Legislator

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A legislator (also known as a deputy or lawmaker) is a person who writes and passes laws, especially someone who is a member of a legislature. Legislators are often elected by the people of the state. [1] Legislatures may be supra-national (for example, the European Parliament), national (for example, the United States Congress), or local (for example, local authorities).

Contents

Overview

The political theory of the separation of powers requires legislators to be independent individuals from the members of the executive and the judiciary. Certain political systems adhere to this principle, others do not. In the United Kingdom, for example, the executive is formed almost exclusively from legislators (members of Parliament) although the judiciary is mostly independent (until reforms in 2005, the Lord Chancellor uniquely was a legislator, a member of the executive - indeed, the Cabinet - and a judge, while until 2009 the Lords of Appeal in Ordinary were both judges and legislators as members of the House of Lords, though by convention they did not vote in the House until retirement).

In continental European jurisprudence and legal discussion, "the legislator" (le législateur) is the abstract entity that has produced the laws. When there is room for interpretation, the intent of the legislator will be questioned, and the court is directed to rule in the direction it judges to best fit the legislative intent, which can be difficult in the case of conflicting laws or constitutional provisions.

Terminology

The local term for a legislator is usually a derivation of the local term for the relevant legislature. Typical examples include

By country

This is an incomplete list of terms for a national legislator:

CountryTitleLegislature
Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria نواب ("Député") People's National Assembly
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina Diputado Nacional Chamber of Deputies
Diputado provincial Several provincial Chambers of Deputies
Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus Дэпутат ("deputat") House of Representatives
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium Provincial executive member: Gedeputeerde (nl) / Député (fr) / Deputierter (de)Deputation / Provincial College (provincial executive body)
In French, député is sometimes also used to denote a member of parliament. Chamber of Representatives or a regional parliament
Bandera de Bolivia (Estado).svg  Bolivia Diputado Chamber of Deputies
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Deputado estadual Legislative Assemblies
Deputado federal Chamber of Deputies
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria Депутат(Deputat)l National Assembly (Bulgaria)
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada Senator [2] Senate of Canada
Member of Parliament (M.P.) [3] House of Commons of Canada
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile Diputado Chamber of Deputies
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Deputy (人大代表) National People's Congress
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia Diputado Departamental Assemblies
Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica Diputado Asamblea Legislativa
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark Folketingsmedlem Folketinget
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic Diputado Chamber of Deputies of the Dominican Republic
Flag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador Asambleísta (before 2007, diputado) Asamblea Nacional de la República del Ecuador
Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador Diputado Asamblea Legislativa
Flag of France.svg  France Député National Assembly
Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala Diputado Congreso de la República de Guatemala
Flag of Guernsey.svg  Guernsey People's Deputy States of Guernsey
Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti Député [4] Chamber of Deputies (Haiti)
Flag of Honduras.svg  Honduras Diputado National Congress of Honduras
Flag of India.svg  India Member of Parliament Loksabha
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran مجلس شورای اسلامی Islamic Consultative Assembly (Iran)
Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland Senators / Seanadóirí Seanad Éireann
Teachtaí Dála (T.D.) Dáil Éireann
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Deputato Camera dei Deputati
Flag of Jersey.svg  Jersey Deputy States of Jersey
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Депутат ("deputat") Majilis
Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia Deputāts Saeima (Parliament)
Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon Député/النواب (Nuwwab, or deputy) Parliament
Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg Deputéierten / DéputéChambre des Députés/d'Chamber (Chamber of Deputies)
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico Diputado Camara de Diputados
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands Gedeputeerde Gedeputeerde Staten (European Netherlands)
Eilandgedeputeerde Bestuurscollege (Caribbean Netherlands)
Flag of Nicaragua.svg  Nicaragua Diputado Asamblea Nacional
Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea Deputy (대의원;taeŭiwŏn) [5] [6] Supreme People's Assembly
Flag of Panama.svg  Panama Diputado National Assembly
Flag of Paraguay.svg  Paraguay Diputado Chamber of Deputies of Paraguay
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal Deputado Assembly of the Republic
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania Deputat Camera Deputatilor
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Депутат ("deputat") State Duma and regional legislative bodies
Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia Deputy Federal Parliament
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Diputado Congress of Deputies
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine People's Deputy of Ukraine (Депутат) Verkhovna Rada
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Lords Spiritual and Lords Temporal House of Lords
Member of Parliament (M.P.) House of Commons of the United Kingdom
Flag of the United States.svg  United States of America Senator United States Senate
Representative; Congressperson United States House of Representatives
Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay Diputado Chamber of Representatives
Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela Diputado National Assembly of Venezuela

Substitute legislator

Some legislatures provide each legislator with an official "substitute legislator" who deputises for the legislator in the legislature if he or she is unavailable. Venezuela, for example, provides for substitute legislators (diputado suplente) to be elected under Article 186 of its 1999 constitution. [7] Ecuador and Panama also have substitute legislators.

See also

Related Research Articles

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President is a common title for the head of state in most republics. The president of a nation is, generally speaking, the head of the government and the fundamental leader of the country or the ceremonial head of state.

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Legislature Deliberative assembly that makes laws

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Parliamentary sovereignty is a concept in the constitutional law of some parliamentary democracies. It holds that the legislative body has absolute sovereignty and is supreme over all other government institutions, including executive or judicial bodies. It also holds that the legislative body may change or repeal any previous legislation and so it is not bound by written law or by precedent.

References

  1. Little, T.H.; Ogle, D.B. (2006). The Legislative Branch of State Government: People, Process, and Politics . ABC-CLIO's about state government. ABC-CLIO. p.  4. ISBN   978-1-85109-761-6 . Retrieved June 26, 2019.
  2. Parliament of Canada: Senate: Senators.
  3. Parliament of Canada: Guide to the Canadian House of Commons: The Role of a Member of Parliament.
  4. "Chambre des députés - Le Parlement haitien". Le Parlement haitien.
  5. "Socialist Constitution". Chapter IV, Section 1, Article 89. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  6. 사회주의헌법 (in Korean). 제6장, 제1절, 제89조. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  7. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-04-17. Retrieved 2014-04-12.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)