Prime Minister of Albania

Last updated

Prime Minister of Albania
Kryeministri i Shqipërisë
Kryeministri i Shqiperise.svg

Emblem of the Prime Minister
Incumbent
Edi Rama

since 15 September 2013
Residence Kryeministria
Appointer President
Inaugural holder Ismail Qemali
Formation29 November 1912
Website Official Page

The Prime Minister of Albania (Albanian : Kryeministri i Shqipërisë), officially styled the Prime Minister of the Republic of Albania (Albanian : Kryeministri i Republikës së Shqipërisë), is the head of government of the Republic of Albania and as well the most powerful and influential person in Albanian politics. The Prime Minister holds the executive power of the nation and represents the Council of Ministers and chairs its meetings.

Albanian language Indo-European language

Albanian is an Indo-European language spoken by the Albanians in the Balkans and the Albanian diaspora in the Americas, Europe and Oceania. It comprises an independent branch within the Indo-European languages and is not closely related to any other language in Europe.

A style of office, honorific or manner/form of address, is an official or legally recognized form of address, and may often be used in conjunction with a title. A style, by tradition or law, precedes a reference to a person who holds a post or political office, and is sometimes used to refer to the office itself. An honorific can also be awarded to an individual in a personal capacity. Such styles are particularly associated with monarchies, where they may be used by a wife of an office holder or of a prince of the blood, for the duration of their marriage. They are also almost universally used for presidents in republics and in many countries for members of legislative bodies, higher-ranking judges and senior constitutional office holders. Leading religious figures also have styles.

Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. The term "head of government" is often differentiated from the term "head of state", as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country.

Contents

The Prime Minister is appointed by the President of Albania after each general election and must have the confidence of the Parliament of Albania to stay in office. The Council is responsible for carrying out both foreign and domestic policies. It directs and controls the activities of the ministries and other state organs. The Prime Minister is elected on the basis of universal suffrage, through a secret ballot, for a four-year term. The Constitution of Albania sets no limit as to office terms of the prime minister.

President of Albania head of state of Albania and commander-in-chief of the Albanian military

The President of Albania, officially styled the President of the Republic of Albania, is the head of state, commander-in-chief of the military and the representative of the unity of the Albanian people.

Regular elections in Albania are mandated by the Constitution and legislation enacted by Parliament. The Parliament (Kuvendi) has 140 members elected for four-year terms. The electoral system is closed list proportional representation. There are 12 multi-member constituencies corresponding to the country's 12 administrative regions. Within any constituency, parties must meet a threshold of 3 percent of votes, and pre-election coalitions must meet a threshold of 5 percent of votes.

Parliament of Albania Parliament of Albania

The Parliament of Albania or Kuvendi is the unicameral representative body of the citizens of the Republic of Albania; it is Albania's legislature. The Parliament is composed of not less than 140 members elected to a four-year term on the basis of direct, universal, periodic and equal suffrage by secret ballot. The Parliament is presided over by a Speaker of the Parliament, who is assisted by at least one deputy speaker. The electoral system is based on party-list proportional representation. There are 12 multi-seat constituencies, corresponding to the country's administrative divisions.

The 33rd and current officeholder is Edi Rama of the Socialist Party who was elected on 23 June 2013 and started his first four-year-term on 15 September 2013.

Edi Rama Prime Minister of Albania

Edi Rama is an Albanian politician, artist, writer and former basketball player, who has been the 42nd Prime Minister of Albania and the Minister of Foreign Affairs since 2013 and January 2019, respectively. Rama has also been Chairman of the Socialist Party of Albania since 2005. Before his election as Prime Minister, Rama held a number of other positions. He was appointed Minister of Culture, Youth and Sports in 1998, a position that he held until 2000.

