This is an alphabetical index of articles related to music.
7-limit tuning - 15 equal temperament - 17 equal temperament - 19 equal temperament - 22 equal temperament - 23 equal temperament - 31 equal temperament - 34 equal temperament - 41 equal temperament - 53 equal temperament - 58 equal temperament - 72 equal temperament - 96 equal temperament - 20th-century classical music - 20th-century music - 21st-century classical music - 833 cents scale
7-limit or septimal tunings and intervals are musical instrument tunings that have a limit of seven: the largest prime factor contained in the interval ratios between pitches is seven. Thus, for example, 50:49 is a 7-limit interval, but 14:11 is not.
In music, 15 equal temperament, called 15-TET, 15-EDO, or 15-ET, is a tempered scale derived by dividing the octave into 15 equal steps. Each step represents a frequency ratio of 15√2, or 80 cents. Because 15 factors into 3 times 5, it can be seen as being made up of three scales of 5 equal divisions of the octave, each of which resembles the Slendro scale in Indonesian gamelan. 15 equal temperament is not a meantone system.
In music, 17 tone equal temperament is the tempered scale derived by dividing the octave into 17 equal steps. Each step represents a frequency ratio of 17√2, or 70.6 cents.
A - A♭ - A♯ - A major - A minor - A-flat major - A-flat minor - A-sharp minor - A cappella - A capriccio - A due - A12 scale - Abbreviation - Abendmusik - Absolute music - Absolute pitch - Accent (music) - Accentus - Accidental - Accompaniment - Acoustic enhancement - Acoustic scale - Ad libitum - Adagio - Added tone chord - Additive rhythm - Adonai malakh mode - Aeolian dominant scale - Aeolian mode - Aesthetics of music - Air - Air à boire - Air de cour - Ajam (maqam) - Akebono scale - Albanian opera - Alberti bass - Album - Aleatoric music - Algerian scale - Algorithmic composition - All-interval tetrachord - All-interval twelve-tone row - Alla breve - Allegro - Allemande - Alpha scale - Altered chord - Altered scale - Alternate bass - Altissimo - Alto - Ambassel scale - Ambrosian chant - Ambitus (music) - American Music Awards - Amusia - Anacrusis - Ancient Celtic music - Ancient music - Andalusian cadence - Andalusian classical music - Andamento - Andean music - Anhemitonic scale - Answer song - Anthem - Antiphon - Arab tone system - Arabic maqam - Arabic music - Arch form - Aria - Aria di sorbetto - Arioso - Arpeggio - Arrangement - Ars antiqua - Ars nova - Ars subtilior - Arsis and thesis - Art music - Art song - Articulation - Artificial harmonic - Atonality - Attacco - Audio mixing - Auditory illusion - Augmentation - Augmented fifth - Augmented octave - Augmented second - Augmented seventh - Augmented sixth - Augmented third - Augmented triad - Augmented tuning - Augmented unison - Authentic performance - Avant-garde music - Avaz (music) - Azione teatrale
La or A is the sixth note of the fixed-do solfège. Its enharmonic equivalents are B
A♭ is the ninth semitone of the solfège.
A♯(A-sharp), or la dièse, is the eleventh semitone of the solfege. In some countries it is informally called B.
B - B♭ - B♯ - B major - B minor - B-flat major - B-flat minor - BACH motif - Back beat - Background music - Bagatelle (music) - Bagpipes - Ballad opera - Ballata - Ballet (music) - Band (music) - Bar (music) - Bar form - Barcarolle - Bariolage - Baritenor - Baritone - Baritone violin - Baroque music - Baroque music of the British Isles - Baroque orchestra - Baroque violin - Basque music - Bass (sound) - Bass (voice type) - Bass arpeggiation - Bass note - Bass run - Bass saxophone - Bass song - Bass-baritone - Bassist - Bassline - Basso continuo - Basso profondo - Bassoon - Baton (conducting) - Bayati (maqam) - Bayaty-Shiraz (mode) - Bayreuth Festival - Beam - Beat (music) - Beatmatching - Bebung - Beethoven and C minor - Beethoven's compositional method - Beethoven's musical style - Bel canto - Bell pattern - Bell tone - Berber music - Berceuse - Bergamask - Beste (Turkish music) - Beta scale - Bicinium - Bimodality - Binary form - Beneventan chant - Biomusic - Biomusicology - Birds in music - Bisector (music) - Blind octave - Block chord - Blue note - Blues - Blues ballad - Bohlen–Pierce scale - Bologna School of music - Boogie woogie - Border ballad - Borrowed chord - Bowed clavier - Boy soprano - Braille music - Brass instrument - Brass quintet - Brass tablature - Bravura - Break (music) - Breath mark - Breedsma - Bridge (music) - Brindisi (music) - British opera - Broken consort - Bruckner rhythm - Burgundian School - Burletta - Bushi (music) - Byzantine lyra - Byzantine music
B, also known as Si, Ti, or, in some European countries, H, is the seventh note of the fixed-Do solfège. Its enharmonic equivalents are C♭ and A
B♭ is the eleventh step of the Western chromatic scale . It lies a diatonic semitone above A and a chromatic semitone below B, thus being enharmonic to A♯, even though in some musical tunings, B♭ will have a different sounding pitch than A♯. B-flat is also enharmonic to C
B major is a major scale based on B. The pitches B, C♯, D♯, E, F♯, G♯, and A♯ are all part of the B major scale. Its key signature has five sharps. Its relative minor is G-sharp minor, its parallel minor is B minor, and its enharmonic equivalent is C-flat major.
