|Captains Regent of San Marino|
|Capitani Reggenti di San Marino|
|Style||The Most Excellent|
|Type||Head of state|
|Appointer|| Grand and General Council |
|Term length||6 months|
|Constituting instrument|| Constitution of San Marino |
Declaration on the Rights of the Citizens
|Salary||€6,000 per month|
The Captains Regent (Italian: Capitani reggenti) are the two heads of state of the Republic of San Marino. They are elected every six months by the Grand and General Council, the country's legislative body. Normally the Regents are chosen from opposing parties and they serve a six-month term. The investiture of the captains regent takes place on 1 April and 1 October every year. This tradition dates back at least to 1243.
The practice of dual heads of government (diarchy) is derived directly from the customs of the Roman Republic, equivalent to the consuls of ancient Rome.
The establishment of the regency took place during the first half of the 13th century, when they had the role of managing justice, a task similar to competence of magistrates.[ citation needed ] During that period they were called consuls, which derived from ancient Rome.[ citation needed ] The first two known consuls were elected on 12 December 1243 by the Grand and General Council with a six-month term which is still used today.[ citation needed ]
At the end of the 13th century, the name of the institution started to change, as one took the title of "captain" and the other one of "defender", then in 1317 they became captain and rector.[ citation needed ] One usually belonged to the upper class, to guarantee the possession of skills necessary to govern the Republic with competence, and one to the working class.[ citation needed ]
In 1972, a law was passed to abolish all the restrictions which prevented women from taking public positions. A woman, Maria Lea Pedini-Angelini, was elected Captain Regent for the first time on 1 April 1981.On 1 April 2017, for the first time two women, Vanessa D'Ambrosio and Mimma Zavoli, concurrently occupied the posts of Captains Regent, until their term ended on 1 October 2017.
As of 1 April 2020, after electing its 18th female Captain Regent, San Marino is the country with most female heads of state in the world (however, many other countries have had a female head of state for longer than the combined 10.5 years of these 18 captains regent).
The Captains Regent are elected every six months by the Grand and General Council, and they usually belong to opposite parties to grant a minimal amount of balance and an equal supervision. The electoral procedure is disciplined by a 1945 law, which is mainly based on the Leges Statutae Republicae Sancti Marini of 1600.
The pair is elected if it achieves an absolute majority; there is a second ballot if no pair gets enough votes.
To be eligible for election the candidate should have the following requirements:
The investiture ceremony rakes place 1 April and 1 October every year, and is described by Leges Statutae Republicae Sancti Marini. In the morning, in the Piazza della Libertà, the Sammarinese Armed Forces are assembled and the flag raising ceremony takes place. The newly elected Captains Regent then proceed from the Palazzo Pubblico to the Basilica of San Marino where a religious rite is celebrated by the bishop of Bishop of San Marino. The entourage returns to the Palazzo, where the official address is made and the elected Captains Regent are sworn in according to the oath describes in the Statutes of 1600. The outgoing Captains Regent place the collar of the Order of San Marino on the new Captain Regents, finalizing the transfer of power. Procession of then head to Palazzo Valloni. Finally, the Armed Forces assemble once more and the flag is lowered.
The Regency is considered the supreme office of the Republic. The Captains Regent are the head of state, a function which they carry out as a single body, with a reciprocal right of veto. They have the right to be addressed with the honorific title of Excellency.
The Captains Regent are impartial and their power is mainly symbolic, as their main duty is to represent the country and to guarantee the constitutional order. They supervise the Grand and General Council, the Congress of State and the Council of XII but without any right to vote or to decide. They dissolve the parliament when the legislature is over or when it is unable to form a stable government. The Captains Regent also have the power to promulgate and order the publication of the laws approved by the Grand and General Council.
The Captains Regent cannot be prosecuted in any way during their mandate, at the end of which they are subject to the Regency Syndicate. This judgement, established by the Statues in 1499, is now fulfilled by the Guarantors' Panel on the Constitutionality of Rules, following the revision of the Declaration on the Citizens' Rights. The procedure provides that, within fifteen days after the conclusion of their mandate, every citizen registered in the electoral lists may submit claims against the Captains Regent "for what they have and have not done" during their mandate.
San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino, also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino, is the fifth-smallest country in the world and a European microstate in Southern Europe enclaved by Italy. Located on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains, San Marino covers a land area of just over 61 km2, and has a population of 33,562.
As the only surviving medieval microstate in the Italian peninsula, the history of San Marino is intertwined with the medieval, Renaissance and modern-day history of the Italian peninsula, according to tradition beginning with its foundation in 301 AD.
