Vietnamese personal names generally consist of three parts: one patrilineal family name, one or more middle name(s) (one of which may be taken from the mother's family name), and one given name, used in that order. The "family name first" order follows the system of Chinese names and is common throughout the Chinese cultural sphere. However, it is different from Chinese, Korean, and Japanese names in the usage of "middle names," as they are less common in China and Korea and uncommon in Japan. Persons can be referred to by the whole name, the given name or a hierarchic pronoun, which usually connotes a degree of family relationship or kinship in normal usage.
Vietnamese language is tonal and so are Vietnamese names. Names with the same spelling but with different tones represent different meanings, which can confuse people when the accent marks are dropped, as is commonly done outside Viet Nam. Anyone applying for Vietnamese nationality must also adopt a Vietnamese name.Vietnamese is also a fully transliterated (romanized) script as Hán-Nôm got dropped in favour of Chữ Quốc Ngữ, which was made compulsory during French rule. However, Han-Nom is still studied regularly by Vietnamese historical literature scholars.
The family name is positioned first and is passed on by the father to his children. It is estimated that there are around 100 family names in common use, but some are far more common than others. The name Nguyễn is estimated to be the most common (40%).The top three names are so common as people tended to take family names of emperors to show loyalty. Over many generations, family names became permanent.
The most common family names among the Vietnamese are the following with their respective Chữ Quốc Ngữ which is commonly in use, and their corresponding Hán tự (Han Character).Altogether, these 14 names account for around 90% of the Vietnamese population (2005).
The following list includes less-common surnames in alphabetical order which make up the rest of the 10% (2005):
In Vietnamese cultural practice, women always keep their family names once they marry, just as in other East Asian cultures, which is the same practice as Chinese culture to the north.
Sometimes, last names can be combined, often from combining the father's and mother's name e.g. Nguyễn Lê, Phạm Vũ or Kim Lý
In formal contexts, people are referred to by their full name. In more casual contexts, people are always on a "first name basis", which involves their given names, accompanied by proper kinship terms.
This section does not cite any sources . (April 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Most Vietnamese have one middle name, but it is quite common to have two or more or to have no middle name at all.
In the past, the middle name was selected by parents from a fairly narrow range of options. Almost all women had Thị (氏) as their middle name, and many men had Văn (文). More recently, a broader range of names has been used, and people named Thị sometimes omit their middle name.
Thị is a most common female middle name, and most common amongst pre-1975 generation but less common amongst younger generations. Thị is an archaic Vietnamese word meaning woman. For example, "Trần Thị Mai Loan" is a person who has the given name "Mai Loan" and the surname "Trần". Alltogether, the name means "Mai Loan, a female person of the Trần family." Some traditional male middle names may include Văn (文), Hữu (友), Đức (德), Thành (誠), Công (公), Minh (明), and Quang (光).
The middle name can have several uses, with the fourth being most common nowadays:
The first three are no longer in use, and seen as too rigid and strictly conforming to family naming systems. Most middle names utilise the fourth, having a name to simply imply some positive characteristics.
In most cases, the middle name is formally part of the given name. For example, the name "Đinh Quang Dũng" is separated into the surname "Đinh" and the given name "Quang Dũng". In a normal name list, those two parts of the full name are put in two different columns. However, in daily conversation, the last word in a given name with a title before it is used to address a person: "Ông Dũng", "Anh Dũng", etc., with "Ông" and "Anh" being words to address the person and depend on age, social position, etc.
The given name is the primary form of address for Vietnamese. It is chosen by parents and usually has a literal meaning in the Vietnamese language. Names often represent beauty, such as bird or flower names, or attributes and characteristics that the parents want in their child, such as modesty (Khiêm, 謙).
Typically, Vietnamese will be addressed with their given name, even in formal situations, although an honorific equivalent to "Mr.", "Mrs.", etc. will be added when necessary. That contrasts with the situation in many other cultures in which the family name is used in formal situations, but it is a practice similar to usage in Icelandic usage and, to some degree, Polish. It is similar to the Latin-American and southern European custom of referring to women as "Doña/Dona" and men as "Don/Dom", along with their first name.
