Music genre

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A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. [1] It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. [2] [ failed verification ]

Contents

Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways. The artistic nature of music means that these classifications are often subjective and controversial, and some genres may overlap. Academic definitions of the term genre itself vary. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between genre and form. He lists madrigal, motet, canzona, ricercar, and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre—both are violin concertos—but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, and the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317, are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form." [3] Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." [4] Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, and that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can also differentiate between genres. [5] A music genre or subgenre may also be defined by the musical techniques, the cultural context, and the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will often include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that, since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an almost ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". [6]

Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomous distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of 'folk', 'art' and 'popular' musics". [7] He explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. [7]

Alternatively, music can be assessed on the three dimensions of "arousal", "valence", and "depth". [8] Arousal reflects physiological processes such as stimulation and relaxation (intense, forceful, abrasive, thrilling vs. gentle, calming, mellow), valence reflects emotion and mood processes (fun, happy, lively, enthusiastic, joyful vs. depressing, sad), and depth reflects cognitive processes (intelligent, sophisticated, inspiring, complex, poetic, deep, emotional, thoughtful vs. party music, danceable). [8] These help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. [8]

Art music

Art music primarily includes classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world. It emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction [9] and criticism, and demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered primarily a written musical tradition, [10] preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music usually are. [10] [11] Historically, most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period. The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is usually defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance and is primarily associated with the composer rather than the performer (though composers may leave performers with some opportunity for interpretation or improvisation). This is so particularly in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is primarily a form of popular music. The 1960s saw a wave of avant-garde experimentation in free jazz, represented by artists such as Ornette Coleman, Sun Ra, Albert Ayler, Archie Shepp and Don Cherry. [12] And avant-garde rock artists such as Frank Zappa, Captain Beefheart, and The Residents released art music albums.

Jennifer Lopez performing at a pop music festival Jennifer Lopez - Pop Music Festival (35).jpg
Jennifer Lopez performing at a pop music festival

Popular music is any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects:

Popular music, unlike art music, is (1) conceived for mass distribution to large and often socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners, (2) stored and distributed in non-written form, (3) only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and (4) in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of 'free' enterprise ... it should ideally sell as much as possible. [7]

Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, and movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do.

The distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas [13] such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies often draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which likewise draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction that is not always precise.

Rock music

Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States.

Electronic music

Electronic music saw further rise in 21st-century pop culture due to DJs like Avicii, Calvin Harris, Daft Punk, David Guetta, Deadmau5, Marshmello, Martin Garrix, Skrillex and more.[ citation needed ]

Soul music/R&B

Soul music became a musical genre that came to include a wide variety of R&B-based music styles from the pop R&B acts at Motown Records in Detroit, such as The Temptations, Marvin Gaye and Four Tops, to "deep soul" singers such as Percy Sledge and James Carr. [14]

Funk

In 1964 James Brown created original funk music.[ citation needed ]

Country music

Country music, also known as country and western (or simply country) and hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s.[ citation needed ]

Latin Music

Reggae

Hip hop music

Two DJs practicing turntablism DJ Hypnotize and Baby Cee.jpg
Two DJs practicing turntablism

Hip Hop music, also referred to as hip hop or rap music, is a genre of music that was started in the United States, specifically the South Bronx in the New York City by African-American youth from the inner cities during the 1970s. It can be broadly defined as a stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rapping, [15] a rhythmic and rhyming speech that is chanted. [16] Hip hop music derives from the hip hop culture itself, including four key elements: emceeing (MCing)/rapping, Disc jockeying (DJing) with turntablism, breakdancing and graffiti art.

Polka

The polka is originally a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas.[ citation needed ]

Religious music

Religious music (also sacred music) is music performed or composed for religious use or through religious influence. Gospel, spiritual, and Christian music are religious music.

Traditional and folk music

Button accordion: German instrument used in several different cultures Sonolite.jpg
Button accordion: German instrument used in several different cultures

Traditional and folk music are very similar categories. Although the traditional music is a very broad category and can include several different genres, it is widely accepted that traditional music encompasses folk music. [17] According to the ICTM (International Council for Traditional Music), traditional music are songs and tunes that have been performed over a long period of time (usually several generations). [18]

The folk music genre is classified as the music that is orally passed from one generation to another. Usually the artist is unknown, and there are several different versions of the same song. [19] The genre is transmitted by singing, listening and dancing to popular songs. This type of communication allows culture to transmit the styles (pitches and cadences) as well as the context it was developed. [20]

Culturally transmitting folk songs maintain rich evidence about the period of history when they were created and the social class in which they developed. [21] Some examples of the Folk Genre can be seen in the folk music of England and Turkish folk music. English folk music has developed since the medieval period and has been transmitted from that time until today. Similarly, Turkish folk music relates to all the civilizations that once passed thorough Turkey, thereby being a world reference since the East-West tensions during the Early Modern Period.

