Three Towers of San Marino

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Guaita Fortress of Guaita 2013-09-19.jpg
Cesta San Marino La Cesta o Fratta.jpg

The Three Towers of San Marino are a group of towers located in San Marino. Located on the three peaks of Monte Titano in the capital, also called San Marino, they are depicted on both the national flag and coat of arms.

San Marino Republic on the Appenine peninsula

San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino, also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino, is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains. Its size is just over 61 km2 (24 sq mi), with a population of 33,562. Its capital is the City of San Marino and its largest settlement is Dogana in the municipality of Serravalle. San Marino has the smallest population of all the members of the Council of Europe. With Italian being the official language, along with strong financial and ethno-cultural connections, San Marino maintains close ties to its much larger neighbour; it is located close to the riviera of Rimini, one of Italy's main coastal resort areas.

Monte Titano mountain

Monte Titano is a mountain of the Apennines and the highest peak in San Marino. It stands at 739 m (2,425 ft) above sea level and is located immediately to the east of the capital, San Marino. It was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2008 under the combined title "San Marino Historic Centre and Mount Titano". Inscribed under reference no. 1245 criteria iii, the two together encompass an area of 55 ha with a buffer zone of 167 ha. It encompasses Mount Titano and the other structures such as the fortification towers, walls, gates and bastions, as well as a neo-classical basilica located on it and its slopes forming a small but unique urban conglomerate.

Flag of San Marino flag

The state and war flag of San Marino is formed by two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the coat of arms has a shield with a closed crown on top, flanked by an oak and laurel wreath, with a scroll below bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty). The two colors of the flag represent peace (white) and liberty (azure).


First Tower

The Guaita is the oldest of the three towers, and the most famous. It was constructed in the 11th century and served briefly as a prison. It was rebuilt numerous times and reached its current form in the 15th century during the war fought between San Marino and the House of Malatesta. [1]

Guaita mountain peak near the city of San Marino

Guaita is one of three peaks which overlooks the city of San Marino, the capital of San Marino. The other two are De La Fratta and Montale.

House of Malatesta Italian family

The House of Malatesta was an Italian family that ruled over Rimini from 1295 until 1500, as well as other lands and towns in Romagna.

Second Tower

The Cesta is located on the highest of Monte Titano's summits. A museum to honour Saint Marinus, created in 1956, is located in this tower and showcases over 1,550 weapons dating from the Medieval Era to the modern day. [2] It was constructed in the 13th century on the remains of an older Roman fort. [3]

Saint Marinus Sammarinese saint

Saint Marinus was the founder of a chapel and monastery, in 301. From this initial community the state of San Marino later grew.

Third Tower

Montale Montale.JPG

The Montale is located on the smallest of Monte Titano's summits. Unlike the other towers, this one is not open to the public. It was constructed in the 14th century. It is thought to have been constructed to give protection against the increasing power of the Malatesta family in that region. [4] It was also used as a prison, and accordingly, the only entrance to the tower is a door about seven metres from ground level, which was common for prison architecture of the time. [5]

Montale (San Marino) mountain in San Marino

Montale is one of three peaks which overlook the city of San Marino, the capital of the Republic of San Marino. The other two are De La Fratta and Guaita.

Related Research Articles

As the only surviving medieval microstate in the Italian peninsula, the history of San Marino is intertwined with medieval, renaissance and modern-day history of the Italian peninsula, beginning with independence from the Roman Empire on 257 AD.

San Marino, California City in California, United States

San Marino is a residential city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. It was incorporated on April 25, 1913. With a median home price of $2,431,900, San Marino is one of the most expensive and exclusive communities in the United States.

City of San Marino Castello in San Marino

The City of San Marino (Italian: Città di San Marino) is the capital city of the Republic of San Marino, Southern Europe. The city has a population of 4,044. It is on the western slopes of San Marino's highest point, Monte Titano.

San Marino Calcio association football club

San Marino Calcio is a Sammarinese expatriated football club based in Serravalle, playing in the Italian football league system, unlike fellow Sammarinese clubs. Being a full member of the Italian league system means the club would represent Italy in continental competitions should it qualify, similarly to Monaco representing France and Welsh clubs representing England.

Domagnano castello in San Marino

Domagnano is a municipality in San Marino. It has 3,565 inhabitants in an area of 6.62 km².

S.P. Tre Penne association football club

S.P. Tre Penne is a football club based in the City of San Marino. The club was founded in 1956, and currently plays in Girone B of Campionato Sammarinese di Calcio. The team colors were blue and white when home, and red when away. Later on the team color was changed to green.

Coat of arms of San Marino coat of arms

The coat of arms of San Marino probably originated in the fourteenth century. The official establishment took place on 6 April 1862 by a Decree of the Supreme Council; the same act introduced the crown on top of the shield.

Acquaviva (San Marino) castello in San Marino

Acquaviva is one of the 9 communes or "castelli" of San Marino.

Montescudo Comune in Emilia-Romagna, Italy

Montescudo is a frazione and former comune (municipality) in the Province of Rimini in the Italian region Emilia-Romagna, located about 120 kilometres (75 mi) southeast of Bologna and about 15 kilometres (9 mi) south of Rimini.

De La Fratta

De La Fratta or Cesta is one of three peaks which overlook the city of San Marino, the capital of San Marino. The other two are Guaita and Montale.

Tourism in San Marino

Tourism in San Marino contributes a large part of San Marino's GDP, with approximately 2 million tourists visiting per year.

Sammarinese cuisine

As San Marino is a microstate completely landlocked by Italy, Sammarinese cuisine is strongly similar to the Italian cuisine, especially that of the adjoining Emilia-Romagna and Marche regions. San Marino's primary agricultural products are cheese, wine and livestock, and cheesemaking is a primary economic activity in San Marino. San Marino participated in The Exposition Universelle of 1889, a world's fair held in Paris, France, with three exhibits of oils and cheese.

Outline of San Marino

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to San Marino:

Postage stamps and postal history of San Marino

The postal history of San Marino can be traced to October 7, 1607, with the introduction of public postal services. The republic’s postal needs were handled by a post office in nearby Rimini, Italy; the first San Marino post office opened in 1833.

The 2015–16 Coppa Titano were the fifty-sixth season in the cup's history. The tournament began on 15 September 2015 and ended on 1 May 2016.

The 2017–18 Coppa Titano was the 58th version of the football competition. This competition began on 26 September 2017. The winners of the Coppa Titano, La Fiorita, earned a place in the 2018–19 Europa League and would begin play in the preliminary round.


  1. "First Tower (Guaita)". Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  2. "Museum of Historical Weapons". Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  3. "Second Tower (Cesta)". Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  4. "Montale (Third Tower)". Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  5. "Terza Torre (Montale)". Retrieved 2 March 2015.

Coordinates: 43°56′06″N12°27′00″E / 43.93500°N 12.45000°E / 43.93500; 12.45000

Geographic coordinate system Coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.