President of Portugal

Last updated
President of the Portuguese Republic
Presidente da República Portuguesa
Coat of arms of Portugal.svg
Flag of the President of Portugal.svg
Portrait-president-rebelo-de-sousa.jpg
Incumbent
Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa

since 9 March 2016
Style Mr President (informal)
His Excellency (diplomatic)
Type Head of state
Member of
Residence Belém Palace
Seat Lisbon, Portugal
Appointer Direct election
Term length Five years, renewable once consecutively
Precursor Monarch
Formation5 October 1910;111 years ago (1910-10-05)
First holder Manuel de Arriaga
Salary€93,364.74 annually [1]
Website presidencia.pt

The president of the Portuguese Republic (Portuguese : Presidente da República Portuguesa, pronounced  [pɾɨziˈðẽtɨ ðɐ ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ puɾtuˈɣezɐ] ) is the head of state of Portugal.

Contents

The powers, functions and duties of prior presidential offices, and their relation with the prime minister and cabinets have over time differed with the various Portuguese constitutions. Currently, in the Third Republic, a semi-presidential system, the President holds no direct executive power, but is more than a merely ceremonial figure as is typically the case with parliamentary systems: one of his most significant responsibilities is the promulgation of all laws enacted by Parliament or Government (an act without which such laws have no legal validity), with an alternative option to veto them (although this veto can be overcome in the case of laws approved by Parliament) or send them to the Constitutional Court for appreciation of whether they violate the Constitution. This and other abilities imply that the President of Portugal does not fit clearly into either of the three traditional powers  – legislative, executive and judicial –, acting instead as a sort of "moderating power" among the traditional three. [2]

The current president of Portugal is Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa, who took office on 9 March 2016.

Role

The Portuguese Third Republic is a semi-presidential system. Unlike most European presidents, who are largely ceremonial figures, the Portuguese president is invested with quite extensive powers. Although it is the prime minister of Portugal and parliament that oversee much of the nation's actual day-to-day affairs, the Portuguese president wields significant influence and authority, especially in the fields of national security and foreign policy (but less than "strong" semi-presidential systems, such as France or Romania). The president is the supreme commander of the Armed Forces, holds the nation's most senior office, and outranks all other politicians.

The president's greatest power is his ability to choose the prime minister. However, since the Assembly of the Republic has the sole power to dismiss the prime minister's government, the prime minister named by the president must have the confidence of the majority of the representatives in the assembly, otherwise he or she may face a motion of no confidence. The president has the discretionary power to dissolve parliament when he sees fit (colloquially known as the "atomic bomb" in Portugal), and President Sampaio made use of this prerogative in late 2004 to remove the controversial government of Pedro Santana Lopes, despite the absolute majority of deputies supporting the government. In 2003 President Sampaio also intervened to limit the Portuguese participation in the Iraq War - as Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces he forbade the deployment of the Portuguese Army in a war that he personally disagreed with, clashing with the then–Prime-Minister José Manuel Barroso (128 National Republican Guards were eventually deployed from 2003 to 2005).

Prior to the Carnation Revolution, the powers of the presidency varied widely; some presidents were virtual dictators (such as Pais, and Carmona in his early years), while others were little more than figureheads (such as Carmona in his later years, Craveiro Lopes, and Américo Tomás; during their administrations, supreme power was held by António de Oliveira Salazar, the President of the Council of Ministers).

Powers

The constitution grants the following powers to the president: [3]

Election

Under the Portuguese Constitution adopted in 1976, in the wake of the 1974 Carnation Revolution, the president is elected to a five-year term; there is no limit to the number of terms a president may serve, but a president who serves two consecutive terms may not serve again in the next five years after the second term finishes or in the following five years after his resignation. [3] The official residence of the Portuguese president is the Belém Palace.

The president is elected in a two-round system: if no candidate reaches 50% of the votes during the first round, the two candidates with the most votes face each other in a second round held two weeks later. However, the second round has only been needed once, during the 1986 presidential election. To date, all of the elected presidents since the Carnation Revolution have served for two consecutive terms, and presidents consistently rank as the most popular political figure in the country. During his time in office, however, the popularity of former president Aníbal Cavaco Silva plummeted, making him the second-least popular political figure in the country, just above the then-prime minister, and the first Portuguese president after 1974 to have a negative popularity. [4]

If the president dies or becomes incapacitated while in office, the president of the Assembly assumes the office with restricted powers until a new president can be inaugurated following fresh elections.