Socialist Party of Albania Albanian political party

The Socialist Party of Albania, is a social-democratic political party in Albania; it gained power following the 2013 parliamentary election. The party seated 66 MPs in the 2009 Albanian parliament. It achieved power in 1997 following a political crisis and governmental realignment. At the 2001 parliamentary election the party secured 73 seats, which enabled it to form a government. At the general election of 3 July 2005, the Socialist Party lost its majority and the Democratic Party of Albania (PD) formed the new government, having secured, with its allies, a majority of 81 seats.

Powers, duties and responsibilities

The Prime Minister of the Albania, officially styled the Prime Minister of the Republic of Albania, is the most powerful and influential state officeholder in the Albanian system of government.

One important role of the President is to designate a candidate for the office of Prime Minister who, in the opinion of the President, is best able to command a majority of the members of the Parliament. [1] As head of government, the Prime Minister is charged with directing the internal policy of the country and leads the public administration. In this regard, the government cooperates with other interested social actors. If the Prime Minister is temporarily absent or incapable of exercising its executive power, the Deputy Prime Minister takes over his functions, such as chairing the cabinet and the council of ministers.

Deputy Prime Minister of Albania

The Deputy Prime Ministers of Albania, officially styled the Deputy Prime Minister of the Republic of Albania, is the deputy head of government of Albania. In the absence of the Prime Minister of Albania the Deputy Prime Minister takes over his functions, such as chairing the Cabinet of Albania and the Council of Ministers of Albania. The Office is the second senior minister of the cabinet in the executive branch of the government in the parliamentary system in the Republic of Albania.

The Constitution states that the Prime Minister represents the council of ministers and chairs its meetings [2] , outlines and presents the principal general policies of the state and is responsible for them, assures the implementation of legislation and policies approved by the Council of Ministers, coordinates and supervises the work of the members of the Council of Ministers and other institutions of the central state administration, performs other duties contemplated in the Constitution and laws, resolves disagreements among ministers, and issues orders in the exercise of his powers. [3] The Prime Minister can also initiate a proceeding of the Constitutional Court of Albania. [4]

It is the fundamental law of the Republic of Albania. The present Constitution of Albania was adopted by the Parliament on 28 November 1998. It is split up over many different acts. The document succeeded the 1976 Constitution, originally adopted at the creation of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania on 28 December 1976 and heavily amended on 29 April 1991.

Constitutional Court of Albania

The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Albania is the final authority for the interpretation of the Constitution (Kushtetuta) and the compliance of laws in accordance with the constitution. As of article 168, the ourt guarantees respect for the Constitution and makes final interpretations of it.

Oath

Before assuming duty, the prime minister-elect is required to take an oath of office before the President, swearing loyalty to the Constitution. The text of the oath in its Albanian form is sensitive to gender and all nouns always retain a neutral form. The prime minister-elect takes the following oath of office, specified by the Constitution [5] [6] :

Office and residence

The facade of the Kryeministria. Ndertesa e Kryeministrise, Tirane. The Building of the Prime Ministry of Albania. Foto by Dritan Mardodaj..jpg
The facade of the Kryeministria.

The Prime Minister's Office (Albanian : Kryeministria) is the official office and residence of the Prime Minister. It provides secretarial assistance to the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister through his office coordinates with all ministers in the central union cabinet, minister of independent charges and governors and ministers of state government. Furthermore informal meetings between the prime minister and other government or foreign officials takes place in the Office. It also consists of the immediate staff of the Prime Minister of Albania, as well as multiple levels of support staff reporting to the Prime Minister. Since 1941, the building serves as the office and residence of the Prime Minister. The building is in the capital city of Tirana at the Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard, near the Mother Teresa Square.

The building was planned by the Italian architects Florestano Di Fausto and Gherardo Bosio, and constructed together with the Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard, the Mother Teresa Square and all the buildings located on these squares, during the Italian occupation of Albania in 1939 to 1941, in a Rationalist style.

List of prime ministers (1912–present)

No.PortraitNameTerm in officeParty
Flag of Albanian Provisional Government (1912-1914).svg Albania (1912–1914) [7]
1 Ismail Qemalii.jpeg Ismail Qemali
(1844–1919)
Ismail Qemali (nenshkrim).svg
4 December 191222 January 1914 Independent
1 year, 1 month and 18 days
International Control Commission
(22 January 1914 – 6 September 1914)
Flag of Albania (1914-1920).svg Principality of Albania (1914–1925)
2 Turhan Pashe Permeti.jpg Turhan Përmeti
(1846–1927)
Turhan Pasha (nenshkrim).svg
15 March 19143 September 1914 Independent
5 months and 19 days
3 Essad Pasha Toptani.jpg Esat Toptani
(1863–1920)
Esat Toptani (nenshkrim).svg
2 October 191427 January 1916 Independent
1 year, 3 months and 25 days
Austro-Hungarian Command
(24 February 1916 – 28 December 1918)
Turhan Pashe Permeti.jpg Turhan Përmeti
(1846–1927)
Turhan Pasha (nenshkrim).svg
25 December 191829 January 1920 Independent
1 year, 1 month and 4 days
4 Sulejman Delvina1.jpg Sulejman Delvina
(1884–1933)
Sylejman Delvina (nenshkrim).svg
30 January 192015 November 1920 Independent
9 months and 16 days
5 Iliaz Vrioni 1932.jpg Iliaz Vrioni
(1882–1932)
Ilias Vrioni (nenshkrim).svg
15 November 192016 October 1921 Independent
11 months and 1 day
6 Pandeli Evangjeli (portrait).jpg Pandeli Evangjeli
(1859–1949)
Pandeli Evangjeli (nenshkrim).svg
16 October 19216 December 1921 Independent
1 month and 20 days
7 Qazim Koculi (side portrait).jpg Qazim Koculi
Acting Prime Minister
(1887–1943)
Qazim Koculi (nenshkrim).svg
6 December 19216 December 1921 Independent
0 days
8 Hasan Pristina.jpg Hasan Prishtina
(1873–1933)
Hasan Prishtina (nenshkrim).svg
7 December 192112 December 1921 Progressive Party
5 days
9 Idhomen Kosturi.jpg Idhomen Kosturi
Acting Prime Minister
(1873–1943)
Idhomen Kosturi (nenshkrim).svg
12 December 192124 December 1921 Independent
−10 days
10 Xhafer Ypi.jpg Xhafer Ypi
(1880–1940)
Xhafer Ypi (nenshkrim).svg
24 December 19212 December 1922 Popular Party
11 months and 8 days
11 Kingzog.jpg Ahmet Zogu
(1895–1961)
Zogu (nenshkrim).svg
2 December 192225 February 1924 Conservative Party
1 year, 2 months and 23 days
12 Shefqet Verlaci.jpg Shefqet Vërlaci
(1877–1946)
Shefqet Verlaci (nenshkrim).svg
30 March 192427 May 1924 Progressive Party
1 month and 27 days
Iliaz Vrioni 1932.jpg Iliaz Vrioni
(1882–1932)
Ilias Vrioni (nenshkrim).svg
27 May 192410 June 1924 Independent
14 days
13 Fan Stilian Noli.jpg Fan Noli
(1882–1965)
Fan Noli (nenshkrim).svg
16 June 192424 December 1924 Liberal Party
6 months and 8 days
Iliaz Vrioni 1932.jpg Iliaz Vrioni
(1882–1932)
Ilias Vrioni (nenshkrim).svg
24 December 19245 January 1925 Independent
12 days
Kingzog.jpg Ahmet Zogu
(1895–1961)
Zogu (nenshkrim).svg
6 January 192525 September 1925 Conservative Party
8 months and 19 days
Flag of Albania (1926-1928).svg Albanian Republic (1925–1928)
Kingzog.jpg Ahmet Zogu
(1895–1961)
Zogu (nenshkrim).svg
28 September 19251 September 1928 Conservative Party
2 years, 11 months and 4 days
Flag of Albania (1934-1939).svg Albanian Kingdom (1928–1939)
14 Koco Kotta.jpg Kostaq Kotta
(1889–1949)
Kostaq Kotta (nenshkrim).svg
1 September 19285 March 1930Unaffiliated
1 year, 6 months and 4 days
Pandeli Evangjeli (portrait).jpg Pandeli Evangjeli
(1859–1949)
Pandeli Evangjeli (nenshkrim).svg
6 March 193016 October 1935Unaffiliated
5 years, 7 months and 10 days
15 Mehdi Frasheri.jpg Mehdi Frashëri
(1872–1963)
Mehdi Frasheri (nenshkrim).svg
21 October 19357 November 1936Unaffiliated
1 year and 17 days
Koco Kotta.jpg Kostaq Kotta
(1889–1949)
Kostaq Kotta (nenshkrim).svg
9 November 19367 April 1939Unaffiliated
