|Music of Central Asia|
The music of the nomadic and rural Turkmen people is closely related to Kyrgyz and Kazakh folk forms. Important musical traditions in Turkmen music include traveling singers and shamans called bakshy , who act as healers and magicians and sing either a cappella or with instruments such as the two-stringed lute called dutar.
Turkmenistan's national poet is Magtumguly Pyragy, from the 18th century, who wrote four-line goshuk lyrics. The Central Asian classical music tradition mugam is also present in Turkmenistan by name as the mukamlar .
As a Soviet Republic, Turkmenistan's national anthem was "Turkmenistan", composed by Veli Mukhatov with words by Aman Kekilov. In 1997 (well after independence), the anthem was changed to the "National anthem of Independent, Neutral, Turkmenistan", the music and lyrics of which were written by President-for-Life Saparmurat Niyazov.
The dutar is the most representative instrument of Turkmen folk music. It is used in many styles, ranging from the mukamlar and saltıklar to the kirklar and navoi. These are performed by professional musicians called sazanda.
Tuiduk is a wind instrument (similar to Zurna). Turkmen say that Adam who was moulded from clay had no soul. It was only due to the melodious tuiduk playing Archangel Gabriel could breathe life into him. According to a Turkmen legend the main role in tuiduk invention was played by the devil. There is a ritual of inviting guests for a celebration which has survived from ancient times. Two tuiduk players stand in front each other, point their instruments upwards and play in unison. While doing this they perform magic circular movements which remind that this ritual used to be linked to shamanism.
The Dili tuiduk is a Turkmen woodwind instrument. It is a clarinet-like, single-reed instrument used mainly in Turkmen folk music. The instrument's range is greater than its six finger holes would suggest, the upper registers being attained by breath control. Dili tuiduk of the Turkmen can be carved in a couple of minutes by a shepherd in the springtime, when reeds grow tall, but a set of brass instruments for a police band needs an investment of money and time to arrive in town.
Gargy-tuyduk this is a long reed flute whose origin, according to legend, is connected with Alexander of Macedonia, and a similar instrument existed in ancient Egypt. Gargy means in the Turkmen language "reed".
Bakshy were formerly the most important musicians in Turkmen society, along with tuidukists . They played the dutar to celebrate weddings, births, and other events.
Mugam is a pan-Central Asian style of classical music, performed in Turkmenistan by a dutarist and gidjakist, or by an ensemble of just dutarists .
The ney, is an end-blown flute that figures prominently in Middle Eastern music. In some of these musical traditions, it is the only wind instrument used. The ney has been played continually for 4,500–5,000 years, making it one of the oldest musical instruments still in use.
Music of China refers to the music of the Chinese people, which may be the music of the Han Chinese as well as other ethnic minorities within mainland China. It also includes music produced by people of Chinese origin in some territories outside mainland China using traditional Chinese instruments or in the Chinese language. It covers a highly diverse range of music from the traditional to the modern.
The music of Iraq or Iraqi music,, also known as the Music of Mesopotamia encompasses the music of a number of ethnic groups and musical genres. Ethnically, it includes Arabic music, Assyrian, Kurdish and the music of Turkmen, among others. Apart from the traditional music of these peoples, Iraqi music includes contemporary music styles such as pop, rock, soul and urban contemporary.
Kyrgyz music is nomadic and rural, and is closely related to Turkmen and Kazakh folk forms. Kyrgyz folk music is characterized by the use of long, sustained pitches, with Russian elements also prominent.
Music of Kazakhstan refers to a wide range of musical styles and genres deriving from Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan is home to the Kazakh State Kurmangazy Orchestra of Folk Instruments, the Kazakh State Philharmonic Orchestra, the Kazakh National Opera and the Kazakh State Chamber Orchestra. The folk instrument orchestra was named after Kurmangazy Sagyrbayuly, a well-known composer and dombra player from the 19th century.
Tajik music is closely related to other Central Asian forms of music. The classical music is shashmaqam, which is also distinctive in Uzbekistan. Southern Tajikistan has a distinctive form of folk music called falak, which is played at celebrations for weddings, circumcisions and other occasions.
Azerbaijani music is the musical tradition of the Azerbaijani people from Azerbaijan Republic. It builds on folk traditions that reach back nearly 4,000 years. For centuries, Azerbaijani music has evolved under the badge of monody, producing rhythmically diverse melodies. Music from Azerbaijan has a branch mode system, where chromatisation of major and minor scales is of great importance.
