The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians

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The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians
New Grove, shallow.JPG
AuthorMultiple
Original titleA Dictionary of Music and Musicians
CountryUnited Kingdom, United States
LanguageEnglish
Subject Music, musicology, music history, music theory, ethnomusicology
Genre Reference; encyclopedic dictionary
Publisher Oxford University Press
Official website
Publication date
1878–present
Media typehardback, paperback, and online
Text The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians at Wikisource

The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians. Along with the German-language Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart , it is one of the largest reference works on the history and theory of music. Earlier editions were published under the titles A Dictionary of Music and Musicians, and Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians; the work has gone through several editions since the 19th century and is widely used. In recent years it has been made available as an electronic resource called Grove Music Online, which is now an important part of Oxford Music Online.

Contents

A Dictionary of Music and Musicians

A Dictionary of Music and Musicians was first published in London by Macmillan and Co. [1] in four volumes (1879, 1880, 1883, 1889) edited by George Grove with an Appendix edited by J. A. Fuller Maitland in the fourth volume. An Index edited by Mrs. E. Wodehouse was issued as a separate volume in 1890. In 1900, minor corrections were made to the plates and the entire series was reissued in four volumes, with the index added to volume 4. The original edition and the reprint are now freely available online. [note 1] [note 2] Grove limited the chronological span of his work to begin at 1450 while continuing up to his time.

Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians

The second edition (Grove II), in five volumes, was edited by Fuller Maitland and published from 1904 to 1910, this time as Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians. The individual volumes of the second edition were reprinted many times. An American Supplement edited by Waldo Selden Pratt and Charles N. Boyd was published in 1920 in Philadelphia by Theodore Presser. [1] This edition removed the first edition's beginning date of 1450, [2] though important earlier composers and theorists are still missing from this edition. These volumes are also now freely available online. [note 3] [note 4]

The third edition (Grove III), also in five volumes, was an extensive revision of the 2nd edition; it was edited by H. C. Colles and published in 1927. [3] The 3rd edition was reprinted several times. An American Supplement was published in the U.S. in 1927, and also later reprinted separately.

An extra-large Supplementary Volume also edited by Colles was published in 1940 and called the fourth edition (Grove IV). [1] [note 5] A reprint of the 3rd edition with some corrections, was released at the same time. The five-volume 3rd edition, with the Supplementary Volume as volume 6, and the American Supplement of the 3rd edition as volume 7, were reprinted together as a set in 1945. [note 6]

The fifth edition (Grove V), in nine volumes, was edited by Eric Blom and published in 1954. This was the most thoroughgoing revision of the work since its inception, with many articles rewritten in a more modern style and a large number of entirely new articles. Many of the articles were written by Blom personally, or translated by him. An additional Supplementary Volume prepared by Eric Blom and completed by Denis Stevens after Blom's death in 1959, was issued in 1961. The fifth edition was reprinted in 1966, 1968, 1970, 1973, and 1975, [4] each time with numerous corrections, updates, and other small changes. [1]

The New Grove

First edition

The next edition was published in 1980 under the name The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians and was greatly expanded to 20 volumes with 22,500 articles and 16,500 biographies. [5] Its senior editor was Stanley Sadie with Nigel Fortune also serving as one of the main editors for the publication.

It was reprinted with minor corrections each subsequent year until 1995, except 1982 and 1983. In the mid-1990s, the hardback set sold for about $2,300. A paperback edition was reprinted in 1995 which sold for $500.

Spin-offs

Some sections of The New Grove were also issued as small sets and individual books on particular topics. These typically were enhanced with expanded and updated material and included individual and grouped composer biographies, [6] a four-volume dictionary of American music (1984; revised 2013, 8 vols.), [7] a three-volume dictionary of musical instruments (1984), [8] a four-volume dictionary of opera (1992)., [9] and a volume on women composers (1994). [10]

Second edition

The second edition under this title (the seventh overall) was published in 2001, in 29 volumes. It was also made available by subscription on the internet in a service called Grove Music Online. [11] It was again edited by Stanley Sadie, and the executive editor was John Tyrrell. It was originally to be released on CD-ROM as well, but this plan was dropped. As Sadie writes in the preface, "The biggest single expansion in the present edition has been in the coverage of 20th-century composers".

This edition was subjected to negative criticism (e.g. in Private Eye ) owing to the significant number of typographical and factual errors that it contained. [12] Two volumes were re-issued in corrected versions after production errors originally caused the omission of sections of Igor Stravinsky's worklist and Richard Wagner's bibliography.

Publication of the second edition of The New Grove was accompanied by a Web-based version, Grove Music Online. It too, attracted some initial criticism, for example for the way in which images were not incorporated into the text but kept separate.[ citation needed ]

Grove Music Online and Oxford Music Online

The complete text of The New Grove is available to subscribers to the online service Grove Music Online. [13] Grove Music Online includes a large number of revisions and additions of new articles. In addition to the 29 volumes of The New Grove second edition, Grove Music Online incorporates the four-volume New Grove Dictionary of Opera (ed. Stanley Sadie, 1992) and the three-volume New Grove Dictionary of Jazz , second edition (ed. Barry Kernfeld, 2002), The Grove Dictionary of American Music and The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments, [14] comprising a total of more than 50,000 articles. The current editor-in-chief of Grove Music, the name given to the complete slate of print and online resources that encompass the Grove brand, is University of Pittsburgh professor Deane Root. He assumed the editorship in 2009. [15]

The dictionary, originally published by Macmillan, was sold in 2004 to Oxford University Press. Since 2008[ citation needed ]Grove Music Online has served as a cornerstone of Oxford University Press's larger online research tool Oxford Music Online, which remains a subscription-based service. [16] As well as being available to individual and educational subscribers, it is available for use at many public and university libraries worldwide, through institutional subscriptions. [17]

Grove Music Online identifies itself as the eighth edition of the overall work. [1]

Status

The New Grove is often the first source that English-speaking musicologists use when beginning research or seeking information on most musical topics. Its scope and extensive bibliographies make it exceedingly valuable to any scholar with a grasp of the English language. [18] [ improper synthesis? ]

The print edition of The New Grove costs between $1,100 and $1,500, [19] while an annual personal subscription to Grove Music Online as of 2 August 2022 is $195. [20]

The companion four-volume series, New Grove Dictionary of Opera , is the main reference work in English on the subject of opera.

Its principal competitor is the Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart ("MGG"), currently[ when? ] ten volumes on musical subjects and seventeen on biographies of musicians, written in German.

Contents

The 2001 edition contains:

Hoaxes and parodies

Two non-existent composers have appeared in the work:

Dag Henrik Esrum-Hellerup was the subject of a hoax entry in the 1980 New Grove. Esrum-Hellerup's surname derives from a Danish village and a suburb of Copenhagen. [21] The writer of the entry was Robert Layton. Though successfully introduced into the encyclopaedia, Esrum-Hellerup appeared in the first printing only: soon exposed as a hoax, the entry was removed and the space filled with an illustration. [6] [22] In 1983, the Danish organist Henry Palsmar founded an amateur choir, the Esrum-Hellerup Choir, along with several former pupils of the Song School, St. Annae Gymnasium in Copenhagen. [23]

Guglielmo Baldini was the name of a non-existent composer who was the subject of a hoax entry in the 1980 edition. Unlike Esrum-Hellerup, Baldini was not a modern creation: his name and biography were in fact created almost a century earlier by the renowned German musicologist Hugo Riemann. The New Grove entry on Baldini was supported by a fictional reference in the form of an article supposedly in the Archiv für Freiburger Diözesan Geschichte. Though successfully introduced into the encyclopaedia, Baldini appeared in the first printing only: soon exposed as a hoax, the entry was removed. [6]

Seven parody entries, written by contributors to the 1980 edition, and full of musical puns and dictionary in-jokes, were published in the February 1981 issue of The Musical Times (which was also edited by Stanley Sadie at the time). [24] These entries never appeared in the dictionary itself and are:

Notes

  1. The volumes of the first edition were published as follows:
    Vol. 1 (1879) A - Impromptu
    Vol. 2 (1880) Improperia – Plain Song
    Vol. 3 (1883) Planché – Sumer is icumen in
    Vol. 4 (1889) Sumer is icumen in – Z, Appendix, Supplement
    Index (1890)
    • Text-searchable copies are available at
    Google Books: vols. 1, 2, 3, 4, Index.
    • Additional copies (non-searchable PDF image files) are also available for download at IMSLP.
  2. The 1900 reprint is available in text-searchable format at the Internet Archive: vols.1, 2, 3, 4. (Vol. 4 includes the Appendix, Index, and a catalogue of articles listed by author.)
  3. The volumes of the second edition were published as follows:
    Vol. 1 (1904) A–E ( OCLC   250954613)
    Vol. 2 (1906) F–L ( OCLC   250954626)
    Vol. 3 (1907) M–P ( OCLC   250953930)
    Vol. 4 (1908) Q–S ( OCLC   252807560)
    Vol. 5 (1910) T–Z, Appendix ( OCLC   252807569)
    • Text-searchable copies are available at:
        Internet Archive: vols. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
        Google Books: vols. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
    • Copies (non-searchable PDF image files) are also available for download at IMSLP.
  4. For the American Supplement published in 1920, see OCLC   1077116, searchable copy at Google Books, and IMSLP file #93522.
  5. For the 4th edition Supplementary Volume published in New York, see OCLC   248932279. For the 4th edition Supplementary Volume published in London, see OCLC   493270221.
  6. For the reprinted American Supplement published in New York, see OCLC   74811413.

Related Research Articles

Overture in music was originally the instrumental introduction to a ballet, opera, or oratorio in the 17th century. During the early Romantic era, composers such as Beethoven and Mendelssohn composed overtures which were independent, self-existing instrumental, programmatic works that foreshadowed genres such as the symphonic poem. These were "at first undoubtedly intended to be played at the head of a programme".

Lutheran chorale

A Lutheran chorale is a musical setting of a Lutheran hymn, intended to be sung by a congregation in a German Protestant Church service. The typical four-part setting of a chorale, in which the sopranos sing the melody along with three lower voices, is known as a chorale harmonization.

20th-century classical music describes art music that was written nominally from 1901 to 2000, inclusive. Musical style diverged during the 20th century as it never had previously. So this century was without a dominant style. Modernism, impressionism, and post-romanticism can all be traced to the decades before the turn of the 20th century, but can be included because they evolved beyond the musical boundaries of the 19th-century styles that were part of the earlier common practice period. Neoclassicism and expressionism came mostly after 1900. Minimalism started much later in the century and can be seen as a change from the modern to post-modern era, although some date post-modernism from as early as about 1930. Aleatory, atonality, serialism, musique concrète, electronic music, and concept music were all developed during the century. Jazz and ethnic folk music became important influences on many composers during this century.

Eduardo Mata Mexican conductor and composer

Eduardo Mata was a Mexican conductor and composer.

The Aeolian mode is a musical mode or, in modern usage, a diatonic scale also called the natural minor scale. On the white piano keys, it is the scale that starts with A. Its ascending interval form consists of a key note, whole step, half step, whole step, whole step, half step, whole step, whole step. That means that, in A aeolian, you would play A, move up a whole step to B, move up a half step to C, then up a whole step to D, a whole step to E, a half step to F, a whole step to G, and a final whole step to a high A.

Samuel Scheidt German composer and organist (1587–1654)

Samuel Scheidt was a German composer, organist and teacher of the early Baroque era.

Stanley John Sadie was an influential and prolific British musicologist, music critic, and editor. He was editor of the sixth edition of the Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (1980), which was published as the first edition of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians.

The New Grove Dictionary of Opera is an encyclopedia of opera, considered to be one of the best general reference sources on the subject. It is the largest work on opera in English, and in its printed form, amounts to 5,448 pages in four volumes.

<i>The Oxford Companion to Music</i>

The Oxford Companion to Music is a music reference book in the series of Oxford Companions produced by the Oxford University Press. It was originally conceived and written by Percy Scholes and published in 1938. Since then, it has undergone two distinct rewritings: one by Denis Arnold, in 1983, and the latest edition by Alison Latham in 2002. It is "arguably the most successful book on music ever produced".

Opéra-ballet is a genre of French Baroque lyric theatre that was most popular during the 18th century, combining elements of opera and ballet, "that grew out of the ballets à entrées of the early seventeenth century". It differed from the more elevated tragédie en musique as practised by Jean-Baptiste Lully in several ways. It contained more dance music than the tragédie, and the plots were not necessarily derived from classical mythology and allowed for the comic elements, which Lully had excluded from the tragédie en musique after Thésée (1675). The opéra-ballet consisted of a prologue followed by a number of self-contained acts, often loosely grouped around a single theme. The individual acts could also be performed independently, in which case they were known as actes de ballet.

Rosa Newmarch English poet and writer on music

Rosa Harriet Newmarch was an English poet and writer on music.

Historical editions form part of a category of printed music, which generally consists of classical music and opera from a past repertory, where the term can apply to several different types of published music. However, it is principally applied to one of three types of music of this sort:

Händel-Gesellschaft

Between 1858 and 1902, the Händel-Gesellschaft produced a collected 105-volume edition of the works of George Frideric Handel. Even though the collection was initiated by the society, many of the volumes were published by Friedrich Chrysander working alone. The wording on the title page of the volumes is "Georg Friedrich Händel's Werke. Ausgabe der Deutschen Händelgesellschaft" which translates as "Georg Friedrich Handel's works. Edition of the German Handel Society". Chrysander's work has been criticised, however the scale of his achievement is also praised. The collection's abbreviation of "HG" can be used to identify individual works by Handel; for example Handel's Messiah can be referred to as "HG xlv". For practical use, the HG system has been superseded by the HWV numbering system. The 105 volumes do not contain the complete works of Handel—with at least 250 of his works unpublished in the collection.

The first decade of the 16th century marked the creation of some significant compositions. These were to become some of the most famous compositions of the century.

Barry Shelley Brook was an American musicologist.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mosco Carner</span>

Mosco Carner was an Austrian-born British musicologist, conductor and critic. He wrote on a wide range of music subjects, but was particularly known for his studies on the life and works of the composers Giacomo Puccini and Alban Berg.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Eric Blom</span>

Eric Walter Blom was a Swiss-born British-naturalised music lexicographer, music critic and writer. He is best known as the editor of the 5th edition of Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians (1954).

Gustave Chouquet

Gustave Chouquet was a French music historian, music critic, and teacher of French.

Théodore Lajarte

Théodore Lajarte was a French musicologist, librarian, and composer.

Robert Edward Layton was an English musicologist and music critic.

References

Citations

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Deane L. Root, 1 July 2012, History of Grove Music — at oxfordmusiconline.com
  2. Grove II, vol. 1, p. vii.
  3. Blom 1954 (1970 reprint), p. iv.
  4. Blom 1954.
  5. Scott Kennedy, Reference Sources for Small and Medium-sized Libraries (1999) p. 216.
  6. 1 2 3 Oestreich, James R. (21 January 2001). "Words on Music, 25 Million of Them". The New York Times . Retrieved 23 October 2009.
  7. The New Grove Dictionary of American Music, 4 volumes, 1984. ISBN   978-0-333-37879-3; 2013 (8 volumes): ISBN   9780195314281 .
  8. The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments, 1984. ISBN   978-0-333-37878-6.
  9. The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, 1992. ISBN   978-0-333-48552-1
  10. The New Grove Dictionary of Women Composers, 1994. ISBN   0-333-51598-6
  11. Grove Music Online – online version of the 2001 edition
  12. Michael Lorenz, "'Franz Schubert' in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (2001)" (Vienna, 2013).
  13. "About Grove Music Online".
  14. Oxford Music Online, retrieved 8 May 2015 (subscription required)
  15. "Deane Root to be Editor in Chief of Grove Music Program at OUP" (press release), Oxford University Press.
  16. "About Oxford Music Online".
  17. Oxford Music Online: listing at WorldCat.
  18. Article by Kathleen McMorrow, University of Toronto, in CAML Review, 7 February 2010, accessed 30 January 2011 Archived 7 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  19. Amazon.com Product page ISBN   978-0-19-517067-2. Retrieved 8 March 2010.
  20. "Grove Music Online Subscription Order Form" . Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  21. Foreign-language webpage showing the original dictionary entry [ unreliable source? ] Archived 19 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  22. Levison, Brian; Farrer, Frances (2007). "How the Danes Discovered a New Composer". Classical Music's Strangest Concerts: Extraordinary But True Stories From Over Five Centuries of Harmony and Discord. London: Robson Books. pp. 40–43. ISBN   978-1-86105-938-3.
  23. Foreign-language webpage for the Choir Archived 25 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  24. [Stanley Sadie and others] "The New Grove", in The Musical Times, Vol. 122, no. 1656 (February 1981), pp. 89–91.

Sources

Second edition:
Vol. 1 (1904) A–E, Vol. 2 (1906) F–L, Vol. 3 (1907) M–P, Vol. 4 (1908) Q–S, Vol. 5 (1910) T–Z, Appendix