2 years, 4 months and 29 days
Flag of Albania (1939-1943).svg Italian Occupation (1939–1943)
Shefqet Verlaci.jpg Shefqet Vërlaci
(1877–1946)
Shefqet Verlaci (nenshkrim).svg
12 April 19393 December 1941 Fascist Party
2 years, 7 months and 21 days
16 Mustafa Merlika Kruja.jpg Mustafa Merlika-Kruja
(1887–1958)
Mustafa Kruja (nenshkrim).svg
3 December 19414 January 1943 Fascist Party
1 year, 1 month and 1 day
17 Eqrem Libohova.jpg Eqrem Libohova
(1882–1948)
Ekrem Libohova (nenshkrim).svg
18 January 194311 February 1943 Fascist Party
24 days
18 Maliq Bushati.png Maliq Bushati
(1880–1946)
Maliq Bushati (nenshkrim).svg
12 February 194328 April 1943 Fascist Party
2 months and 16 days
Eqrem Libohova.jpg Eqrem Libohova
(1882–1948)
Ekrem Libohova (nenshkrim).svg
11 May 194310 September 1943 Fascist Party
3 months and 30 days
Flag of Albania (1943-1944).svg German Occupation (1943–1944)
19 Rexhep Mitrovica.jpg Rexhep Mitrovica
(1887–1967)
Rexhep Mitrovica (nenshkrim).svg
5 November 194316 June 1944 National Front
9 months and 11 days
20 Fiqiri Dine.jpg Fiqiri Dine
(1897–1960)
Fiqiri Dine (nenshkrim).svg
18 July 194428 August 1944 [8] National Front
1 month and 10 days
21 Ibrahim Bicakciu.jpg Ibrahim Biçaku
(1905–1977)
Ibrahim Bicakciu (nenshkrim).svg
6 September 194425 October 1944 National Front
1 month and 19 days
Flag of Albania (1946-1992).svg People's Socialist Republic of Albania (1944–1991)
22 HODZA druha miza.jpg Enver Hoxha
(1908–1985)
Enver Hoxha (nenshkrim).svg
23 October 194419 July 1954 Communist Party
renamed in 1948 to
Party of Labour
9 years, 8 months and 26 days
23 1967-01 1966Nian A Er Ba Ni Ya Mu Han Mo De *Xie Hu Mehmet Ismail Shehu.jpg Mehmet Shehu
(1913–1981)
Mehmet Shehu (nenshkrim).svg
20 July 195418 December 1981 Party of Labour
27 years, 4 months and 28 days
24 Adil Çarçani
(1922–1997)
Adil Carcani (nenshkrim).svg
15 January 198221 February 1991 Party of Labour
9 years, 1 month and 6 days
Flag of Albania.svg Republic of Albania (1991–present)
25 Fatos Nano 2003.jpg Fatos Nano
(born 1952)
Fatos Nano (nenshkrim).svg
22 February 19914 June 1991 Socialist Party
3 months and 13 days
26 Ylli Bufi
(born 1948)
Ylli Bufi (nenshkrim).svg
11 June 19916 December 1991 Socialist Party
5 months and 25 days
27 Vilson Ahmeti
(born 1951)
Vilson Ahmeti (nenshkrim).svg
14 December 199114 April 1992 Independent
4 months
28 Z.aleksandermeksi.jpg Aleksandër Meksi
(born 1939)
Aleksander Meksi (nenshkrim).svg
13 April 19921 March 1997 Democratic Party
4 years, 10 months and 16 days
29 Bashkim Fino
(born 1962)
Bashkim Fino (nenshkrim).svg
11 March 199724 July 1997 Socialist Party
4 months and 13 days
Fatos Nano 2003.jpg Fatos Nano
(born 1952)
Fatos Nano (nenshkrim).svg
25 July 199728 September 1998 Socialist Party
1 year, 2 months and 3 days
30 Pandeli Majko.jpg Pandeli Majko
(born 1967)
Pandeli Majko (nenshkrim).svg
2 October 199825 October 1999 Socialist Party
1 year and 23 days
31 Ilir meta.jpg Ilir Meta
(born 1969)
Ilir Meta (nenshkrim).svg
28 November 199929 January 2002 Socialist Party
2 years, 2 months and 1 day
Pandeli Majko.jpg Pandeli Majko
(born 1967)
Pandeli Majko (nenshkrim).svg
22 February 200225 July 2002 Socialist Party
5 months and 3 days
Fatos Nano 2003.jpg Fatos Nano
(born 1952)
Fatos Nano (nenshkrim).svg
29 July 20021 September 2005 Socialist Party
3 years, 1 month and 3 days
32 Sali Berisha (cropped).jpg Sali Berisha
(born 1944)
Sali Berisha (nenshkrim).svg
12 September 200512 September 2013 Democratic Party
8 years
33 Edi Rama
(born 1964)
Edi Rama (nenshkrim).svg
13 September 2013Incumbent Socialist Party
5 years, 6 months and 7 days