Traditional folk music usually refers to songs composed in the twentieth century, which tend to be written as universal truths and big issues of the time they were composed. [22] Artists including Bob Dylan; Peter, Paul and Mary; James Taylor; and Leonard Cohen transformed folk music to what it is known today. [23] Newer composers such as Ed Sheeran (pop folk) and The Lumineers (American folk) are examples of contemporary folk music, which has been recorded and adapted to the new way of listening to music (online)—unlike the traditional way of orally transmitting music. [24]

Each country in the world, in some cases each region, district and community, has its own folk music style. The different sub-divisions of folk genre are developed by each place, cultural identity and history. [25] Because the music is developed in different places, a lot of the instruments are characteristic to location and population—but some are used everywhere: button or piano accordion, different types of flutes or trumpets, banjo, and ukulele. Both French and Scottish folk music use related instruments such as the fiddle, the harp and variations of bagpipes. [26] [27]

Automatic categorization

Automatic methods of musical similarity detection, based on data mining and co-occurrence analysis, have been developed to classify music titles for electronic music distribution. [28]

Emergence of new genres and sub-genres

New genres can arise through the development of new forms and styles of music and also simply by creating a new categorization. Although it is conceivable to create a musical style with no relation to existing genres, new styles usually appear under the influence of pre-existing genres. The genealogy of musical genres expresses, often in the form of a written chart, how new genres have developed under the influence of older ones. If two or more existing genres influence the emergence of a new one, a fusion between them can be said to have taken place. The proliferation of popular music in the 20th century has led to over 1,200 definable sub-genres of music. [29]

Commercial sales

According to the top 100 biggest selling singles of the year worldwide, the percentage of sales in eleven broad commercial genres is broken down as follows.

Genre% [30] % [31]
Classical crossover10
Country10
Dance185
Folk50
Hip hop659
House130
Pop2626
R&B56
Rock184
Samba20
Soul50

Psychology of music preference

Metallica performing at the O2 Arena, March 28th, 2009 Metallica at the O2 Arena, March 28th 2009.jpg
Metallica performing at the O2 Arena, March 28th, 2009
John Scofield at the stage of Energimolla. The concert was part of Kongsberg Jazzfestival and took place on 06 July 2017 John Scofield Kongsberg Jazzfestival 2017 (191409).jpg
John Scofield at the stage of Energimølla. The concert was part of Kongsberg Jazzfestival and took place on 06 July 2017

Social influences on music selection

Since music has become more easily accessible (Spotify, iTunes, YouTube, etc.), more people have begun listening to a broader and wider range of music styles. [32] In addition, social identity also plays a large role in music preference. Personality is a key contributor for music selection. Someone who considers themselves to be a "rebel" will tend to choose heavier music styles like Heavy Metal or Hard Rock, while someone who considers themselves to be more "relaxed" or "laid back" will tend to choose lighter music styles like Jazz or Classical music. [32] There are five main factors that exist that underlie music preferences that are genre-free,[ contradictory ] and reflect emotional/affective responses. [33] These five factors are:

  1. A Mellow factor consisting of smooth and relaxing styles (Jazz, Classical, etc.).
  2. An Urban factor defined largely by rhythmic and percussive music (Rap, Hip-Hop, Funk, etc.).
  3. A Sophisticated factor (Operatic, World, etc.)
  4. An Intensity factor that is defined by forceful, loud, and energetic music (Rock, Metal, etc.).
  5. A campestral factor, which refers to singer-songwriter genres and country. [33]

Individual and situational influences

Gender

Studies have shown that while women prefer more treble oriented music, men prefer to listen to bass heavy music. This is sometimes paired with borderline and antisocial personalities. [34]

Age

Age is another strong factor that contributes to musical preference. Evidence is available that shows that music preference can change as one gets older. [35] A Canadian study showed that adolescents show greater interest in pop music artists while adults and the elderly population prefer classic genres such as Rock, Opera, and Jazz. [36]

See also

Related Research Articles

Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern forms in the US and the UK during the mid-1950s. The terms "popular music" and "pop music" are often used interchangeably, although both describe all music that is popular and that include many diverse styles. "Pop" and "rock" were roughly synonymous terms until the late 1960s, when they became quite separated from each other.

