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|Music of Central Asia|
Tajik music is closely related to other Central Asian forms of music. The classical music is shashmaqam, which Uzbeks also developed classical music of Tajiks[ clarification needed ] and made their distinctive own. Southern Tajikistan has a distinctive form of folk music called falak, which is played at celebrations for weddings, circumcisions and other occasions.
Tajikistan, officially the Republic of Tajikistan, is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an area of 143,100 km2 (55,300 sq mi) and an estimated population of 8.7 million people as of 2016. It is bordered by Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and China to the east. The traditional homelands of the Tajik people include present-day Tajikistan as well as parts of Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time. General definitions of music include common elements such as pitch, rhythm, dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture. Different styles or types of music may emphasize, de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. Music is performed with a vast range of instruments and vocal techniques ranging from singing to rapping; there are solely instrumental pieces, solely vocal pieces and pieces that combine singing and instruments. The word derives from Greek μουσική . See glossary of musical terminology.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north. The region consists of the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. It is also colloquially referred to as "the stans" as the countries generally considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix "-stan", meaning "land of".
Tajik folk music is traditionally divided into three styles, Pamir (Mountain-Badakhshan province), Central Kuhistoni (Hisor, Kulob, Gharm provinces) and Sogdiana's northern style; the latter is part of the same musical culture as the adjacent regions of Uzbekistan (Kashkadarya Province and Surkhandarya Province). There are many kinds of songs, both lyrical and instrument, including work songs, ceremonial, funeral, wedding and musical epics, especially the central Tajik heroic legend Gurugli also known as "Omar Sham Sham".
The Pamir Mountains are a mountain range in Central Asia, at the junction of the Himalayas with the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, Hindu Kush, Suleman and Hindu Raj ranges. They are among the world’s highest mountains.
Hisor is a city in western Tajikistan, about 15 km west of Dushanbe. It is the capital of Hisor District, one of the Districts of Republican Subordination. It lies at an altitude of 799–824 m, surrounded by high mountains. The Khanaka River, a tributary to the Kofarnihon River, flows through the town. As of 2002, it had a population of 22,961, composed 81.6% of Tajiks, 12.3% Uzbeks, 3.6% Russians, and 2.5% others. It was once an independent Khanate, and then the winter residence of the governor of East Bukhara. The large fort is said to date back to Cyrus the Great and to have been captured twenty one times.
Kulob, also Kulyab, is a city in Kulob District, Khatlon Province, Tajikistan. Located 203 km south-east of the capital Dushanbe on the Yakhsu River, it is one of the largest cities in the country and has an estimated population of 100,000. The town is served by Kulob Airport.
Gharibi is the song of a stranger, an early 20th-century innovation of poor farm laborers and other workers who had to leave their land.
Gulgardoni is a springtime holiday (also called Boychechak) which includes carolling celebratory songs accompanied by the dutar and doira.
A carol is in Modern English a festive song, generally religious but not necessarily connected with church worship, and often with a dance-like or popular character. The verb caroling also refers to the singing of carols.
The dutar is a traditional long-necked two-stringed lute found in Iran and Central Asia. Its name comes from the Persian word for "two strings", دوتار do tār, although the Herati dutar of Afghanistan has fourteen strings. When played, the strings are usually plucked by the Uyghurs of Western China and strummed and plucked by the Tajiks, Turkmen, Uzbeks. Related instruments include the Kazakh dombra. The Dutar is also an important instrument among the Kurds of Khorasan amongst whom Haj Ghorban Soleimani of Quchan was a noted virtuoso. In Kormanji one who plays the dutar is known as a bakci (bakhshi), while in Azeri the term is ashiq. Khorasan bakhshi music is recognized on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.
Sayri Guli Lola is the holiday of tulips , which includes accompanied choral and dance music. The most important song of this holiday is called "Naqshi Kalon".
Tulips (Tulipa) form a genus of spring-blooming perennial herbaceous bulbiferous geophytes. The flowers are usually large, showy and brightly coloured, generally red, pink, yellow, or white. They often have a different coloured blotch at the base of the tepals, internally. Because of a degree of variability within the populations, and a long history of cultivation, classification has been complex and controversial. The tulip is a member of the Liliaceae (lily) family, along with 14 other genera, where it is most closely related to Amana, Erythronium and Gagea in the tribe Lilieae. There are about 75 species, and these are divided among four subgenera. The name "tulip" is thought to be derived from a Persian word for turban, which it may have been thought to resemble. Tulips originally were found in a band stretching from Southern Europe to Central Asia, but since the seventeenth century have become widely naturalised and cultivated. In their natural state they are adapted to steppes and mountainous areas with temperate climates. Flowering in the spring, they become dormant in the summer once the flowers and leaves die back, emerging above ground as a shoot from the underground bulb in early spring.
