This article lists the heads of state of Yugoslavia from the creation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Kingdom of Yugoslavia) in 1918 until the breakup of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a hereditary monarchy ruled by the House of Karađorđević from 1918 up until World War II. After the war, SFR Yugoslavia was headed first by Ivan Ribar, the President of the Presidency of the National Assembly (the parliamentary speaker), and then by President Josip Broz Tito from 1953 up until his death in 1980.Afterwards, the Presidency of Yugoslavia assumed the role of a collective head of state, with the title of President of the Presidency of Yugoslavia rotating among the representatives of the republics and autonomous provinces that composed the Presidency. However, until 1990 the position of President of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia was usually the most powerful position, most often coinciding with the President of the Presidency. With the introduction of multi-party system in 1990, individual republics elected their own heads of state, but the country's head of state continued to rotate among appointed representatives of republics and autonomous provinces until the country dissolved two years later.
|King of Yugoslavia|
|First monarch||Peter I|
|Last monarch||Peter II|
|Formation||1 December 1918|
|Abolition||29 November 1945|
|Residence||Royal Compound, Belgrade|
|Pretender(s)||Line of succession|
The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was created by the unification of the Kingdom of Serbia (the Kingdom of Montenegro had united with Serbia five days previously, while the regions of Kosovo, Vojvodina and Vardar Macedonia were parts of Serbia prior to the unification) and the provisional State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (itself formed from territories of the former Austria-Hungary) on 1 December 1918.
Until 6 January 1929, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was a parliamentary monarchy. On that day, King Alexander I abolished the Vidovdan Constitution (adopted in 1921), prorogued the National Assembly and introduced a personal dictatorship (so-called 6 January Dictatorship).He officially renamed the country Kingdom of Yugoslavia on 3 October 1929 and, although granted the 1931 Constitution, continued to rule as a de facto absolute monarch until his assassination on 9 October 1934, during a state visit to France. After his assassination, parliamentary monarchy was put back in place.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was defeated and occupied on 17 April 1941 after the German invasion. The monarchy was formally abolished and the republic proclaimed on 29 November 1945.
All monarchs were members of the Karađorđević dynasty. Peter I, previously King of Serbia (since the May Coup in 1903 against the Obrenović dynasty), was proclaimed King by representatives of South Slav states. The royal family continued through his son (Alexander I) and his grandson (Peter II).
| Peter I |
1 December 1918
16 August 1921
(2 years, 259 days)
|29 June 1844|
Son of Alexander Karađorđević, Prince of Serbia and Persida Nenadović
| Princess Zorka of Montenegro |
30 July 1883
|16 August 1921|
|Previously King of Serbia (June 15, 1903 – December 1, 1918),|
proclaimed King by representatives of South Slav states
|Held the title "King of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes". Prince Alexander served as regent in his final years.|
| Alexander I |
16 August 1921
9 October 1934
(13 years, 55 days)
|16 December 1888|
Son of Peter I and Princess Zorka of Montenegro
| Maria of Yugoslavia |
8 June 1922
|9 October 1934|
|Son of the preceding||Changed title to "King of Yugoslavia" in 1929.|
Assassinated in Marseilles.
| Paul |
9 October 1934
27 March 1941
(6 years, 170 days)
|27 April 1893|
Son of Prince Arsen of Yugoslavia and Aurora Pavlovna Demidova
| Olga of Greece and Denmark |
22 October 1923
|14 September 1976 |
|Cousin of the preceding||Served as regent for Peter II, together with Radenko Stanković and Ivo Perović.|
| Peter II |
9 October 1934
29 November 1945
(11 years, 52 days)
|6 September 1923|
Son of Alexander I and Maria of Yugoslavia
| Alexandra of Greece and Denmark |
20 March 1944
|3 November 1970 |
|Son of the preceding||Reigned under the regency until the coup d'état on 27 March 1941; exiled on 17 April 1941 and deposed on 29 November 1945.|
|President of Yugoslavia|
|Serbian: Председник Југославије, romanized: Predsednik Jugoslavije|
|Residence||White Palace, Belgrade|
|Precursor||King of Yugoslavia|
|Formation||29 December 1945|
|First holder||Ivan Ribar|
|Final holder||Stjepan Mesić|
|Abolished||5 December 1991|
|Superseded by|| President of Croatia |
President of Serbia and Montenegro
Chairman of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina
President of North Macedonia
President of Slovenia
After the German invasion and fragmentation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, partisans formed the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ) in 1942. On 29 November 1943 an AVNOJ conference proclaimed the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia, while negotiations with the royal government in exile continued. After the liberation of Belgrade on 20 October 1944, the Communist-led government on 29 November 1945 declared King Peter II deposed and proclaimed the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia.
