Style (form of address)

Last updated

A style of office or form of address, also called manner of address, is an official or legally recognized form of address for a person or other entity (such as a government or company), and may often be used in conjunction with a personal title. [1] [2] A style, by tradition or law, precedes a reference to a person who holds a post or political office, and is sometimes used to refer to the office itself. An honorific can also be awarded to an individual in a personal capacity. Such styles are particularly associated with monarchies, where they may be used by a wife of an office holder or of a prince of the blood, for the duration of their marriage. They are also almost universally used for presidents in republics and in many countries for members of legislative bodies, higher-ranking judges, and senior constitutional office holders. Leading religious figures also have styles.

Contents

Examples

Academia

Traditional forms of address at German-speaking universities:

Traditional forms of address at Dutch-speaking universities:

Traditional forms of address at Italian-speaking universities:

Government

Diplomats

Judiciaries

Monarchies

Styles and titles of deposed monarchs

General tradition indicates that monarchs who have ceased to reign but not renounced their hereditary titles, retain the use of their style and title for the duration of their lifetimes, but both die with them. Hence, prior to his death, Greece's deposed king was still styled His Majesty King Constantine II , as a personal title, not as occupant of a constitutional office, since the abolition of the monarchy by the Hellenic Republic in 1974. Similarly, until his death, the last King of Italy, Umberto II, was widely referred to as King Umberto II and sometimes addressed as Your Majesty. In contrast, Simeon of Bulgaria who, subsequent to the loss of his throne in 1947, was elected to and held the premiership of his former realm as "Simeon Sakskoburggotski", and therefore is as often referred to by the latter name as by his former royal title and style.

While this rule is generally observed, and indeed some exiled monarchs are allowed diplomatic passports by their former realm, other republics officially object to the use of such titles which are, nonetheless, generally accorded by extant monarchical regimes. In 1981, the then Greek President Konstantinos Karamanlis declined to attend the wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales when it was revealed that Greece's deposed monarch, a cousin of the Prince, had been referred to as "King" in his invitation. The current Hellenic Republic has challenged King Constantine's right to use his title and his passport was revoked in 1994 because he did not use a surname, as his passport at the time stated "Constantine, former King of the Hellenes". However, Constantine II later travelled in and out of Greece on a Danish diplomatic passport as a descendant of Christian IX of Denmark, by the name Constantino de Grecia (Spanish for "Constantine of Greece").

Republics

  • His/Her Excellency (abbreviation HE, oral address Your Excellency) – Presidents of republics (historically, this was first used to refer to George Washington during his tenure as Commander-in-Chief of the Army during the American War of Independence; its use for presidents of republics was established as he was the first president of the first modern republic). In some countries also the prime minister, ministers, governors, ambassadors and high commissioners also use this style.
  • The President of the United States is properly directly addressed as "Mr./Madam President" and introduced as "The President of the United States"; however, His/Her/Your Excellency may properly be used in written communications and is sometimes used in official documents.
  • The custom in France is to call office holders acting within their official capacity M. (Monsieur) or Mme. (Madame) followed by the name of their offices.[ citation needed ] Thus, the President of the Republic is called M. le président or M. le président de la République if a male, and Mme... if a female. Styles such as "excellency" or similar are not used, except for talking about foreign dignitaries. Traditionally after "Madame", the name of the office is not put into the feminine form, but this is becoming less common (hence, "Madame le président" is being replaced by "Madame la présidente").
  • In Italy, members of the lower house (Chamber of Deputies) of the Parliament of Italy are styled Honourable (Italian : Onorevole, abbreviation On.). The correct form to address a member of the upper house (Senate) is Senator (Italian : Senatore, abbreviation Sen.; even though, for gravitas, they may also be addressed Honourable Senator).
  • The incumbent president of Finland is addressed Herra/Rouva Tasavallan Presidentti (Mr./Ms. President of the Republic), while a former president is addressed as just Herra/Rouva Presidentti.
  • The style used for the President of Ireland is normally His Excellency/Her Excellency (Irish : A Shoilse/A Soilse); sometimes people may orally address the President as 'Your Excellency' (Irish : A Shoilse [ə ˈhəʎʃə]), or simply 'President' (Irish : A Uachtaráin [ə ˈuəxt̪ˠəɾˠaːnˠ] (vocative case)).
  • During the Republic of the United Netherlands, the States-General were collectively addressed as "Their High and Mighty Lords" (Dutch : Hoogmogende Heren).
  • The Honourable – Presidents, prime ministers, ministers, governors, members of parliament, senate and congress in some countries. (Australia, Bangladesh, Canada, India, Hong Kong, Singapore, Sri Lanka.)

