Traditional Vietnamese music is highly diverse and syncretistic, combining native and foreign influences, and influences from Vietnam's ethnic minority groups.Throughout its history, Vietnam has been most heavily influenced by the Chinese musical tradition, as an integral part, along with Korea, Mongolia and Japan. The former Indochinese kingdom of Champa also exerted some influence (albeit more minor when compared to China) on Vietnam's traditional music.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought. Syncretism involves the merging or assimilation of several originally discrete traditions, especially in the theology and mythology of religion, thus asserting an underlying unity and allowing for an inclusive approach to other faiths. Syncretism also occurs commonly in expressions of arts and culture as well as politics.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula. With an estimated 94.6 million inhabitants as of 2016, it is the 15th most populous country in the world. Vietnam shares its land borders with China to the north, and Laos and Cambodia to the west. It shares its maritime borders with Thailand through the Gulf of Thailand, and the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia through the South China Sea. Its capital city is Hanoi, while its most populous city is Ho Chi Minh City.
Music of China refers to the music of the Chinese people, which may be the music of the Han Chinese as well as other ethnic minorities within mainland China. It also includes music produced by people of Chinese origin in some territories outside mainland China using traditional Chinese instruments or in the Chinese language. It covers a highly diverse range of music from the traditional to the modern.
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Nhã nhạc is the most popular form of imperial court music, specifically referring to the court music played from the Trần dynasty to the very last Nguyễn dynasty of Vietnam, being synthesized and most highly developed by the Nguyễn emperors. Along with nhã nhạc, the imperial court of Vietnam in the 19th century also had many royal dances which still exist to this day. The theme of most of these dances is to wish the king longevity and the country wealth.
Nhã nhạc is a form of Vietnamese court music. Vietnamese court music is very diverse, but the term nhã nhạc refers specifically to the Vietnamese court music performed from the Trần dynasty of the 13th century to the Nguyễn dynasty at the end of the 20th century.
The Trần dynasty ruled Vietnam from 1225 to 1400. The dynasty was founded when emperor Trần Thái Tông ascended to the throne after his uncle Trần Thủ Độ orchestrated the overthrow of the Lý dynasty. The final emperor of the dynasty was Thiếu Đế, who at the age of five years was forced to abdicate the throne in favor of his maternal grandfather, Hồ Quý Ly. The Trần dynasty defeated three Mongol invasions, most notably in the decisive Battle of Bạch Đằng River in 1288.
The Nguyễn dynasty or House of Nguyễn was the last imperial family of Vietnam. Their ancestral line can be traced back to the beginning of the Common Era. However, only by the mid-sixteenth century the most ambitious family branch, the Nguyễn Lords had risen to conquer, control and establish feudal rule over large territory.
Classical music is also performed in honour of gods and scholars such as Confucius in temples. These categories are defined as Nhã Nhạc ("elegant music", ritual and ceremonial music), Đại nhạc ("great music"), and Tiểu nhạc ("small music") that was chamber music for the entertainment of the king.In Vietnamese traditional dance court dances were defined as either van vu (civil servant dance) or vo vu (military dance).
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Vietnamese folk music is extremely diverse and includes dân ca , quan họ , hát chầu văn , ca trù , hò , and hát xẩm , among other forms.
Quan họ singing is a Vietnamese folk music style characterized both by its antiphonal nature, with alternating groups of female and male singers issuing musical challenges and responses, and by the fact that most of the songs in the repertoire deal with topics of love and sentimentality as experienced by young adults.
Ca trù also known as hát ả đào or hát nói, is an is a Vietnamese genre of musical storytelling performed by a featuring female vocalists, with origins in northern Vietnam. For much of its history, it was associated with a geisha-like form of entertainment, which combined entertaining wealthy people as well as performing religious songs for the royal court.
Chèo is a form of generally satirical musical theatre, often encompassing dance, traditionally performed by peasants in northern Vietnam. It is usually performed outdoors by semi-amateur touring groups, stereotypically in a village square or the courtyard of a public building, although today it is also increasingly performed indoors and by professional performers.
