List of states with limited recognition

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UN member states which at least one other UN member state does not recognise
Non-UN member states and observer states recognised by at least one UN member state
Non-UN member states recognised by other non-UN member states only
Non-UN member state not recognised by any state Limited recognition.png
  UN member states which at least one other UN member state does not recognise
  Non-UN member states and observer states recognised by at least one UN member state
  Non-UN member states recognised by other non-UN member states only
  Non-UN member state not recognised by any state

A number of polities have declared independence and sought diplomatic recognition from the international community as de jure sovereign states, but have not been universally recognised as such. These entities often have de facto control of their territory. A number of such entities have existed in the past.

Polity group of people who are collectively united by a self-reflected cohesive force

A polity is an identifiable political entity. It can be defined as any group of people who have a collective identity, who have a capacity to mobilize resources, and are organized by some form of institutionalized hierarchy. A polity can be the government of a country, or country subdivision, or any other group of people organized for governance.

Diplomatic recognition in international law is a unilateral political act with domestic and international legal consequences whereby a state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government in control of a state. Recognition can be reaccorded either de facto or de jure. Recognition can be a declaration to that effect by the recognizing government, or an act of recognition such as entering into a treaty with the other state. A vote by a country in the United Nations in favour of the membership of another country is an implicit recognition of that country by the country so voting, as only states may be members of the UN.

The international community is a phrase used in geopolitics and international relations to refer to a broad group of people and governments of the world. It does not refer literally to all nations or states in the world. The term is typically used to imply the existence of a common point of view towards such matters as specific issues of human rights. Activists, politicians and commentators often use the term in calling for action to be taken; e.g., action against what is in their opinion political repression in a target country.

Contents

There are two traditional doctrines that provide indicia of how a de jure sovereign state comes into being. The declarative theory defines a state as a person in international law if it meets the following criteria:

  1. a defined territory
  2. a permanent population
  3. a government, and
  4. a capacity to enter into relations with other states.

According to the declarative theory, an entity's statehood is independent of its recognition by other states. By contrast, the constitutive theory defines a state as a person of international law only if it is recognised as such by other states that are already a member of the international community. [1] [2]

Proto-states often reference either or both doctrines in order to legitimise their claims to statehood. There are, for example, entities which meet the declarative criteria (with de facto partial or complete control over their claimed territory, a government and a permanent population), but whose statehood is not recognised by any other states. Non-recognition is often a result of conflicts with other countries that claim those entities as integral parts of their territory. In other cases, two or more partially recognised states may claim the same territorial area, with each of them de facto in control of a portion of it (as have been the cases of the Republic of China (Taiwan) and the People's Republic of China (PRC), and North and South Korea). Entities that are recognised by only a minority of the world's states usually reference the declarative doctrine to legitimise their claims.

Proto-state political entity which does not represent a fully institutionalized or autonomous sovereign state

A proto-state, also known as a quasi-state, is a political entity that does not represent a fully institutionalized or autonomous sovereign state.

In law and government, de facto describes practices that exist in reality, even though they are not officially recognized by laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with de jure, which refers to things that happen according to law.

Taiwan Country in East Asia

Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia. Neighbouring states include the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the west, Japan to the north-east, and the Philippines to the south. The island of Taiwan has an area of 35,808 square kilometres (13,826 sq mi), with mountain ranges dominating the eastern two thirds and plains in the western third, where its highly urbanised population is concentrated. Taipei is the capital and largest metropolitan area. Other major cities include Kaohsiung, Taichung, Tainan and Taoyuan. With 23.7 million inhabitants, Taiwan is among the most densely populated states, and is the most populous state and largest economy that is not a member of the United Nations (UN).

In many situations, international non-recognition is influenced by the presence of a foreign military force in the territory of the contested entity, making the description of the country's de facto status problematic. The international community can judge this military presence too intrusive, reducing the entity to a puppet state where effective sovereignty is retained by the foreign power. Historical cases in this sense can be seen in Japanese-led Manchukuo or the German-created Slovak Republic and Independent State of Croatia before and during World War II. In the 1996 case Loizidou v. Turkey , the European Court of Human Rights judged Turkey for having exercised authority in the territory of Northern Cyprus.