Medicine

Nautical and aeronautical

Religious

In different countries

Australia

Brunei

Known as terasul in the Malay language.

Canada

Chile

Guernsey

New Zealand

Jamaica

The Most Honourable – In Jamaica, governors-general, as well as their spouses, are entitled to be styled "The Most Honourable" upon receipt of the Jamaican Order of the Nation. [22] Prime ministers and their spouses are also styled this way upon receipt of the Order of the Nation, which is only given to Jamaican governors-general and prime ministers. [22]

India

His Excellency/Her Excellency is used before the name of President of India as well as before of governors of the states. However, it is not mandatory for an Indian citizen to use this style to address the president or the governors after a notification from the President House. But it is mandatory for foreigners to address the president and governors.[ citation needed ]

Your Honour/My Lord – It is used before the names of judges but now it is also not mandatory. The Supreme Court in a hearing said that people need to respect the judges and "Sir" is sufficient for it.[ citation needed ]

Royal styles in India

With a long history of rulers, there are many styles which vary from territory to territory and languages for royal families in India, commonly Maharaja (for king), Maharani (queen) whereas for their successors Raja, Rani (Maha meaning "Great" removed). Rajkumar (for prince) and Rajkumari (for princess).

Others include Hukam (commonly in Rajasthan), Sardar (kings in territories of Punjab within Sikh Empire), Badshah (Mughal Empire), Vazeer-e-Aala (in Mughal Empire) etc.

African traditional rulers

In most of Africa, many styles are used by traditional royalty.

Generally the vast majority of the members of these royal families use the titles Prince and Princess, while the higher ranked amongst them also use either Highness or Royal Highness to describe secondary appellations in their native languages that they hold in their realms, appellations that are intended to highlight their relative proximity to their thrones, either literally in the sense of the extant kingships of the continent or symbolically in the sense of its varied chiefships of the name, and which therefore serve a function similar to the said styles of Highness and Royal Highness.

For example, the Yoruba people of West Africa usually make use of the word Kabiyesi when speaking either to or about their sovereigns and other royals. As such, it is variously translated as Majesty, Royal Highness or Highness depending on the actual rank of the person in question, though a literal translation of the word would read more like this: He (or She) whose words are beyond questioning, Great Lawgiver of the Nation.

Within the Zulu Kingdom of Southern Africa, meanwhile, the monarch and other senior royals are often addressed as uNdabezitha meaning He (or She) Who Concerns the Enemy, but rendered in English as Majesty in address or reference to the king and his consorts, or Royal Highness in the case of other senior members of the royal family.

Hong Kong

The Chief Executive is styled as The Honourable.

Certain senior government officials (such as the Chief Secretary for Administration), President of the Legislative Council, members of the Executive Council, and members of the judiciary (such as the Chief Justice of the Court of Final Appeal) are also styled as The Honourable.

Ireland

In Ireland, holders of offices with Irish names are usually addressed in English by its nominative form (so, 'Taoiseach' and 'Tánaiste'), though the Irish vocative forms differ (a Thaoisigh and a Thánaiste). The President may be styled 'His/Her Excellency' (Irish : A Shoilse, IPA: [əˈhəil̠ʲʃə] / A Soilse [əˈsˠəl̠ʲʃə] ) and addressed 'Your Excellency' (Irish: A Shoilse), or simply 'President' (Irish: A Uachtaráin [əˈuəxt̪ˠəɾˠaːnʲ] ). The titles 'Minister' and 'Senator' are used as forms of address; only the latter as a style. A TD (Teachta Dála) is formally addressed and styled as 'Deputy', though often simply Mr., Mrs., etc. Similarly, county and city councillors can be addressed as 'Councillor', abbreviated Cllr. which is used as a written style, but are just as frequently addressed as Mr., Mrs., etc.