Chèo is a form of generally satirical musical theatre, often encompassing dance, traditionally performed by Vietnamese peasants in northern Vietnam. It is usually performed outdoors by semi-amateur touring groups, stereotypically in a village square or the courtyard of a public building, although it is today increasingly also performed indoors and by professional performers. Chèo stage art is one of the great cultural heritage of the Vietnamese folk treasure. Chèo has been a popular art form of the Vietnamese people for many generations and has fostered the national spirit through its lyrical content.
Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue, acting and dance. The story and emotional content of a musical – humor, pathos, love, anger – are communicated through words, music, movement and technical aspects of the entertainment as an integrated whole. Although musical theatre overlaps with other theatrical forms like opera and dance, it may be distinguished by the equal importance given to the music as compared with the dialogue, movement and other elements. Since the early 20th century, musical theatre stage works have generally been called, simply, musicals.
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer with limited land ownership, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees, or services to a landlord. In Europe, peasants were divided into three classes according to their personal status: slave, serf, and free tenant. Peasants hold title to land either in fee simple or by any of several forms of land tenure, among them socage, quit-rent, leasehold, and copyhold.
Xẩm or Hát xẩm (Xẩm singing) is a type of Vietnamese folk music which was popular in the Northern region of Vietnam but is considered nowadays an endangered form of traditional music in Vietnam. In the dynastic time, xẩm was performed by blind artists who wandered from town to town and earned their living by singing in common places.
Xẩm or Hát xẩm is a type of Vietnamese folk music which was popular in the Northern region of Vietnam but is nowadays considered an endangered form of traditional music in Vietnam. In the dynastic time, xẩm was generally performed by blind artists who wandered from town to town and earned their living by singing in common places. Xẩm artists often play đàn bầu or đàn nhị to accompany the songs themselves, and sometimes they form a band with one singer and others who play traditional instruments such as the drum or phách. The melodies of xẩm are borrowed from different types of Vietnamese folk music such as trống quân or quan họ, while its themes are generally The Tale of Kiều, Lục Vân Tiên, and other popular Vietnamese stories.
Folk music includes traditional folk music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th-century folk revival. Some types of folk music may be called world music. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted orally, music with unknown composers, or music performed by custom over a long period of time. It has been contrasted with commercial and classical styles. The term originated in the 19th century, but folk music extends beyond that.
Quan họ (alternate singing) is popular in Hà Bắc (divided into nowadays Bắc Ninh and Bắc Giang provinces) and across Vietnam; numerous variations exist, especially in the Northern provinces. Sung a cappella, quan họ is improvised and is used in courtship rituals.
Hát chầu văn or hát văn is a spiritual form of music used to invoke spirits during ceremonies. It is highly rhythmic and trance-oriented. Before 1986, the Vietnamese government repressed hát chầu văn and other forms of religious expression. It has since been revived by musicians like Phạm Văn Tỵ.
Nhạc dân tộc cải biên is a modern form of Vietnamese folk music which arose in the 1950s after the founding of the Hanoi Conservatory of Music in 1956. This development involved writing traditional music using Western musical notation, while Western elements of harmony and instrumentation were added. Nhạc dân tộc cải biên is often criticized by purists for its watered-down approach to traditional sounds.
Ca trù (also hát ả đào) is a popular folk music which is said to have begun with Ả Đào, a female singer who charmed the enemy with her voice. Most singers remain female, and the genre has been revived since the Communist government loosened its repression in the 1980s, when it was associated with prostitution.
Ca trù, which has many forms, is thought to have originated in the imperial palace, eventually moving predominantly into performances at communal houses for scholars and other members of the elite (this is the type of ca trù most widely known). It can be referred to as a geisha-type of entertainment where women, trained in music and poetry, entertained rich and powerful men.
"Hò" can be thought of as the southern style of Quan họ. It is improvisational and is typically sung as dialogue between a man and woman. Common themes include love, courtship, the countryside, etc. "Hò" is popular in Cần Thơ - Vietnam.
Vietnamese composers also followed western forms of music, such as Cô Sao by Đỗ Nhuận, considered as the first Vietnamese opera. Nguyễn Văn Quỳ also wrote 9 sonatas for violin and piano, following his French music studies and Vietnamese traditions.
