Order of merit

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The cross of the Order pro Merito Melitensi, an order of merit established in 1920 by the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, an independent, Catholic order of chivalry and sovereign entity. Croix merite malte.svg
The cross of the Order pro Merito Melitensi, an order of merit established in 1920 by the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, an independent, Catholic order of chivalry and sovereign entity.

An order of merit is an honorific order that is conferred by a state, government, royal family, or other sovereign entity to an individual in recognition of military or civil merit. The historical background of the modern honours system of orders of merit may be traced to the emergence of chivalric orders during the Middle Ages.

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Orders of merit may be bestowed as official awards by states, or as dynastic orders by royal families. In the case of modern republics, an order of merit may constitute the highest award conferred by the state authority.

National orders of merit

Dynastic orders of merit

See also

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This page is a list of the orders of chivalry and orders of merit awarded by France, in the order they were established or incorporated in France, and their origins.

This is a list of some of the modern orders, decorations and medals of France. Some like the Legion of Honour are awarded to both the armed forces and civilians. Others are decorations of a pure civilian or military character. Only four of the 19 Ministerial orders have survived the reform of the French system of decorations in 1963. The others were replaced by the Ordre national du Mérite.

Ordre national du Mérite Order of State with membership awarded by the President of the French Republic

The Ordre national du Mérite is a French order of merit with membership awarded by the President of the French Republic, founded on 3 December 1963 by President Charles de Gaulle. The reason for the order's establishment was twofold: to replace the large number of ministerial orders previously awarded by the ministries; and to create an award that can be awarded at a lower level than the Legion of Honour, which is generally reserved for French citizens. It comprises about 185,000 members; 306,000 members have been admitted or promoted in 50 years.

References

  1. Gillingham, Harrold E. (1970). South American Decorations and War Medals. Lenard L. Babin (Reprint ed.). New York: The American Numismatic Society. pp. 136–137 via Internet Archive.