A choir is a musical ensemble of singers. Choral music, in turn, is the music written specifically for such an ensemble to perform. Choirs may perform music from the classical music repertoire, which spans from the medieval era to the present, or popular music repertoire. Most choirs are led by a conductor, who leads the performances with arm and face gestures.
Dance music is music composed specifically to facilitate or accompany dancing. It can be either a whole musical piece or part of a larger musical arrangement. In terms of performance, the major categories are live dance music and recorded dance music. While there exist attestations of the combination of dance and music in ancient times, the earliest Western dance music that we can still reproduce with a degree of certainty are the surviving medieval dances. In the Baroque period, the major dance styles were noble court dances. In the classical music era, the minuet was frequently used as a third movement, although in this context it would not accompany any dancing. The waltz also arose later in the classical era. Both remained part of the romantic music period, which also saw the rise of various other nationalistic dance forms like the barcarolle, mazurka, ecossaise, ballade and polonaise.
The birth of a child is cause for special musical celebration. Traditional puppeteers play on the doira, qayroq, surnay and nag'ora. There are other variations, and folk songs like "Na`at" and "Munojot", performed at the circumcision ceremony of a male child.
Puppetry is a form of theatre or performance that involves the manipulation of puppets – inanimate objects, often resembling some type of human or animal figure, that are animated or manipulated by a human called a puppeteer. Such a performance is also known as a puppet production. The script for a puppet production is called a puppet play. Puppeteers use movements from hands and arms to control devices such as rods or strings to move the body, head, limbs, and in some cases the mouth and eyes of the puppet. The puppeteer sometimes speaks in the voice of the character of the puppet, while at other times they perform to a recorded soundtrack.
Na'at is poetry in praise of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. The practice is popular in South Asia, commonly in Sylheti, Pashto, Bengali, Urdu or Punjabi. People who recite Na'at are known as Na'at Khawan or sana'a-khua'an. Exclusive "Praise to God" and God alone is called Hamd, not to be confused with 'Na'at'.
Circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the human penis. In the most common procedure, the foreskin is opened, adhesions are removed, and the foreskin is separated from the glans. After that, a circumcision device may be placed, and then the foreskin is cut off. Topical or locally injected anesthesia is sometimes used to reduce pain and physiologic stress. For adults and children, general anesthesia is an option, and the procedure may be performed without a specialized circumcision device. The procedure is most often an elective surgery performed on babies and children, for religious or cultural reasons. In other cases it may be done as a treatment for certain medical conditions or for preventative reasons. Medically it is a treatment option for problematic cases of phimosis, balanoposthitis that does not resolve with other treatments, and chronic urinary tract infections (UTIs). It is contraindicated in cases of certain genital structure abnormalities or poor general health.
Traditional Tajik wedding music is played by sozanda, professional musicians, mostly female, who are part of ensembles called the dasta.
Badakhshan is a region inhabited by Tajik Ismailis, known for their sung spiritual poetry called madah . Lutes are a major part of Ismaili folk music.
The Tajik anthem is available on YouTube.
The tambourine is a musical instrument in the percussion family consisting of a frame, often of wood or plastic, with pairs of small metal jingles, called "zills". Classically the term tambourine denotes an instrument with a drumhead, though some variants may not have a head at all. Tambourines are often used with regular percussion sets. They can be mounted, for example on a stand as part of a drum kit, or they can be held in the hands and played by tapping or hitting the instrument.
Algerian music is virtually synonymous with Raï among foreigners; the musical genre has achieved great popularity in France, Spain and other parts of Europe. For several centuries, Algerian music was dominated by styles inherited from Al-Andalus, eventually forming a unique North African twist on these poetic forms. Algerian music came to include suites called nuubaat. Later derivatives include rabaab and hawzii.
Azerbaijani music is the musical tradition of the Azerbaijani people from Azerbaijan Republic. It builds on folk traditions that reach back nearly 1,000 years. For centuries, Azerbaijani music has evolved under the badge of monody, producing rhythmically diverse melodies. Music from Azerbaijan has a branch mode system, where chromatisation of major and minor scales is of great importance.
The music of Uzbekistan has reflected the diverse influences that have shaped the country. It is very similar to the music of the Middle East and is characterized by complicated rhythms and meters. Because of the long history of music in the country and the large number of different music styles and musical instruments, Uzbekistan is often regarded as one of the most musically diverse countries in Central Asia.
Music is an integral part of Mongolian culture. Among the unique contributions of Mongolia to the world's musical culture are the long songs, overtone singing and morin khuur, the horse-headed fiddle. The music of Mongolia is also rich with varieties related to the various ethnic groups of the country: Oirats, Hotogoid, Tuvans, Darhad, Buryats, Tsaatan, Dariganga, Uzemchins, Barga, Kazakhs and Khalha.
The culture of Tajikistan has developed over several thousand years. Tajik culture can be divided into two areas, Metropolitan and Kuhiston (Highland). Modern city centres include Dushanbe, Khudjand, Kulob, and Panjikent.
