|Music of Nepal|
|Media and performance|
|Music festivals||Goon lā|
|Nationalistic and patriotic songs|
|National anthem||"Sayaun Thunga Phulka"|
Music of Nepal refers to the various musical genres played and listened to in Nepal. With more than fifty ethnic groups, the music of Nepal is highly diverse. Genres like Tamang Selo, Dohori, Adhunik Geet, Bhajan, Filmi music, Ghazal, Classical music,teej songs and Ratna music are widely played and popular, but many other less common genres are yet to be cataloged. Western musical genres like Rock, Metal, Hip-Hop, Rap, R&B also regularly feature on the Nepalese music charts. Most of the country's musical bands are based in the Kathmandu valley. Musical genres from Tibet and India have greatly influenced Nepalese music.
Dohori is a genre of Nepali folk music and has roots in the rural courtship traditions. In Nepali, Dohori literally means from both sides or a debate. This debate is in musical rhythm, and involves quick and witty poetry. The two teams taking part in a Dohori usually involves boys and girls in rival teams. The song starts with a question, usually from the boys' side. The girl follows the question with a quick response and the two teams continue the musical conversation.
Dohori songs can last for as long as a week. The length of the Dohori depends on the quick thinking ability and wit of the players.
Adhunik Geet or modern songs are popular songs in Nepal and is also known as sugam sangeet. These of songs are soft and melodious. One of the most famous singers of this genre was late Narayan Gopal who was also known as a "Swar Samrat" meaning King of 'Voice' in Nepali and gave hits like "Euta Manchhe Ko", and "Yeti Dherai Maya Dii". Aruna Lama was one of the well-known singers of Nepali music.She is popularly known as the "Nightingale of the Hills". She has sung hundreds of Nepali songs.
There are numerous professional classical musicians in the Kathmandu Valley. Bands such as, Sur-Sudha,Sukarma, Trikaal, Kutumba are popular and well known in Nepal. Classical music organizations such as Kalanidhi Indira Sangeet Mahavidyalaya, Nepal Sangeet Vidyalaya, SK Gurukul Sangeet Pathshala, Narayan Music Academy, Gandharva Sangeet Vidyalaya, Shree Sangeet Pathshala, Kirateswor Sangeet Ashram, Kapan Sangit Sarowar, Yalamaya Kendra , Ram Mandir, Gurukul Sangeet Pathshala, Atul Music Memorial Gurukul etc. have been continuously contributing towards the development of Nepali classical music. Some renowned classical musicians are Tara Bir Singh Tuladhar (born 1943), Bijaya Vaidya, Prem Rana, Manose Singh (born 1979), Mohan Sunder Shestra (born 1943), Surendra Shesthra and Sur Sudha.
Maithili Music is one of the most ancient types of music in South Asia . It originated from Mithila region which is now divided between India and Nepal. No on knows exactly when Maithili Music came into existence, probably due to the length of its history, but its age indicates that it might have helped other music develop and flourish in India and Nepal.[ citation needed ]
Although Maithili music is usually played by classical instruments, it has been modernized and now uses various modern instruments. Some significant contributors to this music style are Maha Kavi Vidyapati Thakur, Udit Narayan Jha and Sharda Sinha.The region's folk songs are associated with the various events in the life of an ordinary person.
The Tamang community is well known for the Damphu, a traditional instrument. Tamang Selo music is accompanied by the Damphu and Tungna. It is said that British people derived the idea of making drum sets from Damphu during their stay in India. Western and Indian instruments influences are also seen in some modern Tamang Selo music.
Hira Devi Waiba is hailed as the pioneer of Nepali folk songs. She has sung about 300 songs throughout her musical career of 40 years.After Hira Devi Waiba died in 2011, her son Satya Waiba and daughter Nanveet Aditya Waiba took upon the task of reviving her songs, re-recorded them with a new sound and released them in Navneet's voice. They named the album 'Ama Lai Shraddhanjali - Tribute to Mother'.
Newa music, also called Newar Music, is a form of traditional music developed in Nepal by the Newars. The music has its roots in classical Hindu and Buddhist music and evolved with the incorporation of folk music of the Kathmandu valley and its peripheries. Instruments used are mainly percussion and wind instruments. Notable Newar singer Narayan Gopal. Regarded one of the cultural icons in Nepal, he is referred as "Swar Samrat" (Nepali: स्वर सम्राट, meaning: Emperor of Voice) in Nepali music. He is also known as "Tragedy King" owing to his numerous tragedy songs.
"Dhime" a traditional drum, is used by the Newar People in many occasions.
Gurungs have an ancient tradition of Rodhiwhere young people meet, sing and dance to folk songs, and share their views. Young men and women at Rodhi often sing the Dohori. Some musical dances like Ghantu and Chudka are still in existence, and is performed in many Gurung villages. These dance forms are centuries old and are performed either solo or in a group. Music also plays a big role in the Gurung ritual of Argum, which is performed when someone in the community dies. Notable Gurung singer - Khem Raj Gurung.
The Yakthungs (Limbu) have various forms of songs, dances and musical instruments. Of them, Dhan Naach (paddy dance)and Chyabrung (Dhol Nach "drum dance") are most popular. Khambu celebrate Sakela, a dance performed during the occasion of "Udauli" and "Ubhuali" which is the most important festival of Khumbu (Rai, Kirat). Sakela which is sometimes wrongly referred as Chandi Naach. Chandi is a Hindu goddess and is not related with the Kirat culture. Many dance forms involve rituals and religious offerings towards Mundhum.
Salaijo, Kauda and Sorathi are the three exclusive musical genres of Magar music. Notable Magar singer - Master Mitrasen Thapa Magar
Sherpa music is based on Tibetan Buddhism. It is similar to music of Tibet around the trans-Himalayan region. Tibetan music is mostly religious music, reflecting the influence of Tibetan Buddhism.
"With influence from Tibet, this Nepalese music is characterized by unison singing and occasional accompaniment on the damian, a stringed instrument in the lute family that provides a strong rhythmic base. The musicians generally sing in Helambu (a Sherpa-Tibetan dialect) and sometimes in Tibetan on themes of religion, a desire for material wealth, the natural landscape, and a “sense of an ordered world in contrast to the nomadic pattern of many peoples’ lives” (Bishop). Liner notes include a description of the village and its music, track notes, and lyrics in Helambu/Tibetan and English".
Tharu music is also one of the ancient types of music still played in Nepal. The Tharu people sing songs like Sajana, Maghiya, and Dashainya mostly in the western parts of Nepal.
These are musical genres which were introduced to Nepal from outside and thrived.
A bhajan is a devotional song praising and sometimes calling upon the Gods. It has no fixed form; it may be as simple as a mantra or kirtan. It is usually lyrical, expressing love and prayer for the Divine. Shiva, Krishna, Vishnu and Sai Baba bhajans are popular in Nepal.Notable Bhajan singers Bhakta Raj Acharya, Koili Devi Mathema.
Filmi music is popular in Nepal and produced for mainstream motion pictures. Cinema in Nepal has a short history hence filmi music is still evolving.
The Gazal is a poetic form of music consisting of rhyming couplets and a refrain, with each line sharing the same meter. A gazal may be understood as a poetic expression of pain, loss and separation, beauty of love and nature. It is a delicate form of poetry and music. The form is ancient, originating in 6th-century Arabic verse. Gazals spread into South Asia in the 12th century owing to the influence of Sufi mystics and the courts of the new Islamic Sultanate in India and South Asia. Although the gazal is a form of Dari and Urdu poetry, its influence can be seen in the poetry of many languages of the Indian sub-continent. Motiram Bhatta introduced the written form of gazal in Nepali language circa 1890. Seturam Shrestha (1891-1941) has been credited with pioneering gazals in Nepal.
With the growth and development of the Nepali music industry, different award ceremonies are held in different parts of the country, some focusing local talents. Awards of national level are held each year by some media houses, namely Hits FM,Image FM, Radio Kantipur Music Awards.
Atul Memorial Music Gurukul,was established in 2003 in memory of Nepali Tabla Maestro Atul Gautam. Since then the organization has been awarding Nepali classical maestros once a year on the occasion of Atul Jayanti.
The music of India includes multiple varieties of classical music, folk music, filmi, Indian rock, and Indian pop. Indian pop and Indian rock are derived from western rock and roll. India's classical music tradition, including Hindustani music, Bhartiya music and Carnatic, has a history spanning millennia and developed over several areas. Music in India began as an integral part of socio-religious life.
Newar or Nepami, are the historical inhabitants of the Kathmandu Valley and its surrounding areas in Nepal and the creators of its historic heritage and civilisation. Newars form a linguistic and cultural community of primarily Indo-Aryan and Tibeto-Burman ethnicities following Hinduism and Buddhism with Newar language as their common language. Newars have developed a division of labour and a sophisticated urban civilisation not seen elsewhere in the Himalayan foothills. Newars have continued their age-old traditions and practices and pride themselves as the true custodians of the religion, culture and civilisation of Nepal. Newars are known for their contributions to culture, art and literature, trade, agriculture and cuisine. Today, they consistently rank as the most economically, politically and socially advanced community of Nepal, according to the annual Human Development Index published by UNDP. Nepal's 2011 census ranks them as the nation's sixth-largest ethnicity/community, with 1,321,933 Newars throughout the country.
The Tamang are an ethnic group orginating in Nepal. Tamang people constitute 5.6% of the Nepalese population at over 1.3 million in 2001, increasing to 1,539,830 as of the 2011 census. Tamang people are also found in significant numbers in Indian state of Sikkim and districts of Darjeeling and Kalimpong in India, as permanent settlers. Tamang language is the fifth most spoken language in Nepal.
The music of West Bengal includes multiple indigenous musical genres such as Baul, Bishnupuri Classical, Kirtan, Shyama Sangeet, Rabindra Sangeet, Nazrul Geeti, Bengali rock. The city of Darjeeling, which has many Nepali people, is a center for Nepali rock, too.
The culture of Nepal encompasses the various cultures belonging to the 125 distinct ethnic groups present in Nepal. The culture of Nepal is expressed through music and dance; art and craft; folklore; languages and literature; philosophy and religion; festivals and celebration; foods and drinks.
Narayan Gopal Gurucharya(Nepali: नारायणगोपाल गुरुआचार्य), known professionally as Narayan Gopal and N. Gopal was a prominent popular singer and composer of Nepali music. Regarded one of the most significant cultural icons in Nepal, he is referred as "Swar Samrat" in Nepal. He is also known as "King of Tragedy" owing to his numerous tragedy songs. He also sang in Nepal Bhasa.
Indian folk music is diverse because of India's vast cultural diversity. It has many forms including bhangra, lavani, dandiya, Sufi folk rock, and Rajasthani.
Swagatalakshmi Dasgupta is a Bengali musician and exponent of Rabindra Sangeet.
A damphu, or damfoo, is a percussion instrument similar to a large tambourine. This instrument is used by the Tamang people to play the melodious Tamang Selo. According to folklore Damphu was invented by Peng Dorje a Tamang King and named it after Nepal's national bird the Daphne bird.
The madal is a folk musical instrument of Nepal. The Madal, is used mainly for rhythm-keeping in Nepalese folk music. It is very popular and widely used as hand drum in Nepal. The Madal consists of a cylindrical body with a slight bulge at its center and heads at both ends, one head larger than the other. It is usually played horizontally in a seated position, with both heads played simultaneously.
Shiva Shankar Manandhar was a singer, music composer of Nepali songs and the chief actor in the first Nepali movie, Aama. For nearly a half century beginning from 1950 to late 1990, his name has probably been mentioned more often in books, journals, lectures and conversations about Nepalese music than any other musicians.
Shree Gopal Yonzon was a prominent lyricist, singer, and composer of Nepali music. He was also known for his patriotic Nepali songs. His voice range allowed him to sing songs of every genre of Nepalese music. He belongs to the first generation of Nepali singers who became professional singers. His songs have also been used in several movies and dramas across the country.
Hira Devi Waiba was an Indian folk singer in the Nepali-language from Darjeeling, India and is hailed as the pioneer of Nepali folk songs.
Indian Gorkhas, also known as Nepali Indians, are Indian citizens with Nepali ancestry. The term "Indian Gorkha" is used to differentiate the ethnic Gorkhas citizens of India from the citizens of Nepal.
Kutumba is an instrumental folk Nepalese band. It only uses Nepalese traditional musical instruments such as bamboo flutes, sarangi, madal, tungna, dhol, jhyamta, arbajoo, dhime, dhyangro, damphu, khin, and singing bowl. The band recorded a single for season 6 of Coke Studio Pakistan, which aired in late 2013. They have collaborated with other Nepali artists such as Navneet Aditya Waiba, Albatross, Hari Maharjan and Astha Tamang Maskey.
Gyanu Rana is a singer and a reality show judge, born in Thamel, Kathmandu, Nepal. She wrote and sang duets like Siri ma Siri ni Kanchha and Manchhe ko Maya Yaha with Narayan Gopal, another Nepalese singer.
Narayan Rayamajhi is a Nepali composer, lyricist, feature-film script writer, film director, and producer. He is a nationally renowned folk artist and he has risen to the level of the top folk singer and movie director of Nepal. He has steadily excelled as a singer and he has made a significant contribution to promote Nepali Music Industry. He has written more than fourteen dozen folk songs, more than six dozen modern songs, two dozens soap-opera songs, three musical plays, two documentaries and has he directed two movies Gorkha Paltan and Pardeshi
Tamang Selo is a genre of Nepali folk song sung by the Tamang people and widely popular among the Nepali-speaking community in Nepal, in India, and around the world. It is usually accompanied by Tamang instruments, the Damphu, Madal and Tungna. A Selo could be very catchy and lively or slow and melodious and is usually sung to express love, sorrow and stories of day to day life.
Adhunik Geet or Adhuneek Geet, meaning "modern song", is a genre of Nepali music, which emerged in the 1950s and derives its influence from folk, classical, western music and Ghazals. Musicians such as Master Ratna Das Prakash, Amber Gurung, Nati Kaji drew together the core elements of this often sentimental genre.
Dance in Nepal comprises numerous styles of dances, including folk, ethnic, classical to modern dances.