A puppet state, puppet régime, or puppet government is a state that is de jure independent but de facto completely dependent upon an outside power, and does its bidding. Puppet states have nominal sovereignty, but a foreign or otherwise alien power effectively exercises control, for reasons such as financial interests, economic or military support. Puppet states are distinguished from allies in that allies choose their actions on their own, or in accordance with treaties they voluntarily entered.

Sovereignty concept that a state or governing body has the right and power to govern itself without outside interference

Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies. In political theory, sovereignty is a substantive term designating supreme authority over some polity.

Empire of Japan Empire in the Asia-Pacific region between 1868–1947

The Empire of Japan was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern State of Japan.

There are also entities which do not have control over any territory or do not unequivocally meet the declarative criteria for statehood but have been recognised to exist de jure as sovereign entities by at least one other state. Historically this has happened in the case of the Holy See (1870–1929), Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania (during Soviet annexation), and more recently the State of Palestine at the time of its declaration of independence in 1988. The Sovereign Military Order of Malta is currently in this position. See list of governments in exile for unrecognised governments without control over the territory claimed.

Holy See Episcopal jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, Italy

The Holy See, also called the See of Rome, refers to the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope, which includes the apostolic episcopal see of the Diocese of Rome with universal ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the worldwide Catholic Church, as well as a sovereign entity of international law.

Estonia Republic in Baltic Region of Northern Europe

Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia, is a country in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland with Finland on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea with Sweden on the other side, to the south by Latvia (343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia (338.6 km). The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands in the Baltic Sea, covering a total area of 45,227 km2 (17,462 sq mi), water 2,839 km2 (1,096 sq mi), land area 42,388 km2 (16,366 sq mi), and is influenced by a humid continental climate. The official language of the country, Estonian, is the second-most-spoken Finnic language.

Latvia Republic in Northeastern Europe

Latvia, officially the Republic of Latvia, is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. Since its independence, Latvia has been referred to as one of the Baltic states. It is bordered by Estonia to the north, Lithuania to the south, Russia to the east, and Belarus to the southeast, and shares a maritime border with Sweden to the west. Latvia has 1,957,200 inhabitants and a territory of 64,589 km2 (24,938 sq mi). The country has a temperate seasonal climate.

Criteria for inclusion

The criteria for inclusion means a polity must claim sovereignty, lack recognition from at least one UN member state, and either:

Background

There are 193 United Nations (UN) member states, while both the Holy See and Palestine have observer state status in the United Nations. [3] However, some countries fulfill the declarative criteria, are recognised by the large majority of other states and are members of the United Nations, but are still included in the list here because one or more other states do not recognise their statehood, due to territorial claims or other conflicts.

Women in Somaliland, wearing the colors of the Somaliland flag. Somaliland UCID elections rally.jpg
Women in Somaliland, wearing the colors of the Somaliland flag.

Some states maintain informal (officially non-diplomatic) relations with states that do not officially recognise them. Taiwan is one such state, as it maintains unofficial relations with many other states through its Economic and Cultural Offices, which allow regular consular services. This allows Taiwan to have economic relations even with states that do not formally recognise it. A total of 56 states, including Germany, [4] Italy, [5] the United States, [6] and the United Kingdom, [7] maintain some form of unofficial mission in Taiwan. Kosovo, [8] Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh), [9] Northern Cyprus, [10] Abkhazia, [11] Transnistria, [11] the Sahrawi Republic, [12] Somaliland, [13] and Palestine [14] also host informal diplomatic missions, and/or maintain special delegations or other informal missions abroad.