Malaysia

Morocco

Philippines

Spain

Thailand

United Kingdom

"The Right Honourable" is added as a prefix to the name of various collective entities such as:

Styles existing through marriage in the United Kingdom

Styles can be acquired through marriage, although traditionally this applies more to wives of office-holders than to husbands. Thus, in the United Kingdom, Anne, Princess Royal, is styled Her Royal Highness (HRH), her husband, Sir Timothy Laurence, bears no courtesy style by virtue of being her husband (although his mother-in-law, Queen Elizabeth II, has since knighted him), nor do her children bear any title or style, by right or tradition, despite being in the line of succession to the Crown, until 2015 subject to the Royal Marriages Act 1772. In contrast, when Sophie Rhys-Jones married Prince Edward, she became HRH the Countess of Wessex (&c.) and their children are entitled (although they do not use them) to the princely prefix and the style of HRH, and do bear courtesy titles derived from their father.

Styles and titles can change when a marriage is dissolved. The Lady Diana Frances Spencer held the style Her Royal Highness during her marriage to HRH The Prince of Wales and the title Princess of Wales. When the couple divorced she lost her style: she became instead Diana, Princess of Wales. (although she fit the criteria which customarily accords the prefix of "Lady" to the daughter of an earl, and she had been known as such prior to marriage, she did not revert to that title following divorce).

When applied to the current Princess of Wales, inclusion of a definite article ("The Princess of Wales"), is, like HRH, part of the style which accompanies the title. When King Charles III (Then; HRH the Prince of Wales) was remarried to Camilla Parker-Bowles in compliance with the Royal Marriages Act, she lawfully became HRH The Princess of Wales but, as was the announced intention prior to the couple's wedding, she continues to use the lesser title derived from her husband's Duchy of Cornwall and was known as HRH The Duchess of Cornwall, until the accession of her husband as King, because of the strong association to the late Diana, Princess of Wales.

From the divorce until her death in 1997, Diana, Princess of Wales ceased to hold any royal style, although the monarch declared that she remained a Princess of the United Kingdom and in occasions when members of the Royal Family appeared in public, she continued to be accorded the same royal precedence.

When Sarah Ferguson was divorced from her husband, HRH Prince Andrew, Duke of York, she too lost her HRH style, the rank as a British Princess and was re-styled as "Sarah, Duchess of York".

In 1936, Wallis Simpson was denied the HRH style by George VI when she married his older brother, the former Edward VIII, who became HRH the Duke of Windsor following his abdication and receipt of a peerage.

United States

The names of most current and former elected federal and state officials and judges in the United States are styled "The Honorable" in writing, (e.g., "The Honorable Mike Rawlings, Mayor of the City of Dallas"). Many are addressed by their title in conversation as "Mister" or "Madam" ("Mr. President", "Madam Mayor") or simply by their name with their appropriate title e.g., "Senator Jones" or "Commissioner Smith". [24] [25]

Continued use of a title after leaving office depends on the office: those of which there is only one at a time (e.g., president, speaker, governor, or mayor) are only officially used by the current office holder.[ citation needed ] However, titles for offices of which there are many concurrent office holders (e.g., ambassador, senator, judge, professor or military ranks, especially colonel and above) are retained for life: A retired U.S. Army general is addressed as "General (Name)" officially and socially for the rest of their life. Military retirees are entitled to receive pay and are still counted as members of the United States Armed Forces. Accordingly, all retired military ranks are retained for life pursuant to Title 10 of the United States Code. In the case of the President, while the title is officially dropped after leaving office[ citation needed ] – e.g., Dwight Eisenhower reverted to his prior style "General Eisenhower" in retirement – it is still widely used as an informal practice; e.g., Jimmy Carter is still often called President Carter. The Vice President is typically referred to as "former Vice President", such as "former Vice President Mike Pence." Similarly, governors are typically addressed in later life as "Governor (Name)", particularly if running for further political office. Mitt Romney, for example, was frequently referred to as "Governor Romney" during his 2012 presidential campaign and was addressed as such formally in the debates, [26] [27] having been Governor of Massachusetts until 2007. [24] [25]

Former styles

All former monarchies had styles, some, as in the Bourbon monarchy of France, extremely complicated depending on the status of the office or office-holder. Otto von Habsburg, who was Crown Prince of Austria-Hungary (1916–1918), had the style 'His Imperial and Royal Highness'. He was last addressed as such by church figures during the funeral of his late mother, Empress-Queen Zita of Austria-Hungary in 1989, although the use of these styles has been prohibited in Austria since 1920. [33]

For the styles of address to government officials in Imperial Russia, see Table of Ranks.

The names of some offices are also titles, which are retained by the office holder for life. For example, holders of titles of which there are many at the same time, such as ambassadors, senators, judges, and military officers who retire retain use of their hierarchical honorific for life. Holders of titles of which there is only one office holder at a time such as president, chief justice or speaker revert to their previous honorific when they leave office out of deference to the current office holder.

Other parallel symbols

Styles were often among the range of symbols that surrounded figures of high office. Everything from the manner of address to the behaviour of a person on meeting that personage was surrounded by traditional symbols. Monarchs were to be bowed to by men and curtsied to by women. Senior clergy, particularly in the Roman Catholic Church, were to have their rings (the symbol of their authority) kissed by lay persons while they were on bended knee, while cardinals in an act of homage at the papal coronation were meant to kiss the feet of the Supreme Pontiff, the Pope.

Many of these traditions have lapsed or been partially abandoned. At his inauguration as pope in 1978 (itself the abandonment of the traditional millennium-old papal coronation), Pope John Paul II himself kissed cardinals on the cheeks, rather than follow the traditional method of homage of having his feet kissed.

Similarly, styles, though still used, are used less often. The former President of Ireland, Mary McAleese, was usually referred to as President Mary McAleese, not President McAleese, as had been the form used for the first six presidents, from President Hyde to President Hillery. Tony Blair asked initially to be called Tony. First names, or even nicknames, are often widely used among politicians in the US, even in formal situations (as an extreme example, President James Earl "Jimmy" Carter chose to take the Oath of Office using his nickname). One notable exception involves judges: a judge of any court is almost invariably addressed as "Your Honor" while presiding over his or her court, and often at other times as well. This style has been removed in the Republic of Ireland, where judges are addressed only as "Judge".

However, styles are still widely used in formal documents and correspondence between heads of state, such as in a letter of credence accrediting an ambassador from one head of state to another.

Self-styled

The term self-styled, or soi-disant , roughly means awarding a style to oneself, often without adequate justification or authority, but the expression often refers to descriptions or titles (such as "aunt", "expert", "Doctor", or "King"), rather than true styles in the sense of this article.

See also

Notes

1 Though the Republic of Ireland does not possess a Privy Council, the style is still used. The Lord Mayor of Dublin is still styled the Right Honourable, as previous lord mayors of Dublin were ex-officio members of the former Irish Privy Council until its abolition in 1922.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">The Reverend</span> Christian religious honorific style

The Reverend is an honorific style given before the names of certain Christian clergy and ministers. There are sometimes differences in the way the style is used in different countries and church traditions. The Reverend is correctly called a style, but is sometimes referred to as a title, form of address, or title of respect. The style is also sometimes used by leaders in other religions such as Judaism and Buddhism.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Excellency</span> Honorific style

Excellency is an honorific style given to certain high-level officers of a sovereign state, officials of an international organization, or members of an aristocracy. Once entitled to the title "Excellency", the holder usually retains the right to that courtesy throughout their lifetime, although in some cases the title is attached to a particular office and is held only during tenure of that office.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yang di-Pertuan Agong</span> Head of state and elective constitutional monarch of Malaysia

The Yang di-Pertuan Agong, also known as the Supreme Head of the Federation, the Paramount Ruler or simply the Agong, and officially known as the King of Malaysia, is the constitutional monarch and head of state of Malaysia. The office was established in 1957, when the Federation of Malaya gained independence from the United Kingdom. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is elected by the Conference of Rulers, comprising the nine rulers of the Malay states, with the office de facto rotated between them, making Malaysia one of the world's few elective monarchies.

The Malay language has a complex system of styles, titles and honorifics which are used extensively in Brunei Darussalam, Malaysia and Singapore.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Raja Permaisuri Agong</span> Consort of the elected monarch of Malaysia

The Raja Permaisuri Agong, officially known as the Queen of Malaysia, is the consort of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the elected, constitutional federal monarch of Malaysia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Prince Mohamed Bolkiah</span> Bruneian prince (born 1948)

Mohamed Bolkiah ibni Omar Ali Saifuddien III is a member of the royal family of Brunei. He is the second son of Omar Ali Saifuddien III, the 28th Sultan of Brunei, and Raja Isteri (Queen) Pengiran Anak Damit. He is the Head of the Brunei’s Viziers. After Brunei’s independence in 1984, he became the country’s first foreign minister, serving from 1 January 1984 until 22 October 2015. He served in the cabinet as the Minister of the Brunei's Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade alongside the second Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Lim Jock Seng.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sarah, Crown Princess of Brunei</span> Wife of the crown prince of Brunei

Sarah binti Salleh Ab. Rahaman is the wife of the Crown Prince of Brunei, Al-Muhtadee Billah and born as the daughter of a distant member of the royal family. While attending a pre-university course at 17, she married the Crown Prince. The couple have four children.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">English honorifics</span> Courtesy form of address

In the English language, an honorific is a form of address conveying esteem, courtesy or respect. These can be titles prefixing a person's name, e.g.: Mr, Mrs, Miss, Ms, Sir, Dame, Dr, Cllr, Lady, or Lord, or other titles or positions that can appear as a form of address without the person's name, as in Mr President, General, Captain, Father, Doctor, or Earl.

Majesty is used as a manner of address by many monarchs, usually kings or queens. Where used, the style outranks the style of (Imperial/Royal) Highness, but is inferior to the style of Imperial Majesty. It has cognates in many other languages, especially of Europe.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Duli Yang Maha Mulia</span> Selangor state anthem

Duli Yang Maha Mulia is the title of the state anthem of Selangor, Malaysia, adopted in 1967. The lyricist is unknown, but the music was written by Saiful Bahri, who also wrote and composed the Malaccan state anthem, Melaka Maju Jaya.

Highness is a formal style used to address or refer to certain members of a reigning or formerly reigning dynasty. It is typically used with a possessive adjective: "His Highness", "Her Highness" (HH), "Their Highnesses", etc. Although often combined with other adjectives of honour indicating rank, such as "Imperial", "Royal" or "Serene", it may be used alone.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sultan of Selangor</span> Function and history of the Selangor State Ruler

Sultan of Selangor is the title of the constitutional ruler of Selangor, Malaysia who is the head of state and head of the Islamic religion in Selangor. The current monarch, Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah ascended the throne on the death of his father, on 22 November 2001.

Azrinaz Mazhar binti Hakim Mazhar, formerly Pengiran IsteriAzrinaz Mazhar, is the Malaysian-born and previously the third wife of Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah, the Sultan of Brunei. She is the second child of Hakim Mazhar bin Mohammad Johar and Fauziah binti Abdullah Mansoor.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Abdul Muntaqim</span> Bruneian prince (born 2007)

Abdul Muntaqim ibni Al-Muhtadee Billah is the oldest child and elder son of Al-Muhtadee Billah, heir to the Sultan of Brunei, and his wife, Sarah, Crown Princess of Brunei. The Prince is second-in-line to become Sultan of Brunei after his father, who is heir to Abdul Muntaqim's grandfather Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah of Brunei.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Raja Zarith Sofiah</span> Raja Permaisuri Agong since 2024

Raja Zarith Sofiah binti Almarhum Sultan Idris Shah is the Raja Permaisuri Agong (Queen) of Malaysia and the Permaisuri (Queen) of Johor as a wife of Sultan Ibrahim ibni Almarhum Sultan Iskandar. She was born as a member of the Perak royal family. While still attending Somerville College, Oxford, she married the heir to the throne of Johor. Now a mother of six, she participates in the work of non-governmental organisations and universities, and writes a periodical column for a newspaper.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">House of Bolkiah</span> Ruling royal family of Brunei

The House of Bolkiah is the ruling royal family of Brunei Darussalam. It is composed of the descendants of the 1st sultan Sultan Muhammad Shah and his family. The Sultan of Brunei is the head of state and absolute monarch of Brunei. He is also head of government in his capacity as Prime Minister.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tengku Permaisuri of Selangor</span> Queen consorts to the Sultan of Selangor that are not of royal blood

The Tengku Permaisuri of Selangor is the title given to the royal consort of the Sultan of Selangor that are not of royal blood.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Prince Abdul Qawi of Brunei</span> Bruneian prince (born 1974)

Abdul Qawi ibni Mohamed Bolkiah is a member of the Brunei royal family. He is a nephew of the current Sultan of Brunei, Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Muhammad Bey Muntassir</span> Bruneian prince (1956–2009)

Pengiran Anak Muhammad Bey Muntassir was a member of the royal family of Brunei as the husband of Princess Amal Jefriah, the sixth daughter of Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien III, and brother-in-law to Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah. Additionally, he was also a member of the Brunei Privy Council.

References

  1. "style: meaning and definitions". Random House Unabridged Dictionary. Infoplease. 1997. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
  2. "Definition of style". Oxford Dictionaries Online. Oxford University Press. 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2011.[ dead link ]
  3. "No. 4 of 2005 – Form of Address". Practice Directions. Magistrates Court of Tasmania. 4 September 2009. Archived from the original on 10 March 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
  4. See Substantive title
  5. A.F. Pollard (5 January 2007). HENRY VIII. Chehab Pubber. p. 244. GGKEY:HQGF65AUEWU.
  6. Angus Stevenson, ed. (2007). Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. Vol. 1, A–M (Sixth ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 737. ISBN   978-0-19-920687-2.
  7. 1 2 Tourtchine, Jean-Fred (September 1987). "Le Royaume de Portugal - Empire du Brésil". Cercle d'Études des Dynasties Royales Européennes (CEDRE). III: 103. ISSN   0764-4426.
  8. 1 2 Wood, Paul (1 August 2005). "Life and legacy of King Fahd". BBC News. Retrieved 6 April 2011.
  9. "Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz". Archived from the original on 20 January 2011. Retrieved 6 April 2011.
  10. 1 2 Pennell, Richard (11 March 2016). "What is the significance of the title 'Amīr al-mu'minīn?'". The Journal of North African Studies. 21 (4): 623–644. doi:10.1080/13629387.2016.1157482. S2CID   148543546.
  11. 1 2 Valentine, Simon, Ross. Islam and the Ahmadiyya Jamaʻat: History, Belief, Practice. Columbia University Press. p. 208.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  12. "Why are surgeons in the UK called Mr...", rcseng.ac.uk
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Styles of address » Religious dignitaries". Government of Canada. 16 October 2017.
  14. "Style Guide". Episcopal Church. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  15. "Frequently Asked Questions". Trinityambler.com. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  16. "Honoring the Priesthood". churchofjesuschrist.org. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  17. Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language, College Edition. The World Publishing Company, Cleveland and New York. 1966. p. 1719
  18. "The title 'The Honourable' for Governors-General". www.legislation.gov.au.
  19. "Contact". Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia. 2011. Archived from the original on 13 January 2011. Retrieved 5 January 2011.
  20. "Guernsey Feudal Dues Law - Use of Styles".
  21. "DPMC - New Zealand Honours: The Honourable and the Privy Council". Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. Archived from the original on 2 September 2011.
  22. 1 2 "National Awards of Jamaica" Archived 2021-12-20 at the Wayback Machine , Jamaica Information Service, accessed 12 May 2015.
  23. "1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library via www.chanrobles.com.
  24. 1 2 3 4 Vanderbilt, Amy (1995). The Amy Vanderbilt Complete Book of Etiquette (50th Anniversary ed.). Doubleday. ISBN   9780385413428.
  25. 1 2 3 4 Conetsco, Cherlynn (2009). Service Etiquette (5th ed.). Naval Institute Press. ISBN   9781591143574.
  26. "CPD: October 22, 2012 Debate Transcript". www.debates.org.
  27. "October 16, 2012 Debate Transcript, Obama vs Romney". Archived from the original on 5 September 2015.
  28. See, e.g., File:Congressional Frank 1921 T.S. Butler.jpg (scan of a Representative's frank).
  29. See, e.g., File:Franked.jpg (scan of franked envelope from a U.S. Senator).
  30. "Ethics Opinion 344". The District of Columbia Bar. 2011. Retrieved 5 January 2011.
  31. Bobrow, Jerry (2005). Barron's How to Prepare for the LSAT, Law School Admission Test. Barron's Educational Series. p. 587. ISBN   978-0-7641-2412-9 . Retrieved July 13, 2013.
  32. "Call Her Miss". Time . April 10, 1964. Archived from the original on July 19, 2005. Retrieved July 13, 2013.(Subscription required.)
  33. "Bundesrecht: Gesamte Rechtsvorschrift für Adelsaufhebungsgesetz" (in German). Federal Chancellery of Austria. 2010. Retrieved 5 January 2011.