe in Italy, a substantial part of which originates from the Arvanites, use the words shklan and shklerisht which mean "that does not speak Arbereshe", or "that speaks an incomprehensible language", referring to the Latin languages. It is derived from either from the Venetian schiavone meaning the same or from the term "Slavs", which contained the traditional meaning of “the neighbouring foreigner”.
Albanians in Turkey are ethnic Albanian citizens and denizens of Turkey. They consist of Albanians who arrived during the Ottoman period, Kosovar/Macedonian and Tosk Cham Albanians fleeing from Serbian and Greek persecution after the beginning of the Balkan Wars, alongside some Albanians from Montenegro and Albania proper. A 2008 report from the Turkish National Security Council (MGK) estimated that approximately 1.3 million people of Albanian ancestry live in Turkey, and more than 500,000 recognizing their ancestry, language and culture. There are other estimates however that place the number of people in Turkey with Albanian ancestry and or background upward to 5 million.
The Islamization of Albania occurred as a result of the Ottoman conquest of Albania during the late 14th century. The Ottomans through their administration and military brought Islam to Albania through various policies and tax incentives, trade networks and transnational religious links. In the first few centuries of Ottoman rule, the spread of Islam in Albania was slow and mainly intensified during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries due in part to greater Ottoman societal and military integration, geo-political factors and collapse of church structures. It was one of the most significant developments in Albanian history as Albanians in Albania went from being a largely Christian population to one that is mainly Muslim, while retaining significant ethnic Albanian Christian minorities in certain regions. The resulting situation where Sunni Islam was the largest faith in the Albanian ethnolinguistic area but other faiths were also present in a regional patchwork played a major influence in shaping the political development of Albania in the late Ottoman period. Apart from religious changes, conversion to Islam also brought about other social and cultural transformations that have shaped and influenced Albanians and Albanian culture.
The Albanians and their country Albania (Shqipëria) have been identified by many ethnonyms. The native endonym is Shqiptar. The name "Albanians" was used in medieval Greek and Latin documents that gradually entered European languages from which other similar derivative names emerged. Linguists believe that the alb part in the root word originates from an Indo-European term for a type of mountainous topography, meaning "hill, mountain", also present in Alps. Through the root word alban and its rhotacized equivalents arban, albar, and arbar, the term in Albanian became rendered as Arbëreshë for the people and Arbëria for the country.
The Roman Catholic Ghegs appear to have abandoned the Eastern for the Western Church in the middle of the 13th century
The determination that we, as free and equal citizens, members of peoples and national minorities who live in Montenegro: Montenegrins, Serbs, Bosniacs, Albanians, Muslims, Croats and the others, are committed to democratic and civic Montenegro
The State recognizes and guarantees the right of persons belonging to national minorities to the preservation, development and expression of their ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious identity.
Der grösste Teil der kosovarischen Bevölkerung lebt in der Deutschschweiz, vor allem in den städtischen Agglomerationen Zürich, Basel und Luzern, aber auch in den Kantonen Aargau, St. Gallen, Bern und Waadt.
The official language in the Republic of Albania is Albanian.
The official languages in the Republic of Kosovo are Albanian and Serbian.
The Albanian language is divided into two basic dialect groups: Gheg in the north of the country and Tosk in the south. The Shkumbin River in central Albania, flowing past Elbasan into the Adriatic, forms the approximate boundary between the two dialect regions.
Miku nderohet duke i nxjerrë përpara bukë, kripë e zemër
Etudiants en Tourisme et Actions Patrimoniales. (plus de 72 % irréligieux ou non pratiquants. 28 % se répartissent en 21 % musulmans, 6% orthodoxes, 3 % catholiques. )
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