See also

Related Research Articles

Albania is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic, where the President of Albania is the head of state and the Prime Minister of Albania the head of government in a multi-party system. The executive power is exercised by the Government and the Prime Minister with its Cabinet. Legislative power is vested in the Parliament of Albania. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The political system of Albania is laid out in the 1998 constitution. The Parliament adopted the current constitution on 28 November 1998. Due to political instability, the country has had many constitutions during its history. Albania was initially constituted as a monarchy in 1913, briefly a republic in 1925, then it returned to a democratic monarchy in 1928. It later became a socialist republic until the restoration of capitalism and democracy in 1992.

Prime Minister of Kosovo

The Prime Minister of the Republic of Kosovo is the head of government of the Kosovo.

Prime Minister of North Macedonia head of government of North Macedonia

The Prime Minister of North Macedonia, officially the President of the Government of the Republic of North Macedonia, is the head of government of North Macedonia. He or she is the leader of a political coalition in the Macedonian parliament and the leader of the cabinet. The current Prime Minister is Zoran Zaev, who has served since 31 May 2017.

Foreign relations of Kosovo are accomplished by efforts of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Kosovo. Kosovo operates 24 embassies abroad and is host to 21 Embassies in Pristina. Kosovo has membership in several International Organisations.

Civil awards and decorations of Albania Wikimedia list article

Civil awards and decorations of Albania are awards and decorations that have been bestowed in Albania since its declaration of independence in 1912.

Bujar Nishani Albanian politician

Bujar Nishani is an Albanian politician. He served as President of Albania from 24 July 2012 to 24 July 2017.

Atifete Jahjaga politician from Kosovo

Atifete Jahjaga is a Kosovar politician and stateswoman who served as the third President of Kosovo. She was the first female President of the Republic of Kosovo, the first non-partisan candidate and the youngest female head of state to be elected to the top office. She served as Deputy Director of the Kosovo Police, holding the rank of Major General, the most senior among women officers in Southeastern Europe.

