Prime Minister of Croatia

Last updated
President of the Government of the Republic of Croatia
Predsjednik Vlade Republike Hrvatske
Zastava predsjednika Vlade RH.svg
EPP Summit, 20 October 2022, Brussels (52441830328) (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
Andrej Plenković

since 19 October 2016
Government of Croatia
Office of the Prime Minister
Style
Type Head of Government
Member of
Reports to Croatian Parliament
Seat Banski Dvori, Trg sv. Marka 2,
Zagreb, Croatia
Nominator President of Croatia
Appointer Croatian Parliament
Term length At the pleasure of the parliamentary majority. Parliamentary elections must be held no later than 60 days after the expiration of a full parliamentary term of 4 years, but an incumbent prime minister shall remain in office in a caretaker capacity until a new government is confirmed in Parliament and sworn in by its speaker.
Constituting instrument Constitution of Croatia
Inaugural holder Stjepan Mesić (after adoption of constitutional Amendment LXXIII) [2]
Josip Manolić (under current Constitution)
Formation25 July 1990 (by constitutional Amendment LXXIII) [3]
22 December 1990 (under current Constitution)
Deputy Deputy Prime Minister
(position held by one or more members of the government)
Salary21,655 HRK monthly [4]
Website vlada.gov.hr

The prime minister of Croatia, officially the President of the Government of the Republic of Croatia (Croatian : Predsjednik / Predsjednica Vlade Republike Hrvatske), is Croatia's head of government, and is de facto the most powerful and influential state officeholder in the Croatian system of government. Following the first-time establishment of the office in 1945, the 1990–2000 semi-presidential period is the only exception where the president of Croatia held de facto executive authority. In the formal Croatian order of precedence, however, the position of prime minister is the third highest state office, after the president of the Republic and the speaker of the Parliament.

Contents

The Constitution of Croatia prescribes that "Parliament supervises the Government" (Article 81) and that "the President of the Republic ensures the regular and balanced functioning and stability of government" (as a whole; Article 94), while the Government is introduced in Article 108. [5] Since 2000, the prime minister has had various added constitutional powers and is mentioned before the Government itself in the text of the Constitution, in Articles 87, 97, 99, 100, 101, 103, 104. [5] The current prime minister of Croatia is Andrej Plenković. The Government of Croatia meets in Banski dvori, a historical building located on the west side of St. Mark's Square in Zagreb.

Name

The official name of the office, literally translated, is "President of the Government" (Predsjednik / Predsjednica Vlade), rather than a literal translation of "Prime Minister" (Prvi Ministar). In Croatian, the shorter term Premijer / Premijerka (Premier) is commonly used as well.

History

The Royal Government of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia (1868–1918) was headed by the Ban of Croatia (Viceroy), who represented the King. The first head of government of Croatia as a constituent republic of Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia was Vladimir Bakarić, who assumed the position on 14 April 1945. The position was then the most powerful public office in the state in addition to the position of the Secretary of the League of Communists of Croatia, as a single-party system was in place. The head of government was renamed to the President of the Executive Council in 1952.

After the constitutional amendments that allowed for multi-party elections in Croatia, the Parliament enacted amendments to the constitution (25 July) which eliminated socialist references and adopted new national symbols. The newly elected tricameral Parliament proceeded to change the Constitution of Croatia, and on 22 December 1990, this so-called "Christmas Constitution" fundamentally defined the Republic of Croatia and its governmental structure. From the 1990 constitutional reforms onward Croatia was a semi-presidential republic, which meant the president of Croatia had broad executive powers (further expanded with laws to a point of superpresidentialism), including the appointment and dismissal of the prime minister and other officials in the government. During this period, lasting until constitutional amendments in late 2000, Croatia had seven prime ministers. The first prime minister of Croatia since the 1990 constitutional reforms was Stjepan Mesić, assuming office on 30 May 1990. [6] [7]

Following the May 1991 independence referendum in which 93% of voters approved secession, Croatia formally proclaimed independence from Yugoslavia on 25 June 1991, with Josip Manolić continuing in the role of prime minister as head of government of an independent Croatia. However, the country then signed the July 1991 Brijuni Agreement in which it agreed to postpone further activities towards severing ties with Yugoslavia. Meanwhile, the Croatian War of Independence ensued, and Franjo Gregurić was appointed to lead a Government of National Unity. In October the same year, Croatia formally severed all remaining legal ties with the Yugoslav Federation.

Following the January 2000 general election the winning centre-left coalition led by the Social Democratic Party amended the Constitution and effectively stripped the President of most of his executive powers, strengthening the role of the Parliament and the prime minister, turning Croatia into a parliamentary republic. The prime minister again (as before 1990) became the foremost post in Croatian politics.