Present geopolitical entities by level of recognition

UN member states not recognised by at least one UN member state

NameDeclaredStatusOther claimantsFurther informationReferences
Flag of South Korea.svg Republic of Korea 1948South Korea (officially the Republic of Korea), independent since 1948, is not recognised by one UN member, North Korea.Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea considers itself to be the sole legitimate government of Korea, and claims all territory controlled by South Korea.Foreign relations, missions (of, to) [15] [16]
Flag of Armenia.svg  Republic of Armenia 1991Armenia, independent since 1991, is not recognised by one UN member, Pakistan, which has a position of supporting Azerbaijan since the Nagorno-Karabakh War.NoneForeign relations, missions (of, to) [17] [18]
Flag of Cyprus.svg  Republic of Cyprus 1960The Republic of Cyprus (commonly known as Cyprus), independent since 1960, is not recognised by one UN member (Turkey) and one UN non-member (Northern Cyprus), due to the ongoing civil dispute over the island.NoneForeign relations, missions (of, to) [19] [20] [21] [22]
Flag of North Korea.svg Democratic People's Republic of Korea 1948North Korea (officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea), independent since 1948, is not recognised by three UN members: France, Japan, South Korea; and one non-UN member: Taiwan. [23] [24] [25] [ original research? ] [26] [27] Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea considers itself to be the sole legitimate government of Korea, and claims all territory controlled by North Korea.Foreign relations, missions (of, to) [25] [28] [29] [26] [27]
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  People's Republic of China 1949The People's Republic of China (PRC), proclaimed in 1949, is the more widely recognised of the two claimant governments of China, the other being the Republic of China (ROC, also known as Taiwan). The United Nations recognised the ROC as the sole representative of China until 1971, when it decided to give this recognition to the PRC instead (see United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758). [lower-alpha 1] The PRC and ROC do not recognise each other's statehood, and each enforces its own version of the One-China Policy meaning that no state can recognise both of them at the same time. The states that recognise the ROC (16 UN members and the Holy See as of21August2018) regard it as the sole legitimate government of China and therefore do not recognise the PRC. Bhutan is the only UN member state that has never explicitly recognised either the PRC or the ROC.The Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China considers itself to be the sole legitimate government of China (including Taiwan), and therefore claims exclusive sovereignty over all territory controlled by the PRC. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
PRC's diplomatic relations dates of establishment
[30]
Flag of Israel.svg  State of Israel 1948Israel, founded in 1948, is not recognised by 31 UN members. The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), which enjoys majority international recognition as sole representative of the Palestinian people, recognised Israel in 1993 but suspended its recognition in 2018. [31] NoneForeign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition
[32] [33] [34] [35]
[36]

UN observer states not recognised by at least one UN member state

NameDeclaredStatusOther claimantsFurther informationReferences
Flag of Palestine.svg  State of Palestine 1988Israel gained control of the Palestinian territories as a result of the Six-Day War in 1967, but has never formally annexed them. The State of Palestine (commonly known as Palestine) was declared in 1988 by the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), which is recognised by a majority of UN member states and the UN itself as the sole representative of the Palestinian people. Since the end of the first Palestinian Intifada against Israel the Israeli government has gradually moved its armed forces and settlers out of certain parts of Palestine's claimed territory, while still maintaining varying degrees of control over most of it. [37] The Palestinian National Authority (PNA), which performs limited internal government functions over certain areas of Palestine, was established in 1994. The 2007 split between the Fatah and Hamas political parties resulted in competing governments claiming to represent the PNA and Palestine, with Fatah exercising authority exclusively over the West Bank and enjoying majority recognition from UN member states, and a separate Hamas leadership exercising authority exclusively over the Gaza area (except for a short period from 2014 to 2016). [lower-alpha 2] Palestine is currently officially recognised as a state by 138 UN member states, the Holy See, [38] and the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. [39] The remaining UN member states, including Israel, do not recognise the State of Palestine. The United Nations designates the claimed Palestinian territories as 'occupied', [40] and accorded Palestine non-member observer state status in 2012 [41] (see United Nations General Assembly resolution 67/19). Palestine also has membership in the Arab League, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and UNESCO. [42] Flag of Israel.svg  Israel regards the area claimed by Palestine as 'disputed' territory (that is, territory not legally belonging to any state). [43] [lower-alpha 2] Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition, Israeli–Palestinian peace process, Proposals for a Palestinian state
[52] [53] [54] [55] [56] [57]

