Style of the Dutch sovereign

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The obverse Dutch inscription reads WILLEM III KONING DER NED[ERLANDEN] G[ROOT] H[ERTOG] V[AN] L[UXEMBURG], meaning "William III, King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxembourg". Wilhelm III Coin.jpg
The obverse Dutch inscription reads WILLEM III KONING DER NED[ERLANDEN] G[ROOT] H[ERTOG] V[AN] L[UXEMBURG], meaning "William III, King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxembourg".

The style of the Dutch sovereign has changed many times since the establishment of the Kingdom of the Netherlands due to formations and dissolutions of personal unions, as well as due to marriages of female sovereigns and cognatic successions. [1]

A style of office, honorific or manner/form of address, is an official or legally recognized form of address, and may often be used in conjunction with a title. A style, by tradition or law, precedes a reference to a person who holds a post or political office, and is sometimes used to refer to the office itself. An honorific can also be awarded to an individual in a personal capacity. Such styles are particularly associated with monarchies, where they may be used by a wife of an office holder or of a prince of the blood, for the duration of their marriage. They are also almost universally used for presidents in republics and in many countries for members of legislative bodies, higher-ranking judges and senior constitutional office holders. Leading religious figures also have styles.

Kingdom of the Netherlands Sovereign state in Europe and the Caribbean

The Kingdom of the Netherlands, commonly known as the Netherlands, is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy with the large majority of its territory in Western Europe and with several small island territories in the Caribbean Sea, in the West Indies islands.

A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct. A real union, by contrast, would involve the constituent states being to some extent interlinked, such as by sharing some limited governmental institutions. In a federation and a unitary state, a central (federal) government spanning all member states exists, with the degree of self-governance distinguishing the two. The ruler in a personal union does not need to be a hereditary monarch.

Contents

History

Coats of arms corresponding to the titles borne by various Dutch monarchs, displayed at Nieuwe Kerk in Amsterdam Amsterdam wapenbord.JPG
Coats of arms corresponding to the titles borne by various Dutch monarchs, displayed at Nieuwe Kerk in Amsterdam

The Kingdom of the Netherlands was proclaimed on 16 March 1815, as a state in personal union with the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg under William I, a member of the House of Orange-Nassau who had already inherited a vast number of titles and lands from his ancestors. On 19 April 1839, the Duchy of Limburg joined the union. William I, William II and William III all ruled as kings, grand dukes and dukes. [1]

William I of the Netherlands King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg 1815 - 1840

William I was a Prince of Orange and the first King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg.

House of Orange-Nassau branch of the European House of Nassau

The House of Orange-Nassau, a branch of the European House of Nassau, has played a central role in the politics and government of the Netherlands and Europe especially since William the Silent organized the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule, which after the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) led to an independent Dutch state.

Duchy of Limburg (1839–67) constitutional monarchy in Western Europe between 1839-1866

The Duchy of Limburg was a European polity created in 1839 from parts of the Dutch Province of Limburg as a result of the Treaty of London. Its territory was the part of Limburg that remained Dutch, with the exception of the cities of Maastricht and Venlo. The duchy was a province of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and at the same time was a member of the German Confederation.

In 1866, however, the Duchy of Limburg ceased to exist as a separate polity and instead became integrated into the Kingdom of the Netherlands as a province. William III kept the ducal title and passed it on to his successor, Wilhelmina, but she did not succeed him to the throne of Luxembourg, as the country's succession laws provided for strict observance of Salic law. Thus, the reference to the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg disappeared from the style of the Dutch monarch. [1]

Limburg (Netherlands) Province of the Netherlands

Limburg is the southernmost of the 12 provinces of the Netherlands. It is in the southeastern part of the country, stretched out from the north, where it touches the province of Gelderland, to the south, where it internationally borders Belgium. Its northern part has the North Brabant province to its west. Its long eastern boundary is the international border with the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Much of the west border runs along the River Maas, bordering the Flemish province of Limburg, and a small part of the Walloon province of Liège. On the south end, it has borders with the Flemish exclave of Voeren and its surrounding part of Liège, Wallonia. The Vaalserberg is on the extreme south-eastern point, marking the tripoint of Netherlands, Germany and Belgium.

Wilhelmina of the Netherlands Queen of the Netherlands 1898 - 1948

Wilhelmina was Queen of the Netherlands from 1890 until her abdication in 1948.

Salic law major body of Frankish law governing all the Franks of Frankia under the rule of its kings during the Old Frankish Period

The Salic law, or the Salian law, was the ancient Salian Frankish civil law code compiled around AD 500 by the first Frankish King, Clovis. The written text is in Latin, or in "semi-French Latin" according to some linguists, it also contains what Dutch linguists describe as one of the earliest known records of Old Dutch, perhaps second only to the Bergakker inscription. It remained the basis of Frankish law throughout the early Medieval period, and influenced future European legal systems. The best-known tenet of the old law is the principle of exclusion of women from inheritance of thrones, fiefs and other property. The Salic laws were arbitrated by a committee appointed and empowered by the King of the Franks. Dozens of manuscripts dating from the 6th to 8th centuries and three emendations as late as the 9th century have survived.

The male line of the House of Orange-Nassau ended with the death of William III on 23 November 1890. His only surviving child and successor, Wilhelmina, married Duke Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin on 7 February 1901 and, as customary, assumed the feminine form of her husband's title. The title of Duchess of Mecklenburg was thus added to her full style. [1] The government did not want the House of Orange-Nassau to become extinct on Wilhelmina's death, [2] and so in 1908 she issued a royal decree conferring the title of Prince or Princess of Orange-Nassau to her descendants. [3] Her only child, Juliana, was therefore born not only Duchess of Mecklenburg but also Princess of Orange-Nassau, like previous members of the Dutch royal family. [2]

Duke Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin spouse of Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands, prince consort of the Netherlands

Duke Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin was prince consort of the Netherlands as the husband of Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands. He was the longest-serving consort of the Netherlands.

House of Mecklenburg noble family

The House of Mecklenburg, also known as Nikloting, is a North German dynasty that ruled until 1918 in the Mecklenburg region, being among the longest-ruling families of Europe.

Juliana of the Netherlands Queen of the Netherlands from 1948 - 1980

Juliana was Queen of the Netherlands from 1948 until her abdication in 1980.

When Juliana married Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld in 1936, Wilhelmina decreed that her daughter and heir presumptive would assume the title of Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld, as customary, but that it would come after her birth title of Duchess of Mecklenburg. [4] On 4 September 1948, Wilhelmina abdicated in favour of Juliana, which brought the title of Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld into the full style of the Dutch monarch. At the same time, the title of Duchess of Limburg was dropped, Wilhelmina being the last person to hold it. [1]

Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld spouse of Queen Juliana of the Netherlands, prince-consort of the Netherlands

Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld was a German-born prince who was the consort of Queen Juliana of the Netherlands; they were the parents of four children, including Princess Beatrix, who later served as Queen of the Netherlands.

An heir presumptive is the person entitled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honour, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an heir apparent or of a new heir presumptive with a better claim to the position in question. The position is however subject to law and/or conventions that may alter who is entitled to be heir presumptive.

Abdication voluntary or forced renunciation of sovereign power

Abdication is the act of formally relinquishing monarchical authority. Abdications have played various roles in the succession procedures of monarchies. While some cultures have viewed abdication as an extreme abandonment of duty, in other societies, abdication was a regular event, and helped maintain stability during political succession.

Like Wilhelmina, Juliana had no sons. She abdicated in favour of Beatrix, the eldest of her four daughters, on 30 April 1980. Beatrix is not a male-line descendant of Duke Henry and thus not a Duchess of Mecklenburg. She was the first Dutch monarch in 79 years not to bear the title. Through her father, she is a Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld. [1] [2]

Beatrix of the Netherlands Queen of the Netherlands (1980-2013)

Beatrix of the Netherlands is a member of the Dutch royal family who reigned as Queen of the Netherlands from 30 April 1980 until her abdication on 30 April 2013.

On 30 April 2013, she abdicated in favour of her eldest son, Willem-Alexander, who thus became the first male on the throne in 123 years. He is not a male-line descendant of Prince Bernhard and thus not a Prince of Lippe-Biesterfeld. He bears the honorific Jonkheer van Amsberg as the son of Claus van Amsberg. [1] [2]

Full styles

PeriodFull style in DutchFull style in EnglishSovereign
16 March 1815 – 19 April 1839Bij de Gratie Gods, Koning der Nederlanden, Prins van Oranje-Nassau, Groothertog van Luxemburg, Markies van Veere en Vlissingen, Graaf van Katzenelnbogen, Vianden, Diez, Spiegelberg, Buren, Leerdam en Culemborg, Burggraaf van Antwerpen, Baron van Breda, Diest, Beilstein, de Stad Grave, het Land van Cuyk, IJsselstein, Cranendonck, Eindhoven, Liesveld, Herstal, Warneton, Arlay en Nozeroy, Erf- en Vrijheer van Ameland, Heer van Borculo, Bredevoort, Lichtenvoorde, Het Loo, Geertruidenberg, Clundert, Zevenbergen, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Naaldwijk, Polanen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Soest, Baarn, Ter Eem, Willemstad, Steenbergen, Montfort, Sankt Vith, Burgenbach, Daasburg, Niervaart, Turnhout en Besançon [1] By the Grace of God, King of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Marquis of Veere and Flushing, Count of Katzenelnbogen, Vianden, Diez, Spiegelberg, Buren, Leerdam and Culemborg, Burgrave of Antwerp, Baron of Breda, Diest, Beilstein, the town of Grave and the lands of Cuyk, IJsselstein, Cranendonk, Eindhoven, Liesveld, Herstal, Warneton, Arlay and Nozeroy, Hereditary and Free Lord of Ameland, Lord of Borculo, Bredevoort, Lichtenvoorde, Het Loo, Geertruidenberg, Clundert, Zevenbergen, Hooge and Lage Zwaluwe, Naaldwijk, Polanen, St Maartensdijk, Soest, Baarn, Ter Eem, Willemstad, Steenbergen, Montfort, St Vith, Bütgenbach, Dasburg, Niervaart, Turnhout and Besançon William I
19 April 1839 – 23 November 1890Bij de Gratie Gods, Koning der Nederlanden, Prins van Oranje-Nassau, Groothertog van Luxemburg, Hertog van Limburg, Markies van Veere en Vlissingen, Graaf van Katzenelnbogen, Vianden, Diez, Spiegelberg, Buren, Leerdam en Culemborg, Burggraaf van Antwerpen, Baron van Breda, Diest, Beilstein, de Stad Grave, het Land van Cuyk, IJsselstein, Cranendonck, Eindhoven, Liesveld, Herstal, Warneton, Arlay en Nozeroy, Erf- en Vrijheer van Ameland, Heer van Borculo, Bredevoort, Lichtenvoorde, Het Loo, Geertruidenberg, Clundert, Zevenbergen, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Naaldwijk, Polanen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Soest, Baarn, Ter Eem, Willemstad, Steenbergen, Montfort, Sankt Vith, Bütgenbach, Daasburg, Niervaart, Turnhout en Besançon [1] By the Grace of God, King of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Duke of Limburg, Marquis of Veere and Flushing, Count of Katzenelnbogen, Vianden, Diez, Spiegelberg, Buren, Leerdam and Culemborg, Burgrave of Antwerp, Baron of Breda, Diest, Beilstein, the town of Grave and the lands of Cuyk, IJsselstein, Cranendonk, Eindhoven, Liesveld, Herstal, Warneton, Arlay and Nozeroy, Hereditary and Free Lord of Ameland, Lord of Borculo, Bredevoort, Lichtenvoorde, Het Loo, Geertruidenberg, Clundert, Zevenbergen, Hooge and Lage Zwaluwe, Naaldwijk, Polanen, St Maartensdijk, Soest, Baarn, Ter Eem, Willemstad, Steenbergen, Montfort, St Vith, Bütgenbach, Dasburg, Niervaart, Turnhout and Besançon William I,

William II,

William III
23 November 1890 – 7 February 1901 Bij de Gratie Gods, Koningin der Nederlanden, Prinses van Oranje-Nassau, Hertogin van Limburg, Markiezin van Veere en Vlissingen, Gravin van Katzenelnbogen, Vianden, Diez, Spiegelberg, Buren, Leerdam en Culemborg, Burggravin van Antwerpen, Barones van Breda, Diest, Beilstein, de Stad Grave, het Land van Cuyk, IJsselstein, Cranendonck, Eindhoven, Liesveld, Herstal, Warneton, Arlay en Nozeray, Erf- en Vrijvrouwe van Ameland, Vrouwe van Borculo, Bredevoort, Lichtenvoorde, Het Loo, Geertruidenberg, Clundert, Zevenbergen, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Naaldwijk, Polanen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Soest, Baarn, Ter Eem, Willemstad, Steenbergen, Montfort, Sankt Vith, Bütgenbach, Daasburg, Niervaart, Turnhout en Besançon [1] By the Grace of God, Queen of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, Duchess of Limburg, Marquise of Veere and Flushing, Countess of Katzenelnbogen, Vianden, Diez, Spiegelberg, Buren, Leerdam and Culemborg, Burgravine of Antwerp, Baroness of Breda, Diest, Beilstein, the town of Grave and the lands of Cuyk, IJsselstein, Cranendonk, Eindhoven, Liesveld, Herstal, Warneton, Arlay and Nozeroy, Hereditary and Free Lady of Ameland, Lady of Borculo, Bredevoort, Lichtenvoorde, Het Loo, Geertruidenberg, Clundert, Zevenbergen, Hooge and Lage Zwaluwe, Naaldwijk, Polanen, St Maartensdijk, Soest, Baarn, Ter Eem, Willemstad, Steenbergen, Montfort, St Vith, Bütgenbach, Dasburg, Niervaart, Turnhout and Besançon Wilhelmina
7 February 1901 – 4 September 1948Bij de Gratie Gods, Koningin der Nederlanden, Prinses van Oranje-Nassau, Hertogin van Limburg, Hertogin van Mecklenburg, Markiezin van Veere en Vlissingen, Gravin van Katzenelnbogen, Vianden, Diez, Spiegelberg, Buren, Leerdam en Culemborg, Burggravin van Antwerpen, Barones van Breda, Diest, Beilstein, de Stad Grave, het Land van Cuyk, IJsselstein, Cranendonck, Eindhoven, Liesveld, Herstal, Warneton, Arlay en Nozeray, Erf- en Vrijvrouwe van Ameland, Vrouwe van Borculo, Bredevoort, Lichtenvoorde, Het Loo, Geertruidenberg, Clundert, Zevenbergen, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Naaldwijk, Polanen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Soest, Baarn, Ter Eem, Willemstad, Steenbergen, Montfort, Sankt Vith, Bütgenbach, Daasburg, Niervaart, Turnhout en Besançon [1] By the Grace of God, Queen of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, Duchess of Limburg, Duchess of Mecklenburg, Marquise of Veere and Flushing, Countess of Katzenelnbogen, Vianden, Diez, Spiegelberg, Buren, Leerdam and Culemborg, Burgravine of Antwerp, Baroness of Breda, Diest, Beilstein, the town of Grave and the lands of Cuyk, IJsselstein, Cranendonk, Eindhoven, Liesveld, Herstal, Warneton, Arlay and Nozeroy, Hereditary and Free Lady of Ameland, Lady of Borculo, Bredevoort, Lichtenvoorde, Het Loo, Geertruidenberg, Clundert, Zevenbergen, Hooge and Lage Zwaluwe, Naaldwijk, Polanen, St Maartensdijk, Soest, Baarn, Ter Eem, Willemstad, Steenbergen, Montfort, St Vith, Bütgenbach, Dasburg, Niervaart, Turnhout and Besançon
4 September 1948 – 30 April 1980Bij de Gratie Gods, Koningin der Nederlanden, Prinses van Oranje-Nassau, Prinses van Lippe-Biesterfeld, Hertogin van Mecklenburg, Markiezin van Veere en Vlissingen, Gravin van Katzenelnbogen, Vianden, Diez, Spiegelberg, Buren, Leerdam en Culemborg, Burggravin van Antwerpen, Barones van Breda, Diest, Beilstein, de Stad Grave, het Land van Cuyk, IJsselstein, Cranendonck, Eindhoven, Liesveld, Herstal, Warneton, Arlay en Nozeray, Erf- en Vrijvrouwe van Ameland, Vrouwe van Borculo, Bredevoort, Lichtenvoorde, Het Loo, Geertruidenberg, Clundert, Zevenbergen, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Naaldwijk, Polanen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Soest, Baarn, Ter Eem, Willemstad, Steenbergen, Montfort, Sankt Vith, Bütgenbach, Daasburg, Niervaart, Turnhout en Besançon [1] By the Grace of God, Queen of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld, Duchess of Mecklenburg, Marquise of Veere and Flushing, Countess of Katzenelnbogen, Vianden, Diez, Spiegelberg, Buren, Leerdam and Culemborg, Burgravine of Antwerp, Baroness of Breda, Diest, Beilstein, the town of Grave and the lands of Cuyk, IJsselstein, Cranendonk, Eindhoven, Liesveld, Herstal, Warneton, Arlay and Nozeroy, Hereditary and Free Lady of Ameland, Lady of Borculo, Bredevoort, Lichtenvoorde, Het Loo, Geertruidenberg, Clundert, Zevenbergen, Hooge and Lage Zwaluwe, Naaldwijk, Polanen, St Maartensdijk, Soest, Baarn, Ter Eem, Willemstad, Steenbergen, Montfort, St Vith, Bütgenbach, Dasburg, Niervaart, Turnhout and Besançon Juliana
30 April 1980 – 30 April 2013Bij de Gratie Gods, Koningin der Nederlanden, Prinses van Oranje-Nassau, Prinses van Lippe-Biesterfeld, Markiezin van Veere en Vlissingen, Gravin van Katzenelnbogen, Vianden, Diez, Spiegelberg, Buren, Leerdam en Culemborg, Burggravin van Antwerpen, Barones van Breda, Diest, Beilstein, de Stad Grave, het Land van Cuyk, IJsselstein, Cranendonck, Eindhoven, Liesveld, Herstal, Warneton, Arlay en Nozeray, Erf- en Vrijvrouwe van Ameland, Vrouwe van Borculo, Bredevoort, Lichtenvoorde, Het Loo, Geertruidenberg, Clundert, Zevenbergen, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Naaldwijk, Polanen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Soest, Baarn, Ter Eem, Willemstad, Steenbergen, Montfort, Sankt Vith, Bütgenbach, Daasburg, Niervaart, Turnhout en Besançon [1] By the Grace of God, Queen of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld, Marquise of Veere and Flushing, Countess of Katzenelnbogen, Vianden, Diez, Spiegelberg, Buren, Leerdam and Culemborg, Burgravine of Antwerp, Baroness of Breda, Diest, Beilstein, the town of Grave and the lands of Cuyk, IJsselstein, Cranendonk, Eindhoven, Liesveld, Herstal, Warneton, Arlay and Nozeroy, Hereditary and Free Lady of Ameland, Lady of Borculo, Bredevoort, Lichtenvoorde, Het Loo, Geertruidenberg, Clundert, Zevenbergen, Hooge and Lage Zwaluwe, Naaldwijk, Polanen, St Maartensdijk, Soest, Baarn, Ter Eem, Willemstad, Steenbergen, Montfort, St Vith, Bütgenbach, Dasburg, Niervaart, Turnhout and Besançon Beatrix
30 April 2013 – presentBij de Gratie Gods, Koning der Nederlanden, Prins van Oranje-Nassau, Jonkheer van Amsberg, Markies van Veere en Vlissingen, Graaf van Katzenelnbogen, Vianden, Diez, Spiegelberg, Buren, Leerdam en Culemborg, Burggraaf van Antwerpen, Baron van Breda, Diest, Beilstein, de stad Grave, het Land van Cuyk, IJsselstein, Cranendonck, Eindhoven, Liesveld, Herstal, Warneton, Arlay en Nozeroy, Erf- en Vrijheer van Ameland, Heer van Borculo, Bredevoort, Lichtenvoorde, Het Loo, Geertruidenberg, Klundert, Zevenbergen, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Naaldwijk, Polanen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Soest, Baarn, Ter Eem, Willemstad, Steenbergen, Montfort, St. Vith, Bütgenbach, Niervaart, Daasburg, Turnhout en Besançon [1] By the Grace of God, King of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau, Jonkheer van Amsberg, Marquis of Veere and Flushing, Count of Katzenelnbogen, Vianden, Diez, Spiegelberg, Buren, Leerdam and Culemborg, Burgrave of Antwerp, Baron of Breda, Diest, Beilstein, the town of Grave and the lands of Cuyk, IJsselstein, Cranendonk, Eindhoven, Liesveld, Herstal, Warneton, Arlay and Nozeroy, Hereditary and Free Lord of Ameland, Lord of Borculo, Bredevoort, Lichtenvoorde, Het Loo, Geertruidenberg, Clundert, Zevenbergen, Hooge and Lage Zwaluwe, Naaldwijk, Polanen, St Maartensdijk, Soest, Baarn, Ter Eem, Willemstad, Steenbergen, Montfort, St Vith, Bütgenbach, Dasburg, Niervaart, Turnhout and Besançon Willem-Alexander

Shortened styles

Proclamation of William III.jpg
"We, William III, by the Grace of God, King of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, etc., etc., etc."
Voorbeeld van een Nederlands Koninklijk Besluit-2.jpg
"We, Beatrix, by the Grace of God, Queen of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, etc., etc., etc."

Shortened versions of the styles, used in preambles:

Titles that have appeared in shortened styles, preceded by "His Majesty" or "Her Majesty" and the monarch's name: [5]

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 "The Netherlands: Princely and Royal Style: 1813–2013". archontology.com. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
  2. 1 2 3 4 "Titels: Koningin Wilhelmina en Koningin Juliana" (in Dutch). koninklijkhuis.nl. Archived from the original on 6 August 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
  3. Gray, Tony (1972). The Orange Order. Bodley Head.|access-date= requires |url= (help)
  4. Decree of granting the title "Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld" to HRH Prince Juliana – Website with Legislation concerning the Royal House of the Netherlands
  5. van Lieburg, M. J. (1985). Het Bataafsch Genootschap der Proefondervindelijke Wijsbegeerte te Rotterdam, 1769–1984: een bibliografisch en documenterend overzicht. Rodopi. ISBN   906203568X.