The music of the United States reflects the country's pluri-ethnic population through a diverse array of styles. It is a mixture of music influenced by West African, Irish, Scottish and mainland European cultures among others. The country's most internationally renowned genres are jazz, blues, country, bluegrass, americana (music), rock, rhythm and blues, soul, ragtime, funk, hip hop, doo wop, pop, techno, house, folk music, disco, boogaloo, reggaeton, and salsa. American music is heard around the world. Since the beginning of the 20th century, some forms of American popular music have gained a near-global audience.

Romani music Music of the Romani people

Romani music is the music of the Romani people, who have their origins in northern India, but today live mostly in Europe.

no composers, singers, producers and performers of the world. Germany is the largest music market in Europe, and third largest in the world.

Art music Serious music, as opposed to popular or folk music

Art music is music that implies advanced structural and theoretical considerations or a written musical tradition. The terms "serious" or "cultivated" are frequently used in relation to music in order to present a contrast with ordinary, everyday music. At the beginning of the 20th century art music was divided into "serious music" and "light music".

Music of Kazakhstan refers to a wide range of musical styles and genres deriving from Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan is home to the Kazakh State Kurmangazy Orchestra of Folk Instruments, the Kazakh State Philharmonic Orchestra, the Kazakh National Opera and the Kazakh State Chamber Orchestra. The folk instrument orchestra was named after Kurmangazy Sagyrbayuly, a well-known composer and dombra player from the 19th century.

Music of Azerbaijan overview of music traditions in Azerbaijan

Azerbaijani music is the musical tradition of the Azerbaijani people from Azerbaijan Republic. It builds on folk traditions that reach back nearly 1,000 years. For centuries, Azerbaijani music has evolved under the badge of monody, producing rhythmically diverse melodies. Music from Azerbaijan has a branch mode system, where chromatisation of major and minor scales is of great importance.

Music of South Korea

The Music of South Korea has evolved over the course of the decades since the end of the Korean War, and has its roots in the music of the Korean people, who have inhabited the Korean peninsula for over a millennium. Contemporary South Korean music can be divided into three different main categories: Traditional Korean folk music, popular music, or K-pop, and Western-influenced non-popular music.

African-American music Musical traditions of African American people

African-American music is an umbrella term covering a diverse range of music and musical genres largely developed by African Americans. Their origins are in musical forms that arose out of the historical condition of slavery that characterized the lives of African Americans prior to the American Civil War.

Music of Botswana

Botswana is an African country made up of different ethnic groups, although the Batswana are the majority of the population. Music is a large part of Botswana culture, and includes popular and folk forms. Botswana church choirs are common nationwide. Music education is an essential component of the Botswana educational system, and children of all ages are taught traditional songs and dances.

Celtic fusion is any modern music which incorporates influences considered "Celtic", or Celtic music which incorporates modern music. It is a syncretic musical tradition which borrows freely from the perceived "Celtic" musical traditions of all the Celtic nations, as well as from all styles of popular music, it is thus sometimes associated with the Pan-Celtic movement. Celtic fusion may or may not include authentic traditional music from any one tradition under the Celtic umbrella, but its common characteristic is the inspiration by Celtic identity.

Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and styles can be enjoyed and performed by people with little or no musical training. It stands in contrast to both art music and traditional or "folk" music. Art music was historically disseminated through the performances of written music, although since the beginning of the recording industry, it is also disseminated through recordings. Traditional music forms such as early blues songs or hymns were passed along orally, or to smaller, local audiences.

Music and Black liberation refers to music associated with Black political movements for emancipation, civil rights, or self-determination. The connection between music and politics, has been used in many cultures and was utilized by blacks in their struggle for freedom and civil rights. Music has been used by African Americans over the course of United States history to express feelings of struggle and hope, as well as to garner feelings of solidarity for their freedom struggle. African Americans have used music as a way to express their struggle for freedom and equality which has spanned the history the United States and resulted in the creation and popularization of many music genres including, jazz, funk, disco, rap, and hip hop. Many of these songs and artists played pivotal roles in generating support for the civil rights movement.

References

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Further reading