From 1945 to 1953, the President of the Presidency of the National Assembly was the office of the Yugoslav head of state. The post was held by Ivan Ribar.
From 1953 to 1963, Josip Broz Tito simultaneously held the offices of the President of the Republic (head of state) and the President of the Federal Executive Council (head of government). The 1963 Constitution renamed the state as Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and divided the office of the President of the Republic from that of President of the Federal Council, even if the President of the Republic retained the power to preside over the Government when it met, on the French model.
The 1974 Constitution provided for a collective federal presidency , consisting of representatives of the six republics, the two autonomous provinces within Serbia and (until 1988) the President of the League of Communists, with a chairman in rotation. Notwithstanding, this constitutional provision was suspended because Tito was elected by parliament as President for Life ,who thus chaired the collective presidency on a permanent basis. After his death in 1980, one member was annually elected President of the Presidency and performed many of the personal duties expected of a president, though the collective presidency as a whole remained head of state.
|Representing||Term of office||Political party||Note|
|Took office||Left office||Time in office|
|President of the Presidency of the National Assembly |
|1|| Ivan Ribar |
|N/A||29 December 1945||14 January 1953||7 years, 16 days||SKJ||Communist Party of Yugoslavia (KPJ) reformed and renamed League of Communists of Yugoslavia (SKJ) in 1952.|
| President |
|1|| Josip Broz Tito |
|N/A||14 January 1953||4 May 1980 †||27 years, 111 days||SKJ||Declared president for life in 1974.|
| Presidents of the Presidency |
|1|| Lazar Koliševski |
|Macedonia||4 May 1980||15 May 1980||11 days||SKJ||.|
|2|| Cvijetin Mijatović |
| Bosnia and|
|15 May 1980||15 May 1981||1 year||SKJ||.|
|3|| Sergej Kraigher |
|Slovenia||15 May 1981||15 May 1982||1 year||SKJ||.|
|4|| Petar Stambolić |
|Serbia||15 May 1982||15 May 1983||1 year||SKJ||.|
|5|| Mika Špiljak |
|Croatia||15 May 1983||15 May 1984||1 year||SKJ||.|
|6|| Veselin Đuranović |
|Montenegro||15 May 1984||15 May 1985||1 year||SKJ||.|
|7|| Radovan Vlajković |
|SAP Vojvodina||15 May 1985||15 May 1986||1 year||SKJ||.|
|8|| Sinan Hasani |
|SAP Kosovo||15 May 1986||15 May 1987||1 year||SKJ||.|
|9|| Lazar Mojsov |
|Macedonia||15 May 1987||15 May 1988||1 year||SKJ||.|
|10|| Raif Dizdarević |
| Bosnia and|
|15 May 1988||15 May 1989||1 year||SKJ||.|
|11|| Janez Drnovšek |
|Slovenia||15 May 1989||15 May 1990||1 year|| SKJ |
|Joined Liberal Democratic Party of Slovenia in February 1990.|
|12|| Borisav Jović |
|Serbia||15 May 1990||15 May 1991||1 year||SPS|| SKJ dissolved in February 1990.|
In Serbia the party was succeeded by the SPS.
|–|| Sejdo Bajramović |
|AP Kosovo||16 May 1991||30 June 1991||45 days||SPS||Acting president.|
|13|| Stjepan Mesić |
|Croatia||30 June 1991||5 December 1991||158 days||HDZ||Last president of Yugoslavia.|
|–|| Branko Kostić |
|Montenegro||5 December 1991||15 June 1992||193 days||DPS||Acting president.|
Installed by Serbia and Montenegro.