2021 presidential election

Summary of the 24 January 2021 Portuguese presidential election results
CandidatesSupporting partiesFirst round
Votes%
Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa Social Democratic Party, People's Party 2,531,69260.66
Ana Gomes People–Animals–Nature, LIVRE 540,82312.96
André Ventura CHEGA 497,74611.93
João Ferreira Portuguese Communist Party, Ecologist Party "The Greens" 179,7644.31
Marisa Matias Left Bloc, Socialist Alternative Movement 165,1273.96
Tiago Mayan Gonçalves Liberal Initiative 134,9913.23
Vitorino Silva React, Include, Recycle 123,0312.95
Total valid4,173,174100.00
Blank ballots47,1641.11
[lower-alpha 1] Invalid ballots38,0180.89
Total4,258,356
Registered voters/turnout10,847,43439.26
Source: Comissão Nacional de Eleições

Graphical timeline (since 1910)

Marcelo Rebelo de SousaCavaco SilvaJorge SampaioMário SoaresRamalho EanesCosta GomesAntónio de SpínolaAmérico TomásCraveiro LopesOliveira SalazarÓscar CarmonaGomes da CostaMendes CabeçadasManuel Teixeira GomesAntónio José de AlmeidaCanto e CastroSidónio PaisBernardino MachadoManuel de ArriagaTeófilo BragaPresident of Portugal

State visits

The president of Portugal often makes official state visits to other foreign countries.

See also

Notes

  1. Includes votes for candidate Eduardo Baptista.

Related Research Articles

A head of state is the public persona who officially embodies a state in its unity and legitimacy. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government and more.

President of France Head of state of France

The president of France, officially the president of the French Republic, is the head of state and head of executive of France, as well as the commander-in-chief of the French Armed Forces. As the presidency is the supreme magistracy of the country, the officeholder is the holder of the highest office in France.

Politics of Portugal Political system of Portugal

Politics in Portugal operates as a unitary multi-party semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Portugal is the head of government, and the President of Portugal is the non-executive head of state with several significant political powers they exercise often. Executive power is exercised by the Government, whose leader is the Prime Minister. Legislative power is primarily vested in the Assembly of the Republic, although the government is also able to legislate on certain matters. The Judiciary of Portugal is independent of the executive and the legislature. The President exerts a sort of "moderating power", not easily classified into any of the traditional three.

Politics of Azerbaijan

The Politics of Azerbaijan takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential republic, with the President of Azerbaijan as the head of state, and the Prime Minister of Azerbaijan as head of government. Executive power is exercised by the president and the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. The Judiciary is nominally independent of the executive and the legislature.

President of Turkey Head of state and head of government of the Republic of Turkey

The president of Turkey officially the president of the Republic of Turkey, is the head of state and head of government, commander-in-chief of the military and the representative of the unity of the Turkish people.

President of Brazil Head of state and head of government of Brazil

The president of Brazil, officially the president of the Federative Republic of Brazil or simply the President of the Republic, is both the head of state and the head of government of Brazil. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the Brazilian Armed Forces. The presidential system was established in 1889, upon the proclamation of the republic in a military coup d'état against Emperor Pedro II. Since then, Brazil has had six constitutions, three dictatorships, and three democratic periods. During the democratic periods, voting has always been compulsory. The Constitution of Brazil, along with several constitutional amendments, establishes the requirements, powers, and responsibilities of the president, their term of office and the method of election.

A decree is a rule of law usually issued by a head of state, according to certain procedures. It has the force of law. The particular term used for this concept may vary from country to country. The executive orders made by the President of the United States, for example, are decrees.

President of Burundi Head of state of the Republic of Burundi

The president of Burundi, officially the President of the Republic, is the head of state and head of government of the Republic of Burundi. The president is also commander-in-chief of the National Defence Force. The office of the presidency was established when Michel Micombero declared Burundi a republic on 28 November 1966. The first constitution to specify the powers and duties of the president was the constitution of 1974 adopted in 1976. The constitution, written by Micombero, affirmed Micombero's position as the first president of Burundi. The powers of the president currently derive from the 2005 constitution implemented as a result of the 2000 Arusha Accords after the Burundian Civil War. The current president since 18 June 2020 is Évariste Ndayishimiye.