The Qafa e Vishës bus accident occurred on 21 May 2012, at Qafa e Vishës near Himarë, Albania, when a bus plunged 80 metres (260 ft) off a cliff. Most of the victims were students of Aleksandër Xhuvani University of Elbasan. The driver is also believed to have been killed. The students were travelling from Elbasan to Saranda.

Chief of the Albanian General Staff position in the Albanian Armed Forces

The Chief of the General Staff is the chief of the General Staff and Albanian Armed Forces. The chief of staff is appointed by the President of Albania, who is the commander-in-chief. The position dates back to the Provisional Government of Albania. The current Chief of the General Staff is Major General Jeronim Bazo.

Xhafer Spahiu was a former Albanian politician of the Albanian Party of Labour (PPSh). He was the only Kosovar Albanian of the higher ranks of the Communist Albania leadership after 1948.

The Nation's Honor Order is the highest decoration to be given in Albania, among the Civil awards and decorations of Albania, and was instituted by special law Nr.8113, of 28 March 1996, entitled Per dekoratat ne Republiken e Shqiperise English: On decorations in the Republic of Albania, then amended by law Nr. 112/2013 Per dekoratat, titujt e nderit, medaljet dhe titujt vendore te nderit ne republiken e Shqiperise.

Liri Berisha Albanian pediatrician and wife of former president

Liri Berisha, née Ramaj, is an Albanian pediatrician and president of the Albanian Children Foundation, and also an UNICEF ambassador.

Speaker of the Parliament of Albania

The Speaker of the Parliament of Albania is the head of the Parliament of Albania. The speaker's term coincides with the term of the Parliament and the chairperson is elected by a vote during the opening session. If the President is temporarily absent or incapable of exercising his or her powers, the chairperson takes over the functions of the office, as specified by the Constitution.

The Convention of Dibra was organized on November 1, 1878 in the city of Dibra, on the initiative of the Committee of the Albanian League for the two Dibras chaired by Iljaz Pasha Dibra. The convention adopted a resolution in the form of a memorandum, drafted by Abdyl Frashëri who participated as representative of the whole of Vilayet of Ioannina.

References

  1. "1998 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA". osce.org. p. 19. At the beginning of a legislature, as well as when the position of Prime Minister is vacant, the President of the Republic appoints the Prime Minister on the proposal of the party or coalition of parties that has the majority of seats in the Assembly.
  2. "1998 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA". osce.org. p. 20. represents the Council of Ministers and chairs its meetings;
  3. Article 102, Section 1-3 of the Constitution of Albania  (22 November 1998)
  4. Article 134, Section 1(b) of the Constitution of Albania  (22 November 1998)
  5. "1998 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA". osce.org. p. 19. Before taking office, the Prime Minister, the deputy prime minister, and the ministers take an oath before the President of the Republic.
  6. "KUSHTETUTA E REPUBLIKËS SË SHQIPËRISË" (PDF). wipo.int (in Albanian). Betohem se do t'i bindem Kushtetutes dhe ligjeve te vendit, do te respektoj te drejtat dhe lirite e shtetasve, do te mbroj pavaresine e Republikes se Shqiperise dhe do t'i sherbej interesit te pergjithshem dhe perparimit te Popullit Shqiptar". Presidenti mund te shtoje edhe: "zoti me ndihmofte
  7. Dervishi, Kastriot (2012). Kryeministrat dhe ministrat e shtetit shqiptar në 100 vjet. Tiranë: Shtëpia Botuese "55". p. 273. ISBN   9994356224.
  8. Pearson, Owen (2005). Albania in Occupation and War: From Fascism to Communism, 1940-1945. London: The Centre for Albanian Studies. p. 1982. ISBN   1-84511-014-5.