The politics of the state of San Marino take place in a framework of a unitary assembly-independent representative democratic republic, whereby the Captains Regent are the heads of state and heads of government. The country has a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Grand and General Council. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
Diarchy, duarchy, or duumvirate is a form of government characterized by corule, with two people ruling a polity together either lawfully or de facto, by collusion and force. The leaders of such a system are usually known as corulers.
Marini is a surname of Roman/Italian Catholic origin; closely associated with the last names: Marino and Mariani with the three patronymic forms emerging from the same region at approximately the same time. Migrations branching from Italy ca.1600 gave rise to their modern forms as surnames. The Marinid dynasty was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Zenata Berber descent that ruled Morocco from the 13th to the 15th century.
The Grand and General Council is the parliament of San Marino. The council has 60 members elected for a five-year term.
The Constitution of the Republic of San Marino is distributed over a number of legislative instruments of which the most significant are the Statutes of 1600 and the Declaration of Citizen Rights of 1974 as amended in 2002. The constitutional system has influences from the Corpus Juris Civilis and Roman customary law. It may be the oldest surviving constitution of any sovereign state in the world.
The Palazzo Pubblico is the town hall of the City of San Marino as well as its official Government Building. The building, where official State ceremonies take place, is the seat of the Republic's main institutional and administrative bodies: the Captains Regent, the Grand and General Council, the Council of XII, and the Congress of State.
Mirko Tomassoni is a Sammarinese politician, who served as Captain Regent of San Marino for the six-month term from October 2007 to April 2008 and the second term from October 2018 until April 2019. He served together with Alberto Selva the first term and with Luca Santolini his second term. He is a Member of the Parliament of San Marino, Member of the ICD Advisory Board, Minister of Culture of San Marino.
Diplomatic relations between the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of San Marino were established by the exchange of Notes on 14 February 2002.
Oscar Mina is a Sanmarinese politician, who served as Captain Regent of San Marino with Paolo Rondelli from 1 April to 1 October 2022. He previously served as Captain Regent from 1 April 2009 to October 2009 together with Massimo Cenci.
Paolo Rondelli is a Sammarinese politician and diplomat who served as Captain Regent of San Marino alongside Oscar Mina from 1 April to 1 October 2022.
The fatti di Rovereta was a constitutional crisis in San Marino in 1957 in which the Grand and General Council was deliberately rendered inquorate to prevent the scheduled election of Captains-Regent. A provisional government was established in the village of Rovereta, in opposition to the outgoing Captains-Regent whose term had expired.
A regent is a person appointed to govern a state pro tempore because the monarch is a minor, absent, incapacitated or unable to discharge the powers and duties of the monarchy, or the throne is vacant and the new monarch has not yet been determined. One variation is in the Monarchy of Liechtenstein, where a competent monarch may choose to assign regency to their of-age heir, handing over the majority of their responsibilities to prepare the heir for future succession. The rule of a regent or regents is called a regency. A regent or regency council may be formed ad hoc or in accordance with a constitutional rule. Regent is sometimes a formal title granted to a monarch's most trusted advisor or personal assistant. If the regent is holding their position due to their position in the line of succession, the compound term prince regent is often used; if the regent of a minor is their mother, she would be referred to as queen regent.
The Guarantors' Panel on the Constitutionality of Rules is the highest court of San Marino in matters of constitutional law. The institution was established with Constitutional Revising Law no. 36 of 26 February 2002, which has amended Article 16 of the "Declaration on the Citizens' Rights and Fundamental Principles of San Marino Constitutional Order". The Guarantors' Panel on the Constitutionality of Rules is the youngest body of San Marino constitutional order. Constitutionality review was previously entrusted to the Great and General Council, but throughout the years this solution had presented several limits.
Antonio Onofri was a politician and diplomat of the Republic of San Marino, a key figure in the country's political scene in the late 18th century and early 19th century. His "prudence and patriotism" during this challenging period in the Republic's history earned him a statue in the Public Council Hall and the recognition as "the Father of his country".
Alessandro Cardelli is a Sammarinese politician and one of the Captains Regent with Mirko Dolcini. Their joint terms was from 1 October 2020 until 1 April 2021. He was the youngest state leader in the world, and also was the only head of state under 30 years of age as for 2021.
Domani – Motus Liberi is a Christian-liberal political party in San Marino. The party was officially formed on April 28, 2018.
Manuel Ciavatta is a Sammarinese politician who is one of two Captains Regent in office from 1 October 2022. He is serving alongside Maria Luisa Berti.