President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

The president of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, is the head of state of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and commander-in-chief of the armed forces.

Constitution of Lithuania

The Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania defines the legal foundation for all laws passed in the Republic of Lithuania. It was approved in a referendum on 25 October 1992.

President of Slovakia Head of state of Slovakia

The president of the Slovak Republic is the head of state of Slovakia and the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces. The president is directly elected by the people for five years, and can be elected for a maximum of two consecutive terms. The presidency is largely a ceremonial office, but the president does exercise certain limited powers with absolute discretion. The president's official residence is the Grassalkovich Palace in Bratislava.

Constitution of Portugal Current constitution of Portugal

The present Constitution of Portugal was adopted in 1976 after the Carnation Revolution. It was preceded by a number of constitutions including the first one created in 1822, 1826, 1838, 1911, and 1933.

President of Lebanon Head of state of Lebanon

The president of the Lebanese Republic is the head of state of Lebanon. The president is elected by the parliament for a term of six years, which is not immediately renewable. By convention, the president is always a Maronite Christian who is at least 21 years old.

President of Artsakh Head of state and government of the de facto republic

The president of Artsakh is the head of state and head of government of the de facto Republic of Artsakh.

President of Uzbekistan Head of state of Uzbekistan

The president of the Republic of Uzbekistan is the head of state and executive authority in Uzbekistan. The office of President was established in 1991, replacing the position of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Uzbek SSR, which had existed since 1925. The president is directly elected for a term of five years, by citizens of Uzbekistan who have reached 18 years of age.

Constitution of Armenia Supreme law of Armenia

The Constitution of Armenia was adopted by a nationwide Armenian referendum on July 5, 1995. This constitution established Armenia as a democratic, sovereign, social, and constitutional state. Yerevan is defined as the state's capital. Power is vested in its citizens, who exercise it directly through the election of government representatives. Decisions related to changes in constitutional status or to an alteration of borders are subject to a vote of the citizens of Armenia exercised in a referendum. There are 117 articles in the 1995 constitution. On November 27, 2005, a nationwide constitutional referendum was held and an amended constitution was adopted. The constitution was amended again in a national referendum on December 6, 2015 that changed the political structure from a semi-presidential system to a parliamentary republic.

Constitution of Nicaragua

The Constitution of Nicaragua was reformed due to a negotiation of the executive and legislative branches in 1995. The reform of the 1987 Sandinista Constitution gave extensive new powers and independence to the National Assembly, including permitting the Assembly to override a presidential veto with a simple majority vote and eliminating the president's ability to pocket veto a bill. Both the president and the members of the unicameral National Assembly are elected to concurrent five-year terms.

Constitution of Mauritania

The current Constitution of Mauritania was adopted on 12 July 1991. There have been several constitutions since Mauritania's independence in 1960.

Political status of the Azores

The political status of the Azores is defined by the Political-Administrative Statute of the Autonomous Region of the Azores, which acts as the standard legal constitutional framework for the autonomy of the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores. It defines the scope of the autonomous regional government and the structure and functioning of the region's organs of government within the framework of the 1976 Constitution of Portugal. The autonomous region of Madeira has a similar status.

President of Armenia Head of state of the Republic of Armenia

The president of Armenia is the head of state and the guarantor of independence and territorial integrity of Armenia elected to a single seven year term by the National Assembly of Armenia. Under Armenia's parliamentary system, the president is simply a figurehead and holds ceremonial duties, with most of the political power vested in the Parliament and prime minister.

References

  1. Miguel Santos (23 September 2015). "E agora um temasensível: os políticos são mal pagos?". Observador (in Portuguese). Lisbon. Retrieved 12 October 2016. Todos os salários de detentores de cargos políticos são calculados em função do salário bruto do Presidente da República — 6 668 euros brutos (a que acresce 25% de despesas de representação).
  2. Duties of the President – Head of State. Official Page of the Presidency of the Portuguese Republic. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  3. 1 2 "Constitution of the Portuguese Republic" (PDF). Assembly of the Republic. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  4. Francisco Teixeira (21 April 2011). "Cavaco é o primeiro PR com popularidade negativa". Diário Econónmico (in Portuguese). Lisbon. Retrieved 16 October 2016.