The Vietnam War, the consequent Fall of Saigon, and the plight of Vietnamese refugees gave rise to a collection of musical pieces that have become "classical" anthems for Vietnamese people both in Vietnam and abroad. Notable writers include Phạm Duy and Trịnh Công Sơn. Singers include Thái Thanh, Khánh Ly and Lệ Thu.
Many of these composers, in the North, also contributed Vietnamese revolutionary songs, known as nhạc đỏ "Red Music".
In Vietnam, there is no official music chart across the country or digital sale, though Vietnam Idol is reflected in downloads.
The embrace of modern pop music culture has increased, as each new generation of people in Vietnam has become more exposed to and influenced by westernized music along with the fashion styles of Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, and South Korea. Musical production has improved and expanded over the years as visiting performers and organizers from other countries have helped to stimulate the Vietnamese entertainment industry. Such performances include international stages like the Asia Music Festival in South Korea where popular Vietnamese singers such as Hồ Quỳnh Hương, Mỹ Tâm, Hồ Ngọc Hà, Lam Trường, and others have performed along with other singers from different Asian countries. During the recent years such as 2006 and beyond, Vietnamese pop music has tremendously improved from years past. Vietnamese music has been able to widen its reach to audiences nationally and also overseas. There are many famous underground artists such as Andree Right Hand, Big Daddy, Shadow P (all featured in a popular song called Để anh được yêu) or Lil' Knight and countless others who have risen to fame through the Internet. In addition, there are also other singers that have gone mainstream such as M4U, Hồ Ngọc Hà, Bảo Thy, Wanbi Tuấn Anh, Khổng Tú Quỳnh, Radio Band, etc. There are also amateur singers whose songs have been hits in Vietnam such as Thùy Chi. These singers tend to view singing as a hobby, therefore not being labeled as mainstream artists. Overall, the quality of recording and the style of music videos in Vietnam has improved a lot compared to the past years due to many private productions and also overseas Vietnamese coming back to produce a combination of Western and Vietnamese music.
Introduced by American soldiers, rock and roll was popular in Saigon during the Vietnam War. This genre has developed strongly in the South and has spread out over the North region after the rise of Bức Tường in the 90s. For the last 10 years, metal has become more mainstream in Vietnam. Unlimited, Ngũ Cung, Microwave, and the Black Infinity are the current top Vietnamese metal bands in the 21st century.[ citation needed ]
Vietnamese electronic house music is developed into its own genre in the 2010s, also dubbed Vinahey. This music became popular from the clubbing and raving scene.
Đặng Hữu Phúc is a Vietnamese pianist and composer best known for his film scores. A graduate of the Hanoi Conservatory, he has penned over 60 works, primarily for film and theatre.
Dương Triệu Vũ
Cardin Do Nguyen, simply known as Cardin, is an American singer and composer and former member of group Asia 4. He is now a solo singer for both English and Vietnamese songs.
Paris By Night 82: Tiếu Vương Hội is a Paris By Night program that was filmed at Studio 40 of the Canadian Broadcasting Centre in Toronto, Canada on Saturday, March 25, 2006. It is one of Thúy Nga's "private" shows, as in, limited seats are available, and some are only invited guests only.
Traditional Vietnamese dance comprises several different forms including dance as performed in Vietnamese theatre and opera, dances performed at festivals, and royal dances of the imperial court. Dance is thought to have been an integral part of Vietnamese culture since ancient times, as depicted by engravings found on Dong Son drums.
Phạm Duy was Vietnam's most prolific songwriter. With a musical career that spanned more than seven decades through some of the most turbulent periods of Vietnamese history and with more than one thousand songs to his credit, he is widely considered one of the three most salient and influential figures of modern Vietnamese music, along with Văn Cao and Trịnh Công Sơn. His music is noted for combining elements of traditional music with new methods, creating melodies that are both modern and traditional. A politically polarizing figure, his entire body of work was banned in North Vietnam during the Vietnam War and subsequently in unified Vietnam for more than 30 years until the government began to ease restrictions on some of his work upon his repatriation in 2005.