Addressing someone by the family name is rare. In the past, women were usually called by their (maiden) family name, with thị (氏) as a suffix, similar to China and Korea. In recent years, doctors are more likely than any other social group to be addressed by their family name, but that form of reference is more common in the north than in the south. Some extremely famous people are sometimes referred to by their family names, such as Hồ Chí Minh (Bác Hồ—"Uncle Hồ") (however, his real surname is Nguyễn), Trịnh Công Sơn (nhạc Trịnh—"Trịnh music"), and Hồ Xuân Hương (nữ sĩ họ Hồ—"the poetess with the family name Hồ"). Traditionally, people in Vietnam, particularly North Vietnam, addressed parents using the first child's name: Mr and Mrs Anh or Master Minh.
When being addressed within the family, children are sometimes referred to by their birth number, starting with one in the north but two in the south. That practice is less common recently, especially in the north.
Double names are common among females, especially in combination with the name Kim . For example, Phan Thị Kim Phúc has the given name Kim Phúc.
Vietnamese Catholics are given a saint's name at baptism (Vietnamese : tên thánh or tên rửa tội). Boys are given male saints' names, while girls are given female saints' names. This name appears first, before the family name, in formal religious contexts. Out of respect, clergy are usually referred to by saints' name. The saint's name also functions as a posthumous name, used instead of an individual's given name in prayers after their death. The most common saints' names are taken from the New Testament, such as Phêrô (Peter, or Pierre in French), Phaolô (Paul), Gioan (John), Maria (Mary), and Anna.
Saints' names are respelled phonetically according to the Vietnamese alphabet. Some more well-known saints' names are derived further into names that sound more Vietnamese.
|Saint||Name in Romance language||Vietnamese name|
|Alexander||Alexandre (Portuguese)||A Lịch Sơn, Alexanđê|
|Anthony||Antonio (Portuguese)||Antôn, An Tôn, Antôniô|
|Benedict||Benedictus (Latin)||Biển Đức, Bênêđictô|
|Clement||Clemente (Portuguese)||Clêmêntê, Lê Minh|
|Constantine||Constantino (Portuguese)||Constantinô, Công Tăng|
|Dominic||Dominicano (Portuguese)||Đa Minh, Đaminh|
|Helena||Elena (Portuguese)||Hà Liên|
|Ignatius||Ignacio (Portuguese)||Inhaxiô, Y Nhã|
|John the Baptist||Juan Bautista (Spanish)||Gioan Baotixita|
|Martin||Martinho (Portuguese), Martín (Spanish)||Martinô, Máctinô, Mạc Tính, Mạc Ty Nho|
|Paul||Paulus (Latin), Paolo (Portuguese)||Phaolô, Bảo Lộc|
|Thaddaeus||Tadeu (Portuguese)||Tađêô, Thanh Diêu|
|Urban||Urbano (Portuguese)||Urbanô, Ước Bang|
Some names may appear the same if simplified into a basic ASCII script, as for example on websites, but are different names:
Typically, as in the above examples, it is middle or the last personal given name which varies, as almost any Sino-Vietnamese character may be used. The number of family names is limited.
Further, some historical names may be written using different Chinese characters (Sino-Vietnamese), but are still written the same in the modern Vietnamese alphabet.
According to the English-language Chicago Manual of Style , Vietnamese names are indexed according to the given name, surname, then middle name, with a cross-reference placed in regards to the family name. Ngô Đình Diệm would be listed as "Diem, Ngô Dinh" and Võ Nguyên Giáp would be listed as "Giáp, Võ Nguyên".
In Vietnamese, Vietnamese names are also typically sorted using the same order.
Nguyễn is the most common Vietnamese family name. Outside of Vietnam, the surname is commonly rendered without diacritics as Nguyen.Nguyên is a different surname.
Vietnam competed at the 2005 Southeast Asian Games in the Philippines under the IOC country code VIE. By sending a delegation of 516 athletes and competing in 33 out of 40 sports and in 352 out of a total of 439 events, it aimed for a top three placing in the medals table. The final result showed that the Vietnamese team has attained its goal by ranking first in the medal tally with 18 gold, 24 silver and 11 bronze medals. The chief of mission to the games was Nguyen Hong Minh.
Phạm is the fourth most common Vietnamese family name.
Emperor Quang Trung or Nguyễn Huệ, also known as Nguyễn Quang Bình, was the second emperor of the Tây Sơn dynasty, reigning from 1788 until 1792. He was also one of the most successful military commanders in Vietnam's history. Nguyễn Huệ and his brothers, Nguyễn Nhạc and Nguyễn Lữ, together known as the Tây Sơn brothers, were the leaders of the Tây Sơn rebellion. As rebels, they conquered Vietnam, overthrowing the imperial Later Lê dynasty and the two rival feudal houses of the Nguyễn in the south and the Trịnh in the north.