Yugoslavia was a country in Southeast Europe and Central Europe for most of the 20th century. It came into existence after World War I in 1918 under the name of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes by the merger of the provisional State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs with the Kingdom of Serbia, and constituted the first union of the South Slavic people as a sovereign state, following centuries in which the region had been part of the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary. Peter I of Serbia was its first sovereign. The kingdom gained international recognition on 13 July 1922 at the Conference of Ambassadors in Paris. The official name of the state was changed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia on 3 October 1929.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a state in Southeast and Central Europe that existed from 1918 until 1941. From 1918 to 1929, it was officially called the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, but the term "Yugoslavia" was its colloquial name due to its origins. The official name of the state was changed to "Kingdom of Yugoslavia" by King Alexander I on 3 October 1929.
Democratic Federal Yugoslavia, also known as Democratic Federative Yugoslavia, was a provisional state established during World War II on 29 November 1943 through the Second Session of the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ). The National Committee for the Liberation of Yugoslavia (NKOJ) was its original executive body. Throughout its existence it was governed by Marshal Josip Broz Tito as prime minister.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, commonly referred to as SFR Yugoslavia or simply as Yugoslavia, was a country in Central and Southeast Europe. It emerged in 1945, following World War II, and lasted until 1992, with the breakup of Yugoslavia occurring as a consequence of the Yugoslav Wars. Spanning an area of 255,804 square kilometres (98,766 sq mi) in the Balkans, Yugoslavia was bordered by the Adriatic Sea and Italy to the west, by Austria and Hungary to the north, by Bulgaria and Romania to the east, and by Albania and Greece to the south. It was a one-party socialist state and federation governed by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, and had six constituent republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia. Within Serbia was the Yugoslav capital city of Belgrade as well as two autonomous Yugoslav provinces: Kosovo and Vojvodina.
Alexander, Crown Prince of Yugoslavia, is the head of the House of Karađorđević, the former royal house of the defunct Kingdom of Yugoslavia and its predecessor the Kingdom of Serbia. Alexander is the only child of King Peter II and his wife, Princess Alexandra of Greece and Denmark. He held the position of crown prince in the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia for the first four-and-a-half months of his life, from his birth until the declaration of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia later in 1945. In public he is also claiming the crowned royal title of "Alexander II Karađorđević" although he is not king or crowned.
The Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia, commonly abbreviated as the AVNOJ, was a deliberative and legislative body that was established in Bihać, Yugoslavia, in November 1942. It was established by Josip Broz Tito, the leader of the Yugoslav Partisans, an armed resistance movement led by the Communist Party of Yugoslavia to resist the Axis occupation of the country during World War II.
Ivan Ribar was a Croatian politician who served in several governments of various forms in Yugoslavia. Ideologically a Pan-Slavist and communist, he was a prominent member of the Yugoslav Partisans, who resisted the Nazi occupation of Yugoslavia.
The breakup of Yugoslavia occurred as a result of a series of political upheavals and conflicts during the early 1990s. After a period of political and economic crisis in the 1980s, constituent republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia split apart, but the unresolved issues caused bitter inter-ethnic Yugoslav wars. The wars primarily affected Bosnia and Herzegovina, neighbouring parts of Croatia and, some years later, Kosovo.
The prime minister of Yugoslavia was the head of government of the Yugoslav state, from the creation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1918 until the breakup of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992.
The Socialist Republic of Serbia, previously known as the People's Republic of Serbia, was one of the six constituent republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Its formation was initiated in 1941, and achieved in 1944–1946, when it was established as a federated republic within Yugoslavia. In that form, it lasted until the constitutional reforms from 1990 to 1992, when it was reconstituted, as the Republic of Serbia within the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. It was the largest constituent republic of Yugoslavia, in terms of population and territory. Its capital, Belgrade, was also the federal capital of Yugoslavia.
The Presidency of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was the collective head of state of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. It was established in 1971 according to amendments to the 1963 Constitution and reorganized by the 1974 Constitution. Up to 1974, the Presidency had 23 members – three from each republic, two from each autonomous province and President Josip Broz Tito. In 1974 the Presidency was reduced to 9 members – one from each republic and autonomous province and, until 1988, President of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia ex officio.
The Parliament of Yugoslavia was the legislature of Yugoslavia. Before World War II in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia it was known as the National Assembly, while in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia the name was changed to Federal Assembly. It functioned from 1920 to 1992 and resided in the building which now convenes the National Assembly of Serbia.
The office of the President of the Presidency of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia existed from the death of the President of the Republic Josip Broz Tito on 4 May 1980 until the dissolution of the country by 1992.
Yugoslavism, Yugoslavdom, or Yugoslav nationalism is an ideology supporting the notion that the South Slavs, namely the Bosniaks, Croats, Macedonians, Montenegrins, Serbs and Slovenes, but also Bulgarians, belong to a single Yugoslav nation separated by diverging historical circumstances, forms of speech, and religious divides. During the interwar period, Yugoslavism became predominant in, and then the official ideology of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. There were two major forms of Yugoslavism in the period: the regime favoured integral Yugoslavism promoting unitarism, centralisation, and unification of the country's ethnic groups into a single Yugoslav nation, by coercion if necessary. The approach was also applied to languages spoken in the Kingdom. The main alternative was federalist Yugoslavism which advocated the autonomy of the historical lands in the form of a federation and gradual unification without outside pressure. Both agreed on the concept of National Oneness developed as an expression of the strategic alliance of South Slavs in Austria-Hungary in the early 20th century. The concept was meant as a notion that the South Slavs belong to a single "race", were of "one blood", and had shared language. It was considered neutral regarding the choice of centralism or federalism.
The emblem of Yugoslavia featured six torches, surrounded by wheat with a red star at its top, and burning together in one flame; this represented the brotherhood and unity of the six federal republics forming Yugoslavia: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia. The date imprinted was 29 November 1943, the day the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ) met in Jajce on its second meeting and formed the basis for post-war organisation of the country, establishing a federal republic. This day was celebrated as Republic Day after the establishment of the republic. The emblem of Yugoslavia, along with those of its constituent republics, are an example of socialist heraldry.
Montenegrin nationalism is the nationalism that asserts that Montenegrins are a nation and promotes the cultural unity of Montenegrins.
The office of the vice president of the Presidency of the SFR Yugoslavia existed from the enactment of constitutional amendments establishing the position in 1971 until the dissolution of the country by 1992. A collective presidency existed in Yugoslavia since amendments to the constitution in 1971. The amendments established the roles of President and Vice President within the collective Presidency which would rotate between individual republics and provinces on an annual basis. However, it also defined a separate title of President of the Republic which could be conferred by the Federal Assembly into Josip Broz Tito who would automatically preside over the Presidency as well. Therefore, the launch of the Vice Presidency of the Presidency in 1971 would be the first to carry out a rotation system. Krste Crvenkovski of SR Macedonia was the first to hold the office. The subsequent order after SR Macedonia was SR Bosnia and Herzegovina, SR Slovenia, SR Serbia, SR Croatia, SR Montenegro, SAP Vojvodina, and SAP Kosovo. In 1974 a new Constitution was adopted which reaffirmed the collective federal presidency consisting of representatives of the six republics, the two autonomous provinces within Serbia and the President of the League of Communists.
The Croatian Partisans, officially the National Liberation Movement in Croatia, were part of the anti-fascist National Liberational Movement in the Axis-occupied Yugoslavia which was the most effective anti-Nazi resistance movement led by Yugoslav revolutionary communists during the Second World War. NOP was under the leadership of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (KPJ) and supported by many others, with Croatian Peasant Party members contributing to it significantly. NOP units were able to temporarily or permanently liberate large parts of Croatia from occupying forces. Based on the NOP, the Federal Republic of Croatia, which was referred to by Winston Churchill as "the Croatian miracle" was founded as a constituent of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia.