Councillor

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A councillor is a member of a local government council in some countries, e.g. England. In Finland it is a title of honour granted by the government to several categories of Finns.

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United Kingdom

All local authorities in the United Kingdom are overseen by elected councillors. These include:

  1. unitary authorities
  2. county councils and district councils
  3. parish, town and community councils
  4. The Common Council of the City of London (in which councillors are known as aldermen and councilmen)

According to Debrett's Correct Form the English title "Councillor" (often shortened to 'Cllr') applies only to elected members of city, borough or district councils. [1] However, there is no legal basis for this restriction and in practice the title is applied to all councillors at all levels of local government. Where necessary, parish and county councillors are differentiated by the use of a fuller title such as "town councillor" or "county councillor". The title precedes the holder's rank or other title, as in Cllr Dr Jenny Smith or Cllr Sir Ricky Taing, and for women it precedes their title of marital status, as in Cllr Mrs Joan Smith. [1] Youth councillors are solely known as Youth Councillors.

Councillors are typically elected as members of political parties or alternatively as independents. Councils may also co-opt unelected councillors to fill vacancies on a council where insufficient candidates have stood for election, although in practice this is rare outside parish councils. Once elected, they are meant to represent all the residents under the whole authority, not just those who voted for them or just those in the district or ward they were elected in. They are bound by a code of conduct enforced by standards boards.

In 2007 the 'Electoral Representation Act 2006' reduced the age limit for councillors to 18, leading to younger people standing.

Youth councillors

Youth councillors are also elected in local areas by organisations that are a member of British Youth Council, such as Salford Youth Council. [2]

Remuneration

Most councillors are not full-time professionals.

In England, Wales and Northern Ireland most larger borough, unitary authority or county councils do pay them basic allowances and out-of-pocket expenses. In addition, special responsibility allowances are paid to councillors who carry out more senior duties. The basic allowances and special responsibility allowances are theoretically paid to compensate councillors for time spent on council duties and are classed as salaries for tax purposes. Parish, town or community councillors may, since the Local Government Act 2000, be paid for their services, but most do it voluntarily.

In Scotland, since 2007, councillors have received a salary of £15,000, as opposed to a series of allowances. These are often topped up by special responsibility allowances.

Regional government

The London Assembly is regarded, not as a local authority, but as a regional devolved assembly and its members are referred to as Assembly Members, not councillors.

United States

Council member, councilman/councilwoman, councilor, or councillor is a title for a member of a council used in the United States. [3]

In particular, the title is used in the following cases:

The Philippines

Under the Philippine Republic Act No. 7160 (otherwise known as the Local Government Code of 1991), a councilor is a member of a local council that is the legislative body of the local government unit. They are commonly referred to as "Sanggunian Member" because the official designation of municipal, city and provincial councils is the equivalent term in Filipino (used even when speaking or writing in English): Sanggunian Bayan, Sanggunian Panglunsod and Sanggunian Panlalawigan, respectively. [4]

Finland

This is about honorary rank, not elected officials.

In Finland councillor (neuvos) is the highest possible title of honour which can be granted by the President of Finland. There are several ranks of councillors and they have existed since the Russian Regime. Some examples of different councillors in Finland are as follows:

Canada

Due to the control that the provinces have over their municipal governments, terms that councillors serve vary from province to province. Unlike most provincial elections, municipal elections are usually held on a fixed date of 4 years.

Other countries

In Australia, The Bahamas, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, Botswana, Trinidad and Tobago and other parts of the Commonwealth, as well as in the Republic of Ireland, a councillor or councilor is an elected representative on a local government council.

In the Netherlands, a member of the municipal council is called a gemeenteraadslid or raadslid. Someone out of this group who is elected to serve on the municipal executive is called a wethouder , which is usually translated as 'alderman' or 'councillor'. The Dutch word for mayor is burgemeester. This is expressed in English as "mayor" or " burgomaster ". The municipal executive is referred to collectively as the College van Burgemeester en Wethouders .

In Belgium, a member of the municipal council is called a gemeenteraadslid in Dutch, and Conseiller Communal in French. Someone out of this group who is elected to serve on the municipal executive is called a schepen in Dutch or échevin in French. This is usually translated as "alderman" or "councillor" in English. The municipal executive is referred to collectively as the College van Burgemeester en Schepenen ou Collège du Bourgmestre et Echevins.

In Luxembourg, an échevin (Luxembourgish : Schäffe, German : Schöffe) is a member of the administration of a Luxembourgian commune.

In Norway, a member of the municipal council, kommunestyret, is called a kommunestyrerepresentant in Norwegian. The Norwegian word for mayor is ordfører.

In Hong Kong, members of district councils are also referred to as councillors. [5] Before 1999 the district councils were known as district boards, upon the abolition of the municipal councils (the UrbCo and the RegCo) in December that year. In addition, members of the legislative council are also referred to as councillors. From 1996 to 1998 the Legislative Council were known as "Provisional Legislative Council", upon the abolition of the interim legislature in July 1998.

Two types of councillor are elected in local elections held every five years in Turkey. These include 1,251 provincial councillors and 20,500 municipal councillors. Municipal councillors serve on the council of the 1,351 district and 30 metropolitan municipalities of Turkey, while provincial councillors serve on the provincial general council (İl Genel Meclisi).

Related Research Articles

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St Albans City and District Place in England

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The Government of Amsterdam consists of several territorial and functional forms of local and regional government. The principal form of government is the municipality of Amsterdam, Netherlands. The municipality's territory covers the city of Amsterdam as well as a number of small towns. The city of Amsterdam is also part of several functional forms of regional government. These include the Waterschap of Amstel, Gooi en Vecht, which is responsible for water management, and the Stadsregio of Amsterdam, which has responsibilities in the areas of spatial planning and public transport.

Burgomaster Archaic term for a mayor

Burgomaster is the English form of various terms in or derived from Germanic languages for the chief magistrate or executive of a city or town. The name in English was derived from the Dutch burgemeester. In some cases, Burgomaster was the title of the head of state and head of government of a sovereign city-state, sometimes combined with other titles, such as Hamburg's First Mayor and President of the Senate). Contemporary titles are commonly translated into English as mayor.

A schepen or échevin (French) or Schöffe (German) is a municipal officer in Belgium and formerly the Netherlands. It has been replaced by the wethouder in the Netherlands.

Liverpool City Council has existed since 1880, when Liverpool was awarded city status. Prior to this date the local authority was a town council.

Peterborough City Council

Peterborough City Council is the local authority for Peterborough in the East of England. It is a unitary authority, having the powers of a non-metropolitan county and district council combined. The City was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1874; from 1888, it fell within the jurisdiction of the Soke of Peterborough county council and from 1965, Huntingdon and Peterborough county council. In 1974, it was replaced by a wholly new non-metropolitan district, broadly corresponding to the Soke, in the new enlarged Cambridgeshire. In 1998, Peterborough became independent of Cambridgeshire as a unitary authority, but the city continues to form part of that county for ceremonial purposes as defined by the Lieutenancies Act 1997.

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The Kabataang Barangay elections (KB) were held on May 1, 1975 in which about 3 million Filipino youths aged 15 to 18 years old participated. Each Barangay in the Philippines is mandated by law to have its own chapter of the Katipunan ng Kabataan in which the members elect their officers called as the Kabataang Barangay.

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Municipal executive

In the Netherlands, the municipal executive is the executive board of a municipality. It plays a central role in municipal politics in the Netherlands, similar to the communal college in Belgium. It consists of the mayor and the members of the municipal executive (aldermen).

Municipal politics in the Netherlands

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<i>Heemraad</i>

A heemraad, or hoogheemraad is a local official of a Dutch water board. The term can be pluralized to (hoog)heemraden, but sometimes the word heemraad also means more than one man in the sense of a meeting of (hoog)heemraden, such as decisions made by the heemraad. In this sense, the college of heemraden met and acted as one body in the same way that the executive board meet at the city hall. A heemraad is the equivalent of an alderman (wethouder) in local government, being a member of both the local legislative council, while having representational roles for his own area. The term goes back to pre-medieval days.

Oldham Council

Oldham Metropolitan Borough Council is the local authority of the Metropolitan Borough of Oldham in Greater Manchester, England. It is a metropolitan district council, one of ten in Greater Manchester and one of 36 in the metropolitan counties of England, and provides the majority of local government services in Oldham. It is composed of 60 councillors, three for each of the 20 electoral wards of the borough. It is also branded and known simply as Oldham Council.

References

  1. 1 2 Debrett's Correct Form, pg 193, Headline Book Publishing 2002.
  2. "Salford Youth Council website". Salford Youth Council. Archived from the original on 17 May 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  3. Viser, Matt (7 August 2006). "Spelling spats divide City Council". The Boston Globe.
  4. "Sanggunian Member Eligibility". www.csc.gov.ph.
  5. SCMP Archived 21 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine