Aeolian mode

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The Aeolian mode is a musical mode or, in modern usage, a diatonic scale also called the natural minor scale. On the white piano keys, it is the scale that starts with A. Its ascending interval form consists of a key note, whole step, half step, whole step, whole step, half step, whole step to return.[ clarification needed ]

In the theory of Western music, a mode is a type of musical scale coupled with a set of characteristic melodic behaviors. Musical modes have been a part of western musical thought since the Middle Ages, and were inspired by the theory of ancient Greek music. The name mode derives from the Latin word modus, "measure, standard, manner, way, size, limit of quantity, method".

In western music theory, a diatonic scale is a heptatonic scale that includes five whole steps and two half steps (semitones) in each octave, in which the two half steps are separated from each other by either two or three whole steps, depending on their position in the scale. This pattern ensures that, in a diatonic scale spanning more than one octave, all the half steps are maximally separated from each other.

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Aeolian mode

History

The word Aeolian, like the names for the other ancient Greek tonoi and harmoniai, is an ethnic designation: in this case, for the inhabitants of Aeolis (Αἰολίς)—the Aeolian Islands and adjacent coastal district of Asia Minor. [1] In the music theory of ancient Greece, it was an alternative name (used by some later writers, such as Cleonides) for what Aristoxenus called the Low Lydian tonos (in the sense of a particular overall pitching of the musical system—not a scale), nine semitones higher than the lowest "position of the voice", which was called Hypodorian. [2] In the mid-16th century, this name was given by Heinrich Glarean to his newly defined ninth mode, with the diatonic octave species of the natural notes extending one octave from A to A—corresponding to the modern natural minor scale. [3] Up until this time, chant theory recognized eight musical modes: the relative natural scales in D, E, F and G, each with their authentic and plagal counterparts, and with the option of B instead of B in several modes. [4]

Aeolis

Aeolis, or Aeolia, was an area that comprised the west and northwestern region of Asia Minor, mostly along the coast, and also several offshore islands, where the Aeolian Greek city-states were located. Aeolis incorporated the southern parts of Mysia, and is bounded by it to the north, Ionia to the south, and Lydia to the east.

Aeolian Islands Archipelago

The Aeolian Islands, sometimes referred to as the Lipari Islands or Lipari group after their largest island, are a volcanic archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea north of Sicily, named after the demigod of the winds Aeolus. The islands' inhabitants are known as Aeolians. The islands have a permanent population of 14,224 at the 2011 Census; the latest official estimate in 15,419. The Aeolian Islands are a popular tourist destination in the summer and attract up to 200,000 visitors annually.

Music theory Considers the practices and possibilities of music

Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music. The Oxford Companion to Music describes three interrelated uses of the term "music theory":

The first is what is otherwise called "rudiments", currently taught as the elements of notation, of key signatures, of time signatures, of rhythmic notation, and so on. [...] The second is the study of writings about music from ancient times onwards. [...] The third is an area of current musicological study that seeks to define processes and general principles in music—a sphere of research that can be distinguished from analysis in that it takes as its starting-point not the individual work or performance but the fundamental materials from which it is built.

In 1547, Heinrich Petri published Heinrich Glarean's Dodecachordon in Basel. [5] His premise had as its central idea the existence of twelve diatonic modes rather than eight, including a separate pair of modes each on the finals A and C. [6] Finals on these notes, as well as on B, had been recognized in chant theory at least since Hucbald in the early tenth century, but they were regarded as merely transpositions from the regular finals a fifth lower. In the eleventh century, Guido d'Arezzo, in chapter 8 of his Micrologus, designated these transposed finals A, B, and C as "affinals", and later still the term "confinal" was used in the same way. [7] In 1525, Pietro Aaron was the first theorist to explain polyphonic modal usage in terms of the eightfold system, including these transpositions. [8] As late as 1581, Illuminato Aiguino da Brescia published the most elaborate theory defending the eightfold system for polyphonic music against Glarean's innovations, in which he regarded the traditional plainchant modes 1 and 2 (Dorian and Hypodorian) at the affinal position (that is, with their finals on A instead of D) as a composite of species from two modes, which he described as "mixed modes". [9] Glarean added Aeolian as the name of the new ninth mode: the relative natural mode in A with the perfect fifth as its dominant, reciting tone, reciting note, or tenor. The tenth mode, the plagal version of the Aeolian mode, Glarean called Hypoaeolian ("under Aeolian"), based on the same relative scale, but with the minor third as its tenor, and having a melodic range from a perfect fourth below the tonic to a perfect fifth above it.

Henricus Petrus

Henricus Petrus (1508–1579) and his son Sebastian Henric Petri headed the printer shop of Basel, called Officina Henricpetrina.

Heinrich Glarean was a Swiss music theorist, poet and humanist. He was born in Mollis and died in Freiburg.

Hucbald was a Frankish music theorist, composer, teacher, writer, hagiographer, and Benedictine monk. Deeply influenced by Boethius' De Institutione Musica, he wrote the first systematic work on western music theory, aiming at reconciling through many notated examples ancient Greek music theory and the contemporary practice of the more recent so-called 'Gregorian chant'.

Although scholars for the past three centuries[ weasel words ] have regarded the modes added by Glarean as the basis of the minor/major division of classical European music, as homophonic music replaced Renaissance polyphony, this is an oversimplification. Even the key of A minor is as closely related to the old transposed modes 1 and 2 (Dorian and Hypodorian) with finals on A—as well as to mode 3 (Phrygian)—as it is to Glarean's Aeolian. [10]

In music theory, the term minor scale refers to three scale patterns – the natural minor scale, the harmonic minor scale, and the melodic minor scale – rather than just one as with the major scale.

Major scale describes a type of music of acoustic tones

The major scale is one of the most commonly used musical scales, especially in Western music. It is one of the diatonic scales. Like many musical scales, it is made up of seven notes: the eighth duplicates the first at double its frequency so that it is called a higher octave of the same note.

Polyphony

In music, polyphony is one type of musical texture, where a texture is, generally speaking, the way that melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic aspects of a musical composition are combined to shape the overall sound and quality of the work. In particular, polyphony consists of two or more simultaneous lines of independent melody, as opposed to a musical texture with just one voice, monophony, or a texture with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords, which is called homophony.

In modern usage, the Aeolian mode is the sixth mode of the major scale and has the formula

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

The Aeolian mode is the sixth mode of the major scale, that is, it is formed by starting on the sixth degree (submediant) of the major scale. For example, if the Aeolian mode is used in its all-white-note pitch based on A, this would be an A-minor triad, which would be the submediant in the relative major key of C major.

In music, the submediant is the sixth degree of the diatonic scale, the lower mediant—halfway between the tonic and the subdominant. In the movable do solfège system, the submediant note is sung as la. It is occasionally called superdominant, as the degree above the dominant.

C major tonality

C major is a major scale based on C, with the pitches C, D, E, F, G, A, and B. C major is one of the most common key signatures used in western music. Its key signature has no flats and no sharps. Its relative minor is A minor and its parallel minor is C minor.

Aeolian mode

Aeolian harmony

All harmony Aeolian except for the Picardy third ending this i-v-i-iv-i-v-I progression
play (help*info)
. Picardy third.svg
All harmony Aeolian except for the Picardy third ending this i–v–i–iv–i–v–I progression Loudspeaker.svg play  .

Aeolian harmony [11] is harmony or chord progression created from chords of the Aeolian mode. Commonly known as the "natural minor" scale, it allows for the construction of the following triads (three note chords built from major or minor thirds), in popular music symbols: i, III, iv, v, VI, and VII. The scale also produces iio, which is avoided since it is diminished. The leading-tone and major V which contains it are also not used, as they are not part of the Aeolian mode (natural minor scale). However, Aeolian harmony may be used with mode mixture.

Harmony Harmony

In music, harmony is the process by which the composition of individual sounds, or superpositions of sounds, is analysed by hearing. Usually, this means simultaneously occurring frequencies, pitches, or chords.

In a musical composition, a chord progression or harmonic progression is a succession of chords. Chord progressions are the foundation of harmony in Western musical tradition from the common practice era of Classical music to the 21st century. Chord progressions are the foundation of Western popular music styles and traditional music. In these genres, chord progressions are the defining feature on which melody and rhythm are built.

Chord (music) harmonic set of three or more notes

A chord, in music, is any harmonic set of pitches consisting of multiple notes that are heard as if sounding simultaneously. For many practical and theoretical purposes, arpeggios and broken chords, or sequences of chord tones, may also be considered as chords.

For example, VII is a major chord built on the seventh scale degree, indicated by capital Roman numerals for seven.

There are common subsets including i–VII–VI, i–iv–v and blues minor pentatonic derived chord sequences such as I–III–IV, I–IV, VII (The verse of "I'm Your Man"). [12] All these lack perfect cadences (V–I) and may be thought of as derived from rewrite rules using recursive fourth structures (repeated progression by perfect fourth, see circle progression). [12] Middleton [12] suggests of modal and fourth-oriented structures that, rather than being, "distortions or surface transformations of Schenker's favoured V–I kernel, it is more likely that both are branches of a deeper principle, that of tonic/not-tonic differentiation."

Songs that use Aeolian mode

The Aeolian mode is identical with the natural minor scale. Thus, it is ubiquitous in minor-key music. The following is a list of some examples that are distinguishable from ordinary minor tonality, which also uses the melodic minor scale and the harmonic minor scale as required.

See also

Related Research Articles

Dorian mode or Doric mode can refer to three very different but interrelated subjects: one of the Ancient Greek harmoniai, one of the medieval musical modes, or, most commonly, one of the modern modal diatonic scales, corresponding to the white notes from D to D, or any transposition of this.

Mixolydian mode is a musical mode. In the modern sense, it is the scale on the white piano keys that starts with G. Its ascending sequence consists of a root note, whole step, whole step, half step, whole step, whole step, half step, whole step.

The Phrygian mode can refer to three different musical modes: the ancient Greek tonos or harmonia sometimes called Phrygian, formed on a particular set of octave species or scales; the Medieval Phrygian mode, and the modern conception of the Phrygian mode as a diatonic scale, based on the latter.

Ars antiqua, also called ars veterum or ars vetus, is a term used by modern scholars to refer to the Medieval music of Europe during the High Middle Ages, between approximately 1170 and 1310. This covers the period of the Notre Dame school of polyphony, and the subsequent years which saw the early development of the motet, a highly varied choral musical composition. Usually the term "ars antiqua" is restricted to sacred (church) or polyphonic music, excluding the secular (non-religious) monophonic songs of the troubadours, and trouvères. However, sometimes the term "ars antiqua" is used more loosely to mean all European music of the thirteenth century, and from slightly before. The term ars antiqua is used in opposition to ars nova, which refers to the period of musical activity between approximately 1310 and 1375.

The Locrian mode is either a musical mode or simply a diatonic scale. On the white piano keys, it is the scale that starts with B. Its ascending form consists of the key note, a half step, two whole steps, a further half step, and three more whole steps.

Rhythmic mode

In medieval music, the rhythmic modes were set patterns of long and short durations. The value of each note is not determined by the form of the written note, but rather by its position within a group of notes written as a single figure called a "ligature", and by the position of the ligature relative to other ligatures. Modal notation was developed by the composers of the Notre Dame school from 1170 to 1250, replacing the even and unmeasured rhythm of early polyphony and plainchant with patterns based on the metric feet of classical poetry, and was the first step towards the development of modern mensural notation. The rhythmic modes of Notre Dame Polyphony were the first coherent system of rhythmic notation developed in Western music since antiquity.

The Hypolydian mode, literally meaning "below Lydian", is the common name for the sixth of the eight church modes of medieval music theory. The name is taken from Ptolemy of Alexandria's term for one of his seven tonoi, or transposition keys. This mode is the plagal counterpart of the authentic fifth mode.

The Hypophrygian mode, literally meaning "below Phrygian ", is a musical mode or diatonic scale in medieval chant theory, the fourth mode of church music. This mode is the plagal counterpart of the authentic third mode, which was called Phrygian. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance this mode was described in two ways: the diatonic scale from B to B an octave above, divided at the mode final E ; and as a mode with final E and ambitus from the A below to the C above. The note A above the final had an important melodic function. The melodic range of the ecclesiastical Hypophrygian mode therefore goes from the perfect fourth or fifth below the tonic to the perfect fifth or minor sixth above.

Hypodorian mode plagal Gregorian mode

The Hypodorian mode, a musical term literally meaning 'below Dorian', derives its name from a tonos or octave species of ancient Greece which, in its diatonic genus, is built from a tetrachord consisting of a semitone followed by two whole tones. The rising scale for the octave is a single tone followed by two conjoint tetrachords of this type. This is roughly the same as playing all the white notes of a piano from A to A: A | B C D E | (E) F G A. Although this scale in medieval theory was employed in Dorian and Hypodorian, from the mid-sixteenth century and in modern music theory they came to be known as the Aeolian and Hypoaeolian modes.

Discant or descant originated as a style of liturgical setting in the Middle Ages, associated with the development of the Notre Dame school of polyphony.

In music centonization is a theory about the composition of a melody, melodies, or piece based on pre-existing melodic figures and formulas. A piece created using centonization is known as a "centonate".

Pentachord

A pentachord in music theory may be either of two things. In pitch-class set theory, a pentachord is defined as any five pitch classes, regarded as an unordered collection. In other contexts, a pentachord may be any consecutive five-note section of a diatonic scale. A pentad is a five-note chord.

Ionian mode is a musical mode or, in modern usage, a diatonic scale also called the major scale.

A Gregorian mode is one of the eight systems of pitch organization used in Gregorian chant.

Francis Thorne was an American composer of contemporary classical music and grandson of the writer Gustav Kobbé.

The Hypoionian mode, literally meaning "below Ionian", is the name assigned by Henricus Glareanus in his Dodecachordon (1547) to the plagal mode on C, which uses the diatonic octave species from G to the G an octave higher, divided at its final, C. This is roughly the same as playing all the white notes of a piano from G to G: G A B C | (C) D E F G.

The Hypoaeolian mode, literally meaning "below Aeolian", is the name assigned by Henricus Glareanus in his Dodecachordon (1547) to the musical plagal mode on A, which uses the diatonic octave species from E to the E an octave above, divided by the final into a second-species fourth (semitone–tone–tone) plus a first-species fifth (tone–semitone–tone–tone): E F G A + A B C D E. The tenor or reciting tone is C, mediant B, the participants are the low and high Es, the conceded modulations are G and D, and the absolute initials are E, G, A, B, and C.

References

  1. "Aeolian". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  2. Egert Pöhlmann, Olympia Psychopedis-Frangou, and Rudolf Maria Brandl, "Griechenland", Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart: allgemeine Enzyklopädie der Musik, second, newly compiled edition, edited by Ludwig Finscher, part 1 (Sachteil), vol. 3 (Eng–Hamb) (Kassel & New York: Bärenreiter; Stuttgart: Metzler, 1995), 1652, ISBN   978-3-7618-1101-6 (Bärenreiter); ISBN   3-7618-1101-2 (Bärenreiter); ISBN   978-3-476-41000-9 (Metzler); ISBN   3-476-41000-5 (Metzler); Thomas J. Mathiesen, "Greece, §I: Ancient", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan; New York: Grove's Dictionaries, 2001), 10:339. ISBN   0-333-60800-3; ISBN   1-56159-239-0; ISBN   978-0-333-60800-5; ISBN   978-1-56159-239-5; ISBN   0-19-517067-9 (set); ISBN   978-0-19-517067-2 (set).
  3. Harold S. Powers, "Aeolian (i)", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell, 29 volumes (London: Macmillan; New York: Grove's Dictionaries, 2001), 1:[ page needed ]. ISBN   0-333-60800-3; ISBN   1-56159-239-0; ISBN   978-0-333-60800-5; ISBN   978-1-56159-239-5; ISBN   0-19-517067-9 (set); ISBN   978-0-19-517067-2 (set).
  4. Harold S. Powers, "Mode, §II. Medieval Modal Theory, 3: 11th-Century Syntheses, (i) Italian Theory of Modal Functions, (b) Ambitus." The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan; New York: Grove's Dictionaries, 2001)[ page needed ] (Example 5). ISBN   0-333-60800-3; ISBN   1-56159-239-0; ISBN   978-0-333-60800-5; ISBN   978-1-56159-239-5; ISBN   0-19-517067-9 (set); ISBN   978-0-19-517067-2 (set).
  5. Clement A. Miller, "Glarean, Heinrich [Glareanus, Henricus; Loriti]", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan Publishers, 2001).
  6. Clement A. Miller, "Glarean, Heinrich [Glareanus, Henricus; Loriti]", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan Publishers, 2001); Harold S. Powers, "Mode, §III. Modal Theories and Polyphonic Music, 4: Systems of 12 Modes, (ii): Glarean's 12 Modes." The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan; New York: Grove's Dictionaries, 2001).
  7. Harold S. Powers, "Mode, §II. Medieval Modal Theory, 2. Carolingian Synthesis, 9th–10th Centuries, (i) The Boethian Double Octave and the Modes, (b) Tetrachordal Degrees and Modal Quality." The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan; New York: Grove's Dictionaries, 2001). ISBN   0-333-60800-3; ISBN   1-56159-239-0; ISBN   978-0-333-60800-5; ISBN   978-1-56159-239-5; ISBN   0-19-517067-9 (set); ISBN   978-0-19-517067-2 (set).
  8. Harold S. Powers, "Is Mode Real? Pietro Aron, the Octenary System, and Polyphony", Basler Jahrbuch für historische Musikpraxis 16 (1992): 9–52.
  9. Harold S. Powers, "Mode, III: Modal Theories and Polyphonic Music, 3: Polyphonic Modal Theory and the Eightfold System, (ii) Composite Modes," The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan; New York: Grove's Dictionaries, 2001)[ page needed ]. ISBN   0-333-60800-3; ISBN   1-56159-239-0; ISBN   978-0-333-60800-5; ISBN   978-1-56159-239-5; ISBN   0-19-517067-9 (set); ISBN   978-0-19-517067-2 (set).
  10. Harold S. Powers, "Aeolian (i)", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan; New York: Grove's Dictionaries, 2001)[ page needed ]. ISBN   0-333-60800-3; ISBN   1-56159-239-0; ISBN   978-0-333-60800-5; ISBN   978-1-56159-239-5; ISBN   0-19-517067-9 (set); ISBN   978-0-19-517067-2 (set).
  11. Alf Björnberg ([ full citation needed ]1985). Cited in Middleton 1990, p. 198.
  12. 1 2 3 Richard Middleton, Studying Popular Music (Milton Keynes and Philadelphia: Open University Press, 1990), p. 198. ISBN   0-335-15275-9.
  13. 1 2 Gary Ewer, "Dorian Mode, Aeolian Mode, Minor Key... What’s the Difference?", The Essential Secrets of Songwriting Blog (accessed 14 December 2014).[ unreliable source? ]