The music of Montserrat is influenced by Irish traditions, noticeable in the set dance-like Bam-chick-lay, and the presence of fife and drum ensembles similar to the bodhrán. Natives are also witness to the jumbie dance, the style of which is still strongly African. Instruments include the ukulele and shak-shak, an African instrument made from a calabash gourd; both of these are used in traditional string bands. Calypso and spiritual-influenced vocal choirs, like the Emerald Isle Community Singers, are popular.
The music of Central Asia is as vast and unique as the many cultures and peoples who inhabit the region. Principal instrument types are two- or three-stringed lutes, the necks either fretted or fretless; fiddles made of horsehair; flutes, mostly open at both ends and either end-blown or side-blown; and jew harps, mostly metal. Percussion instruments include frame drums, tambourines, and kettledrums. Instrumental polyphony is achieved primarily by lutes and fiddles.
The Culture of Bangladesh is intertwined with the culture of the Bengal region the broader Indian subcontinent. It has evolved over the centuries encompasses the cultural diversity of several social groups of Bangladesh. The Bengal Renaissance of the 19th early 20th centuries, noted Bengali writers, saints, authors, scientists, researchers, thinkers, music composers, painters, film-makers have played a significant role in the development of Bengali culture. The Bengal Renaissance contained the seeds of a nascent political Indian nationalism was the precursor in many ways to modern Indian artistic cultural expression. The cultures of Bangladesh are composite over the centuries have assimilated influences of Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity. It is manifested in various forms, including music, dance, drama; art craft; folklore folktale; languages literature; philosophy religion; festivals celebrations; as well as in a distinct cuisine culinary tradition.
A dayereh is a medium-sized frame drum with jingles, used to accompany both popular and classical music in Bukharan Jews, Iran (Persia), Azerbaijan, the Caucasus, the Balkans, and many Central Asian countries such as Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. Frame drums are also popular in many regions of Georgia, like Kartli, Kakheti, Tusheti, Samegrelo, Racha, and Imereti. This is a single headed percussion instrument which is not only found in Northern South Asia, Central Asia, and the Middle East, but also in parts of the Russian polar regions. The simple drum is formed by attaching a skin cover onto a wooden ring with glue and cloth ties. This is similar to the Persian daira and the Turkish def. Some daira have metal pieces attached to give them a tambourine-like quality.
Sughd Region is one of the four administrative divisions and one of the three provinces that make up Tajikistan. Centered in the historical Sogdiana, it is located in the northwest of the country, with an area of some 25,400 square kilometers and a population of 2,132,100, up from 1,870,000 according to the 2000 census and 1,558,000 in 1989. It was founded in 1924 as part of Uzbek SSR and transferred to Tajik SSR by Soviet Communists in 1929. Today, the region is still home to a large number of ethnic Uzbeks.
Gavriel Mullokandov is widely regarded as the greatest Bukharian Jewish singer and musician. He was the People's Artist of Uzbekistan.
The Central Asian musician Ari Babakhanov of Uzbekistan masters the long-necked lutes tanbur, qashqari rubab and dutar. In 1934 he was born in Bukhara into a Jewish family which can look back on an outstanding dynasty of traditional musicians. It was founded by his grandfather Levi Babakhan (1873–1926), the legendary court vocalist of Alim Khan, the last emir of Bukhara. Levi Babakhan's son Moshe Babakhanov (1910–1983) was also a famous vocalist who accompanied himself on tanbur and doira.
Suzani is a type of embroidered and decorative tribal textile made in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and other Central Asian countries. Suzani is from the Persian سوزن Suzan which means needle. The art of making such textiles in Iran is called سوزندوزی Suzandozi (needlework).
Istaravshan District or Nohiya-i Istaravshan, formerly UroteppaDistrict, is a district in the central part of Sughd province, Tajikistan, between the border with Uzbekistan to the west and Ghonchi district to the east. Its capital is Istaravshan.
Barno Iskhakova was a famous Bukharian Jewish musician from Tajikistan, born in Tashkent, Uzbek SSR, USSR on 12 May 1927 to the traditional Bukharian Jewish family of Berakh and Rachel Iskhakov.
Shashmaqam is a Central Asian musical genre which may have developed in the city of Bukhara. Shashmaqam means the six Maqams (modes) in the Persian language, dastgah being the name for Persian modes, and maqams being the name for modes more generally.
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Uzbekistan Dance consists of between 15-20 thousand movements by a performer, depending on the complexity of the dance..An Uzbek dance portrays a story, told by the flowing movements and rhythm. The lithe and expressive hands of a dancer raise and then interweave like two twigs of an almond tree, then one hand is above the head and the other is making swift movements around the body. A medieval poet wrote: "A dancing women! She is swiftly dancing, spinning like snow carried away by a whirlwind. Restless, she is spinning to the left and to the right". There are three schools of dance in Uzbekistan: Khorezm, Fergana and Bukhara. Each one has its peculiarities and specific features.