Trần Thị Minh Tuyết better known as Minh Tuyết, is a Vietnamese-American pop singer, currently performing on Thuy Nga's Paris by Night. Her sisters are Cẩm Ly, a singer in Vietnam, and Hà Phương who performs with her as part of the cast of Paris By Night. She is known in the Vietnamese American culture as the Vietnamese Pop Princess. Her real name is Tran Thi Minh Tuyet, which in English literally means "Morning Snow."
Paris By Night 91: Huế, Sài Gòn, Hà Nội is a Paris By Night program produced by Thúy Nga that was filmed at the Terrace Theater at the Long Beach Convention and Entertainment Center on January 12, 2008 and January 13, 2008.
Paris By Night 79: Dreams is a Paris By Night program produced by Thúy Nga that was filmed at the San Jose Center for the Performing Arts, on August 20, 2005. The show was MC'ed by Nguyễn Ngọc Ngạn and Nguyễn Cao Kỳ Duyên.
Paris By Night 80: Tết Khắp Mọi Nhà is a Paris By Night program produced by Thúy Nga that was filmed at the Canadian Broadcasting Centre in Toronto, Canada on October 29, 2005.
Nguyễn Thị Hương Thủy, commonly known by her stage name Hương Thủy, is a Vietnamese language singer from southern Vietnam known for Ca dao and Cải Lương singing. She appears on the long running Vietnamese diaspora variety show Paris By Night, making her debut in Paris By Night 72: Tiếng Hát Từ Nhịp Tim. She also acts in their plays and musicals.
Quang Lê is one of the top selling Vietnamese-American recording artists, renowned for his unique covers of many traditional Vietnamese songs created and written before, during and about the Vietnam War. Quang Lê has become a household name within the Vietnamese music industry worldwide, from the United States, to Canada, to France, to the United Kingdom, to Germany, to the Czech Republic, to Australia and back home in Vietnam. Quang Lê achieved success at a young age, with hits such as “Sương Trắng Miền Quê Ngoại”, “Đập Vỡ Cây Đàn”, “Đường Về Quê Hương” and “Tương Tư Nàng Ca Sĩ”. Many famous Vietnamese songwriters, such as Đinh Miên Vũ, personally write songs for Quang Lê to perform on the Thúy Nga Paris By Night stage.
Paris By Night 97 - Khiêu Vũ Của Các Ngôi Sao 2 is a Paris By Night program produced by Thúy Nga that was filmed at Knott's Berry Farm on April 22, 2009 and released onto DVD September 22, 2009. The show was approximately 5 hours and was MC'ed by Nguyễn Văn Thinh and Nguyễn Cao Kỳ Duyên.
Haiphong Opera House is a French-built neoclassical opera house on Opera Square in Hai Phong, which was opened in 1912.
The Hồ Chí Minh Prize is an honorary award given by the government of Vietnam in recognition of cultural and/or scientific achievement. The prize was established by decree in 1981, and has been awarded in 1996, 2000, 2005 and 2012, often posthumously. The prize is named for Ho Chi Minh, and is considered one of the highest honors bestowed by Vietnam.
Phạm Thị Huệ is a Vietnamese đàn bầu, đàn đáy, and đàn tỳ bà player, singer, composer and educator. She is the founder and owner of the Thăng Long Ca trù Theater in the Hanoi historic district and has become a leading exponent in the revival of ca trù singing throughout Vietnam.
Vũ Lệ Quyên, known by her stage name Lệ Quyên, is a Vietnamese singer. In 2004, she began professional singing career with her debut album named Giấc mơ có thật. She was known to everyone by series of seriously musical activities, thoroughly invested with ballad music, old music, pre-war music from the official start-up in the 2000s.
Việt Tú is a Vietnamese stage director, screenwriter, and event organizer. Việt Tú emerged from a young age as director of many major music programs, including most notably the Nhật thực (Eclipse) live show in 2002 and the popular music video series on VTV Bài hát tôi yêu. At the age of 26, he became the art director for the opening and closing ceremonies of the 22nd Southeast Asian Games in 2003 in Vietnam which was broadcast live to all countries in the region.
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