Paris By Night 91: Huế, Sài Gòn, Hà Nội is a Paris By Night program produced by Thúy Nga that was filmed at the Terrace Theater at the Long Beach Convention and Entertainment Center on January 12, 2008 and January 13, 2008.
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam established 1930, is the highest authority within the Communist Party of Vietnam elected by the Party National Congresses. The current Central Committee has about 180 full members and 20 alternate members and elects the Politburo of the Communist Party of Vietnam.
Paris By Night 96 - Nhạc Yêu Cầu 2 is a Paris By Night program produced by Thúy Nga that was filmed at the Knott's Berry Farm on April 18, 2009 and April 19, 2009 and release DVD from June 25, 2009. The show was MC'ed by Nguyễn Ngọc Ngạn and Nguyễn Cao Kỳ Duyên.
Bước nhảy hoàn vũ 2010 is a reality show produced by Vietnam Television and Cát Tiên Sa Production. The show originates from the BBC series Strictly Come Dancing and is a part of the international Dancing with the Stars franchise. The first season was set to air from April 11 to June 20, 2010 with 8 pairs of celebrities and professional dancers. The first elimination might take place on April 18.
The 4th Military Region of Vietnam People's Army, is directly under the Ministry of Defence of Vietnam, tasked to organise, build, manage and command armed forces defending the North Central Vietnam. The predecessor, 4th War Zone was established by the order of Ho Chi Minh on 15 October 1945, and this day has become the traditional day of the Military Zone. On 3 June 1957, Ho Chi Minh signed the ordinance 17/SL to establish 4th Military Zones on the basis of 4th Joint Zone, simultaneously with other military zones: the North Vietnamese, North West, North East, Left Bank, Right Bank.
Paris By Night 99 – Tôi Là Người Việt Nam is a Paris By Night program produced by Thúy Nga Productions that was filmed at Knott's Berry Farm on 16 and 17 January 2010 and released DVD from 8 April 2010. The show was hosted by Nguyễn Ngọc Ngạn, Nguyễn Cao Kỳ Duyên and Trịnh Hội.
Paris By Night 101: Hạnh Phúc Đầu Năm is a Paris By Night program produced by Thúy Nga Productions that was filmed at Pechanga Resort and Casino, California on November 13 & 14, 2010. This is the fourth Paris by Night program celebrating Tết followed three previous editions: Paris by Night 85: Xuân Trong Kỷ Niệm (2007), Paris By Night 80: Tết Khắp Mọi Nhà (2006) and Paris by Night 76: Xuân Tha Hương (2005). The DVD was released on January 14, 2011.
Nguyễn Nhạc was the founder of the Tây Sơn dynasty, reigning from 1778 to 1788.
The Hồ Chí Minh Prize is an honorary award given by the government of Vietnam in recognition of cultural and/or scientific achievement. The prize was established by decree in 1981, and has been awarded in 1996, 2000, 2005 and 2012, often posthumously. The prize is named for Ho Chi Minh, and is considered one of the highest honors bestowed by Vietnam.
Chữ Nôm is a logographic writing system formerly used to write the Vietnamese language. It uses borrowed Chinese characters to represent Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary and some native Vietnamese words, while new characters were created on the Chinese model to represent other words.
Love Case is a 2008 Vietnamese telefilm adapted from Hồ Văn Trung's July 1941 novel Cư kỉnh (居璟). The film was produced by Ho Chi Minh City Television and directed by Võ Việt Hùng.
The Tayson Gallantry is a 1991 Vietnamese 35mm wuxia film directed by Lê Hoàng Hoa in his art name Khôi Nguyên, adapted from Lê Hoàng Khải's 1990 novel The Jade Lamp martial art (玉盞神功).
Vũ Văn Dũng, or Võ Văn Dũng, was a general of Tây Sơn dynasty, Vietnam. He and Võ Ðình Tú, Trần Quang Diệu, Nguyễn Văn Tuyết, Lê Văn Hưng, Lý Văn Bưu, Nguyễn Văn Lộc were known as "Seven Tiger Generals of Tây Sơn dynasty".