To date there have been twelve Prime Ministers who have chaired 14 governments since the first multi-party elections. Nine prime ministers were members of the Croatian Democratic Union during their terms of office, two were members of the Social Democratic Party and one was not a member of any political party. Since independence there has been one female prime minister (Jadranka Kosor), while Savka Dabčević-Kučar was the first woman (not only in Croatia, but in Europe) to hold an office equivalent to a head of government as Chairman of the Executive Council of the Socialist Republic of Croatia (1967–1969).

Prime ministers of Croatia

The position of prime minister of the Republic of Croatia was instituted by the constitutional amendments adopted on 25 July 1990 (more specifically, by Amendment LXXIII), [8] while the country was still a constituent republic of SFR Yugoslavia. Prior to the amending of the republican constitution, Croatia's head of government had held the title of president of the Executive Council of the Socialist Republic of Croatia. Croatia formally declared itself independent on 25 June 1991.


President of the Executive Council of the Socialist Republic of Croatia after the first multi-party elections

No.PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
ElectionTerm of officePartyCabinetCompositionPresident
(Term)
Term startTerm endDuration
Stjepan Mesic (2) (cropped).jpg Stjepan Mesić
(1934–)
1990 30 May 1990 25 July 199056 days HDZ
Croatian Democratic Union
14th Executive
Council
HDZ Franjo
Tuđman

Flag of the President of Croatia.svg
(1990–1999)


Prime Minister of the Republic of Croatia between the adoption of constitutional Amendment LXXIII and the declaration of independence

No.PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
ElectionTerm of officePartyCabinetCompositionPresident
(Term)
Term startTerm endDuration
1 Stjepan Mesic (2) (cropped).jpg Stjepan Mesić
(1934–)
1990 25 July 199024 August 199030 days HDZ
Croatian Democratic Union
Mesić HDZ Franjo
Tuđman

Flag of the President of Croatia.svg
(1990–1999)
2 Dan OSRH Josip Manolic 28052011 2.jpg Josip Manolić
(1920–)
24 August 1990 25 June 1991305 days HDZ
Croatian Democratic Union
Manolić HDZ


Prime Minister of the Republic of Croatia after the declaration of independence

No.PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
ElectionTerm of officePartyCabinetCompositionPresident
(Term)
Term startTerm endDuration
2 Dan OSRH Josip Manolic 28052011 2.jpg Josip Manolić
(1920–)
25 June 199117 July 199122 days HDZ
Croatian Democratic Union
Manolić HDZ Franjo
Tuđman

Flag of the President of Croatia.svg
(1990–1999)
3 Unknown-person.gif Franjo Gregurić
(1939–)
17 July 1991 12 August 19921 year, 26 days HDZ
Croatian Democratic Union
Gregurić HDZ   SDP   HSLS   HNS   HKDS   HDS   SDSH   SSH
4 Hrvoje Sarinic.jpg Hrvoje Šarinić
(1935–2017)
1992 12 August 1992 3 April 1993234 days HDZ
Croatian Democratic Union
Šarinić HDZ
5 Dan OSRH Nikica Valentic 28052011 2.jpg Nikica Valentić
(1950–)
3 April 1993 7 November 19952 years, 218 days HDZ
Croatian Democratic Union
Valentić From 3 April 1993 to 31 December 1994:
HDZ   HSS
From 31 December 1994 to 7 November 1995:
HDZ
6 Zlatko Matesa.jpg Zlatko Mateša
(1949–)
1995 7 November 1995 27 January 20004 years, 81 days HDZ
Croatian Democratic Union
Mateša HDZ
Stjepan
Mesić

Flag of the President of Croatia.svg
(2000–2010)
7 Ivica Racan small.jpg Ivica Račan
(1944–2007)
2000 27 January 2000 23 December 20033 years, 330 days SDP
Social Democratic Party
Račan I SDP   HSLS   HNS   HSS   IDS   LS
Račan II SDP   HSS   HNS   Libra   LS
8 Sanader cropped.jpg Ivo Sanader
(1953–)
2003 23 December 20036 July 20095 years, 195 days HDZ
Croatian Democratic Union
Sanader I HDZ   DC
2007 Sanader II HDZ   HSLS   HSS   SDSS
9 Jadranka Kosor 26052011 crop.jpg Jadranka Kosor
(1953–)
6 July 200923 December 20112 years, 170 days HDZ
Croatian Democratic Union
Kosor HDZ   HSLS   HSS   SDSS
Ivo
Josipović

Flag of the President of Croatia.svg
(2010–2015)
10 16 obljetnica vojnoredarstvene operacije Oluja 04082011 Zoran Milanovic 38.jpg Zoran Milanović
(1966–)
2011 23 December 201122 January 20164 years, 30 days SDP
Social Democratic Party
Milanović SDP   HNS   IDS
Kolinda
Grabar
Kitarović

Flag of the President of Croatia.svg
(2015–2020)
11 TihomirOreskovic.jpg Tihomir Orešković
(1966–)
2015 22 January 201619 October 2016271 days Independent Orešković HDZ   MOST
12 EPP Summit, 20 October 2022, Brussels (52441830328) (cropped).jpg Andrej Plenković
(1970–)
2016 19 October 2016Incumbent6 years, 40 days HDZ
Croatian Democratic Union
Plenković I From 19 October 2016 to 28 April 2017:
HDZ   MOST
From 28 April to 9 June 2017:
HDZ
From 9 June 2017 to 23 July 2020:
HDZ   HNS
Zoran
Milanović

Flag of the President of Croatia.svg
(2020–present)
2020 Plenković II HDZ   SDSS
Notes
1. ^ From 1990 until the constitutional changes enacted in 2000, which replaced a powerful semi-presidential system (de facto a superpresidential system) with an incomplete parliamentary system, the term of the Prime Minister legally began on the date on which he was appointed by the President of the Republic and not on the date when he received a vote of confidence in Parliament, as is the case since 2000.
2. ^ Until 12 October 2010.

Statistics

#Prime MinisterAge at ascension
(first term)
Time in office
(total)
Age at retirement
(last term)
Length of retirementLifespan
1 Stjepan Mesić 55 years, 157 days86 days55 years, 243 days32 years, 96 days (Living)87 years, 339 days (Living)
2 Josip Manolić 70 years, 155 days327 days71 years, 117 days31 years, 134 days (Living)102 years, 251 days (Living)
3 Franjo Gregurić 51 years, 278 days1 year, 26 days52 years, 305 days30 years, 108 days (Living)83 years, 47 days (Living)
4 Hrvoje Šarinić 57 years, 177 days234 days58 years, 45 days24 years, 109 days82 years, 154 days
5 Nikica Valentić 42 years, 130 days2 years, 218 days44 years, 348 days27 years, 21 days (Living)72 years, 4 days (Living)
6 Zlatko Mateša 46 years, 143 days4 years, 81 days50 years, 224 days22 years, 305 days (Living)73 years, 164 days (Living)
7 Ivica Račan 55 years, 337 days3 years, 330 days59 years, 302 days3 years, 127 days63 years, 64 days
8 Ivo Sanader 50 years, 198 days5 years, 195 days56 years, 28 days13 years, 145 days (Living)69 years, 173 days (Living)
9 Jadranka Kosor 56 years, 5 days2 years, 170 days58 years, 175 days10 years, 340 days (Living)69 years, 150 days (Living)
10 Zoran Milanović 45 years, 54 days4 years, 30 days49 years, 84 days6 years, 310 days (Living)56 years, 29 days (Living)
11 Tihomir Orešković 50 years, 21 days271 days50 years, 292 days6 years, 40 days (Living)56 years, 331 days (Living)
12 Andrej Plenković 46 years, 194 daysIncumbentServing52 years, 234 days (Living)

Spouses of prime ministers

NameRelation to Prime Minister
Milka Mesić (née Dudunić)wife of Prime Minister Stjepan Mesić
Marija Eker Manolićwife of Prime Minister Josip Manolić
Jozefina Gregurić (née Abramović)wife of Prime Minister Franjo Gregurić
Erika Šarinićwife of Prime Minister Hrvoje Šarinić
Antonela Valentićwife of Prime Minister Nikica Valentić
Sanja Gregurić-Matešawife of Prime Minister Zlatko Mateša
Dijana Pleštinawife of Prime Minister Ivica Račan
Mirjana Sanader (née Šarić)wife of Prime Minister Ivo Sanader
Jadranka Kosor divorced before becoming prime minister
Sanja Musić Milanović wife of Prime Minister Zoran Milanović
Sanja Dujmović Oreškovićwife of Prime Minister Tihomir Orešković
Ana Maslać Plenković wife of Prime Minister Andrej Plenković

See also

Related Research Articles

The politics of Croatia are defined by a parliamentary, representative democratic republic framework, where the Prime Minister of Croatia is the head of government in a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the Government and the President of Croatia. Legislative power is vested in the Croatian Parliament. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The parliament adopted the current Constitution of Croatia on 22 December 1990 and decided to declare independence from Yugoslavia on 25 May 1991. The Constitutional Decision on the Sovereignty and Independence of the Republic of Croatia came into effect on 8 October 1991. The constitution has since been amended several times. The first modern parties in the country developed in the middle of the 19th century, and their agenda and appeal changed, reflecting major social changes, such as the breakup of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, dictatorship and social upheavals in the kingdom, World War II, the establishment of Communist rule and the breakup of the SFR Yugoslavia.

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References

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  3. "Odluka o proglašenju Amandmana LXIV. Do LXXV. Na Ustav Socijalističke Republike Hrvatske".
  4. Thomas, Mark. "Croatian political salaries - how much do Croatia's leading political figures earn - The Dubrovnik Times". www.thedubrovniktimes.com.
  5. 1 2 "The Constitution of the Republic of Croatia (consolidated text)". Croatian Parliament. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2011.
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