The music of Uzbekistan has reflected the diverse influences that have shaped the country. It is very similar to the music of the Middle East and is characterized by complicated rhythms and meters. Because of the long history of music in the country and the large variety of music styles and musical instruments, Uzbekistan is often regarded as one of the most musically diverse countries in Central Asia.
The music of Laos includes the music of the Lao people, a Tai ethnic group, and other ethnic groups living in Laos. The traditional music of Laos has similarities with the traditional music of Thailand and Cambodia, including the names of the instruments and influences and developments. To categorize Lao music, it seems helpful to distinguish between the nonclassical folk traditions, the classical music traditions and its basic ensembles, and vocal traditions.
The zurna is a double reed wind instrument played in central Eurasia, Western Asia and parts of North Africa. It is usually accompanied by a davul in Anatolian and Assyrian folk music.
Turkmens, also known as Turkmen Turks, are a Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, living mainly in Turkmenistan, northern and northeastern regions of Iran and Afghanistan. Sizeable groups of Turkmens are found also in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and the North Caucasus. They speak the Turkmen language, which is classified as a part of the Eastern Oghuz branch of the Turkic languages. Examples of other Oghuz languages are Turkish, Azerbaijani, Qashqai, Gagauz, Khorasani, and Salar.
The music of Central Asia is as vast and unique as the many cultures and peoples who inhabit the region. Principal instrument types are two- or three-stringed lutes, the necks either fretted or fretless; fiddles made of horsehair; flutes, mostly open at both ends and either end-blown or side-blown; and jew harps, mostly metal. Percussion instruments include frame drums, tambourines, and kettledrums. Instrumental polyphony is achieved primarily by lutes and fiddles.
Mukamlar is a term for bodies of musical repertoire for the Turkmen dutar or tüÿdük. Mukumlar represents the most important repertoires in the Turkmen classical tradition after the baksy songs. There are several mukamlar for each instrument; instrumentalists may disagree on the number. There are, however, five dutar pieces acknowledged to form the core of this repertoire: Goñurbaş mukamy, Gökdepe mukamy, Erkeklik mukamy, Aÿralyk mukamy and Mukamlarbaşy. The latter two may be compared to that of a level for virtuosos.
The Epic of Koroghlu is a heroic legend prominent in the oral traditions of the Turkic peoples, mainly the Oghuz Turks. The legend typically describes a hero who seeks to avenge a wrong. It was often put to music and played at sporting events as an inspiration to the competing athletes. Koroghlu is the main hero of epic with the same name in Azerbaijani, Turkmen and Turkish as well as some other Turkic languages. The epic tells about the life and heroic deeds of Koroghlu as a hero of the people who struggled against unjust rulers. The epic combines the occasional romance with Robin Hood-like chivalry.
The bakshy or bakhshi are traditional Turkmen musicians. Historically, they have been traveling singers and shamans, acting as healers and spiritual figures, and also providing the music for celebrations of weddings, births, and other important life events. They sing either a cappella or to the accompaniment of traditional instruments. The Turkmen bakshy tradition is closely related to the larger Turkic Ashik tradition.
The dili tuiduk is a Turkmen musical instrument in the clarinet-family that uses a single reed to produce the instrument's sound. It is used mainly in Turkmen folk music.
The dutar is a traditional long-necked two-stringed lute found in Iran and Central Asia. Its name comes from the Persian word for "two strings", دوتار do tār, although the Herati dutar of Afghanistan has fourteen strings. When played, the strings are usually plucked by the Uyghurs of Western China and strummed and plucked by the Tajiks, Turkmen, Uzbeks. Related instruments include the Kazakh dombra. The Dutar is also an important instrument among the Kurds of Khorasan amongst whom Haj Ghorban Soleimani of Quchan was a noted virtuoso. In Kurdish one who plays the dutar is known as a bakci (bakhshi), while in Azeri the term is ashiq. Khorasan bakhshi music is recognized on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.
Turkmen National Conservatory is a music conservatory in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. Based on the decree № 1403 of the President of Turkmenistan from June 2, 1993, Ashgabat State Conservatory was transformed into Turkmen National Conservatory (TNC). Now TNC is one of the leading institutions of higher education in the country. Turkmen National Conservatory is under the direct patronage of the Ministry of Culture and Broadcasting of Turkmenistan.
Jeren Kurbanklycheva is a Turkmen composer who holds the official title of The First Woman Composer of Turkmenistan.
The Military Band Service of the Armed Forces of Turkmenistan is the primary military band organization of the Armed Forces of Turkmenistan. Many of the members of bands have attended the Turkmen National Conservatory. It is organized under the command of the Ministry of Defense of Turkmenistan.