States that are neither UN members nor UN observers

States recognised by at least one UN member state
NameDeclaredStatusOther claimantsFurther informationReferences
Flag of Kosovo.svg  Republic of Kosovo 2008Kosovo declared its independence in 2008. It is currently recognised by 101 UN members, the Republic of China, the Cook Islands, Niue, and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. Ten other UN members have recognised Kosovo and subsequently withdrawn recognition. The United Nations, as stipulated in Security Council Resolution 1244, has administered the territory since 1999 through the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo, with cooperation from the European Union since 2008. Kosovo is a member of the International Monetary Fund, World Bank Group, Venice Commission, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and the International Olympic Committee, among others.Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia claims Kosovo as part of its sovereign territory.Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition; Political status
[58] [59]
Flag of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.svg  Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic 1976 Morocco invaded and annexed most of Western Sahara after Spanish withdrawal from the territory in 1975. In 1976, the Polisario Front declared the independence of Western Sahara as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR). The SADR is largely a government in exile located in Algeria, which claims the entire territory of Western Sahara, but controls only a small fraction of it. The SADR is recognised by 42 UN member states and South Ossetia. 42 other UN member states have recognised the SADR but subsequently retracted or suspended recognition, pending the outcome of a referendum on self-determination. [60] [61] The remaining UN member states, including Morocco, have never recognised the SADR. The SADR is a member of the African Union. United Nations General Assembly Resolution 34/37 recognised the right of the Western Sahara people to self-determination and recognised also the Polisario Front as the representative of the Western Sahara people. [62] Western Sahara is listed on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. No state other than Morocco officially recognises the latter's annexation of Western Sahara, but some states support the Moroccan autonomy plan. The Arab League supports Morocco's claim over the entire territory of Western Sahara. [63] Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco claims Western Sahara (including the area controlled by the SADR) as part of its sovereign territory.Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition; Political status
[64]
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China 1912 [lower-alpha 3] The Republic of China (ROC), constitutionally formed in 1912, and located primarily in Taiwan since 1949 (resulting in 'Taiwan' being frequently used to refer to the state), enjoyed majority recognition as the sole government of China until roughly the late 1950s/1960s, when a majority of UN member states started to gradually switch recognition to the People's Republic of China (PRC). The United Nations itself recognised the ROC as the sole representative of China until 1971, when it decided to give this recognition to the PRC instead (see United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758). [lower-alpha 1] The ROC and PRC do not recognise each other's statehood, and each enforces its own version of the One-China Policy meaning that no state can recognise both of them at the same time. The ROC is currently recognised by 16 UN members and the Holy See. Almost all the remaining UN member states, as well as the Cook Islands and Niue, recognise the PRC instead of the ROC and either accept the PRC's territorial claim over Taiwan, take a non-committal position on Taiwan's status, or sidestep the Taiwan issue entirely. [lower-alpha 1] A significant number of PRC-recognising states nonetheless conduct officially non-diplomatic relations with the ROC. Bhutan is the only UN member state that has never explicitly recognised the ROC or the PRC. Since the early nineties, the ROC has sought separate United Nations membership under a variety of names, including 'Taiwan'. [66] The Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  People's Republic of China considers itself to be the sole legitimate government of China (including Taiwan) and therefore claims exclusive sovereignty over all territory controlled by the ROC. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
Political status
[67]
Flag of South Ossetia.svg  Republic of South Ossetia 1991South Ossetia declared its independence in 1991. It is currently recognised by 5 UN member states (Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Nauru, and Syria), and four UN non-member states (Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Abkhazia, Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh), and Transnistria). [68] [69] One UN member (Tuvalu) recognised South Ossetia but subsequently withdrew its recognition. [70] [71] Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia claims both Abkhazia and South Ossetia as part of its sovereign territory.Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition
[72] [73] [74]
Flag of the Republic of Abkhazia.svg  Republic of Abkhazia 1999Abkhazia declared its independence in 1999. [75] It is currently recognised by 5 UN member states (Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Nauru, and Syria), and three UN non-member states (South Ossetia, Transnistria and Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh). [68] [76] Two other UN member states (Tuvalu and Vanuatu) have recognised Abkhazia [77] [78] [79] [80] [81] but subsequently withdrawn their recognition. [82] [70] [71] Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition
[83] [72] [73] [84] [74]
Flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.svg  Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus 1983Northern Cyprus declared its independence in 1983 with its official name being the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC). It is recognised by one UN member, Turkey. The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Economic Cooperation Organization have granted Northern Cyprus observer status under the name "Turkish Cypriot State". United Nations Security Council Resolution 541 defines the declaration of independence of Northern Cyprus as legally invalid. [85] The International Court of Justice stated in its advisory opinion on Kosovo's declaration of independence in 2010 that "the Security Council in an exceptional character attached illegality to the DOI of TRNC because it was, or would have been connected with the unlawful use of force" and "general international law contains no applicable prohibition of declarations of independence". [86] Flag of Cyprus.svg The Republic of Cyprus claims the area controlled by the TRNC as part of its sovereign territory.Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
Cyprus dispute
[87]
States recognised only by other non-UN member states
NameDeclaredStatusOther claimantsFurther informationReferences
Flag of Artsakh.svg  Republic of Artsakh 1991Artsakh (formerly known as the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic) declared its independence in 1991 (roughly at the same time as Azerbaijan itself when the Soviet Union fell). It is recognised by three UN non-members: Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Transnistria. [69] Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan claims Artsakh as part of its sovereign territory.Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition, Political status
[88] [89]
Flag of Transnistria (state).svg  Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic 1990Transnistria (officially the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic) declared its independence in 1990. It is recognised by three UN non-members: Abkhazia, Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh) and South Ossetia.Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova claims Transnistria as part of its sovereign territory.Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition, Political status
[88] [90]
States not recognised by any other state
NameDeclaredStatusOther claimantsFurther informationReferences
Flag of Somaliland.svg  Republic of Somaliland 1991Somaliland declared its independence in 1991. It claims to be the successor to the State of Somaliland, a short lived sovereign state that existed from 26 June 1960 (when the British Somaliland Protectorate gained full independence from the United Kingdom) to 1 July 1960 (when the State of Somaliland united with Somalia to form the Somali Republic). Somaliland is internationally recognised as an autonomous region of Somalia.[ citation needed ]Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia claims Somaliland as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to) [88] [91]

Excluded entities

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 Both the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China claim sovereignty over the whole of China, stating China is de jure a single sovereign entity encompassing both the area controlled by the PRC and the area controlled by the ROC. The position of individual states on this matter varies. Several states fully accept the PRC's position that there is only one China and that the PRC is the sole legitimate representative of China. Other states merely acknowledge this position, while recognising only the PRC as a state. Some states recognise only the ROC as a state, but have expressed an interest in recognition and relations with both the ROC and the PRC. [65]
  2. 1 2 Israel allows the PNA to execute some functions in the Palestinian territories, depending on special area classification. Israel maintains minimal interference (retaining control of borders: air, [44] sea beyond internal waters, [44] [45] land [46] ) in the Gaza strip (its interior and Egypt portion of the land border are under Hamas control), maximum in "Area C" and varying degrees of interference elsewhere. [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] See also Israeli-occupied territories.
    [37] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51]
  3. Date of constitutional formation.
  4. Micronations are not included even if they are recognised by another micronation
  5. It is far from certain that micronations, which are generally of minuscule size, have sovereign control over their claimed territories, contrasted with the mere disregard and indifference toward micronations’ assertions by the states from which they allege to have seceded. By not deeming such declarations (and other acts of the micronation) important enough to react in any way, these states generally consider micronations to be private property and their claims as unofficial private announcements of individuals, who remain subject to the laws of the states in which their properties are located.

Related Research Articles

State of Palestine De jure state in the Middle East

Palestine, officially the State of Palestine, is a de jure sovereign state in Western Asia claiming the West Bank and Gaza Strip with East Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah. The entirety of territory claimed by the State of Palestine has been occupied by Israel since the Six-Day War in 1967. Palestine has a population of 4,816,503 as of 2016, ranked 123rd in the world.

Foreign relations of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta

The Sovereign Military Order of Malta is a sovereign entity maintaining diplomatic relations with 108 sovereign states, the European Union, the Holy See, and the State of Palestine. Additionally, it has observer status or representation at multiple intergovernmental organisations. The Order exchanges ambassadors with the European Union and the State of Palestine, and has non-diplomatic official relations with five more states: France, Belgium, Switzerland, Luxembourg and Canada.

Abkhazia–Russia relations bilateral relationship between the Republic of Abkhazia and the Russian Federation

Abkhazia–Russia relations is the bilateral relationship between the Republic of Abkhazia and the Russian Federation. Russia recognised Abkhazia on 26 August 2008, following the August 2008 South Ossetia war. Abkhazia and Russia established diplomatic relations on 9 September 2008.

Sovereign state Political organization with a centralized independent government

In international law, a sovereign state, sovereign country, or simply state, is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states. It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to any other power or state.

The United Kingdom maintains a consulate in Jerusalem which "provides public services and promotes British interests in Jerusalem and the Palestinian territories". The Foreign and Commonwealth Office states the "Consular district covers Jerusalem, the West Bank and Gaza. As well as work on the Middle East Peace Process and other political issues, the Consulate also promotes trade between the UK and the Palestinian territories and manages a programme of aid and development work. The latter is undertaken primarily by the DFID office in Jerusalem.".

China–Palestine relations Diplomatic relations between the Peoples Republic of China and Palestine

The bilateral relationship between the People's Republic of China and the State of Palestine has a long history, dating back to the time of Mao. Mao's foreign policy was in support of Third World national liberation movements. In the post-Mao era, China continued to support the Palestinian Liberation Organization in international forums. China recognized the State of Palestine in 1988. Since 1992, China also established formal diplomatic relations with Israel and has since maintained a cordial relationship with both entities. Palestinian leaders Yasser Arafat and Mahmoud Abbas have both visited China in an official capacity. China does not consider Hamas a terrorist organization, and officially supports the creation of a "sovereign and independent Palestinian state" based on the 1967 borders with East Jerusalem as its capital.

Abkhazia–Vanuatu relations Diplomatic relations between Abkhazia and the Republic of Vanuatu

Bilateral relations between Abkhazia and Vanuatu were begun when Vanuatu recognised Abkhazia's independence on 23 May 2011. On that day a joint statement on establishment of diplomatic relations was signed. However, the exact nature of the recognition was a matter of dispute and was not regularized until July 2013.

Palestine–European Union relations

Relations between the European Union and the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO) were established in 1975 as part of the Euro-Arab Dialogue. The EU is a member of the Quartet and is the single largest donor of foreign aid to Palestinians.

Relations between Indonesia and Palestine have been very close and friendly. Indonesia has refused to recognize the State of Israel until a peace agreement is reached between Israel and the Palestinians. Indonesia has strongly stood up for the rights and freedoms of the Palestinians and has supported the struggles of the Palestinians.

Foreign relations of the State of Palestine

The foreign relations of the State of Palestine have been conducted since the establishment of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in 1964. In November 1988, the PLO's Palestinian National Council declared the independence of the State of Palestine and in 1994 the PLO established the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) following the Oslo Accords. The PLO Executive Committee performs the functions of the government of the State of Palestine. Currently, the PLO maintains a network of offices in foreign countries and also represents the PNA abroad.

International recognition of the State of Palestine Wikimedia list article

The international recognition of the State of Palestine has been the objective of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) since the Palestinian Declaration of Independence proclaimed the establishment of the State of Palestine on 15 November 1988 in Algiers, Algeria at an extraordinary session in exile of the Palestinian National Council. The declaration was promptly acknowledged by a range of countries, and by the end of the year, the proclaimed state was recognized by over 80 countries. As of 31 July 2019, 138 of the 193 United Nations (UN) member states and two non-member states have recognized it. Furthermore, Palestine has been a non-member observer state of the UN since November 2012.

Iceland–Israel relations Diplomatic relations between the Republic of Iceland and the State of Israel

Iceland–Israel relations refers to the diplomatic relations between Iceland and Israel. Both nations are members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization.

Political status of the Cook Islands and Niue

The political status of the Cook Islands and Niue is formally defined as being states in free association within the Realm of New Zealand, which is made up of the Cook Islands; Niue; and New Zealand and its territories, Tokelau and the Ross Dependency.

There are a wide variety of views regarding the legal status of the State of Palestine, both among the states of the international community and among legal scholars, but there is a general consensus that the State of Palestine is de jure sovereign. As of 2018, Palestine is recognized by most states but is only an observer of the UN instead of a full member and roughly a third of the world's countries don't recognize it.

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Further reading