C - C♯ - C major - C minor - C-flat major - C-sharp major - C-sharp minor - Cabaletta - Cadence - Cadenza - Caesura - Call and response (music) - Calypso music - Cambiata - Camerata (music) - Canción - Canon (music) - Canntaireachd - Cantabile - Cantastoria - Cantata - Canticle - Cantiga - Cantillation - Cantus coronatus - Cantus firmus - Canzona - Canzonetta - Capriccio (music) - Carnatic music - Cassation (music) - Castrato - Catalogues of classical compositions - Cauda - Cavatina - Celesta - Cell (music) - Cello - Cello da spalla - Cellone - Cello sonata - Celtic chant - Celtic harp - Celtic music - Cent (music) - Central American music - Chaconne - Chahargah (mode) - Chamber music - Chamber opera - Changing tones - Chanson - Charlemagne and church music - Cheironomy - Chest voice - Chiaroscuro (music) - Chiavette - Child singer - Choir - Choral concerto - Choral symphony - Chorale - Chorale partita - Chord - Chord chart - Chord substitution - Chording - Chordioid - Chord progression - Chord-scale system - Chordal space - Chroma feature - Chromatic chord - Chromatic circle - Chromatic fantasia - Chromatic fourth - Chromatic genus - Chromatic hexachord - Chromatic mediant - Chromatic scale - Chromaticism - Church music - Church music in Scotland - Cibell - Cimbasso - Circle of fifths - Circular breathing - Circus music - Clapping - Clarinet - Clarinet trio - Classical music - Classical music in Scotland - Classical music written in collaboration - Classical period (music) - Clausula (music) - Clavichord - Clef - Clinic (music) - Close and open harmony - Closely related key - Cloud (music) - Coda - Cognitive musicology - Col legno - Cologne School (music) - Color (medieval music) - Coloratura soprano - Colored music notation - Colorist (music) - Colotomy - Collaborative piano - Combination tone - Combinatoriality - Comic opera - Comma (music) - Common tone (chord) - Comping - Complement (music) - Complexe sonore - Compound metre - Composer - Composer tributes (classical music) - Comprimario - Concert - Concert aria - Concert band - Concertmaster - Concert pitch - Concert version - Concertato - Concertino (composition) - Concerto - Concerto for Orchestra - Conclusion (music) - Conducting - Conductorless orchestra - Consonance - Constant spectrum melody - Constant structure - Contemporary classical music - Contemporary harpsichord - Contenance angloise - Counting (music) - Contralto - Contrapuntal motion - Contrast (music) - Convenienze - Coptic music - Copula (music) - Copyist - Cor anglais - Corelli cadence - Cornett - Count off - Counter-melody - Counterpoint - Countertenor - Country house opera - Country music - Courante - Court music in Scotland - Cover version - Cretan lyra - Critical edition (opera) - Cross-dressing in music and opera - Cross motif - Crusade song - Cubase - Cue note - Culture in music cognition - Curtain call - Cut-out score - Cycle (music) - Cyclic form - Cyclic set - Cymbal
C is the first note of the C major scale, the third note of the A minor scale, and the fourth note of the Guidonian hand, commonly pitched around 261.63 Hz. The actual frequency has depended on historical pitch standards, and for transposing instruments a distinction is made between written and sounding or concert pitch.
C♯ (C-sharp) is a musical note lying a chromatic semitone above C and a diatonic semitone below D. C-sharp is thus enharmonic to D♭. It is the second semitone in the French solfège and is known there as do dièse. In some European notations, it is known as Cis. In equal temperament it is also enharmonic with B
C major is a major scale based on C, with the pitches C, D, E, F, G, A, and B. C major is one of the most common key signatures used in western music. Its key signature has no flats and no sharps. Its relative minor is A minor and its parallel minor is C minor.
D - D♭ - D♯ - D-sharp minor - D major - D minor - D-flat major - D-flat minor - D♯ - Da capo - Da capo aria - Dal segno - Dance music - Dance and music of Latin America - Darmstadt School - Daseian notation - Dastgah - Dates of classical music eras - Decet (music) - Definite pitch - Definition of music - Degenerate music - Degree (music) - Delta scale - Descant - Descending tetrachord - Deutsch's scale illusion - Diapason - Diaschisma - Diatessaron - Diatonic and chromatic - Diatonic hexachord - Diatonic scale - Diatonic set theory - Diesis – Digital sheet music - Diminished fourth - Diminished octave - Diminished second - Diminished seventh - Diminished seventh chord - Diminished sixth - Diminished third - Diminished triad - Diminished tuning - Diminution - Discant - Distance model - Ditone - Ditonic scale - Divertimento - Divisi - DJ mix - Dodeka music notation - Dominant - Dominant seventh sharp ninth chord - Dorian mode - Dorian ♭2 scale - Dotted note - Double bass - Double drumming - Double-Function Form - Double stop - Double tonic - Double variation - Double whole note - Dramma giocoso - Dream chord - Dresden amen - Dromoi - Drone - Drone music - Drum - Drum kit - DSCH motif - Dubreq Stylophone - Duet - Duettino - Dulab - Dumka (musical genre) - Duodecet - Duodrama - Duration (music) - Dyad (music) - Dynamic tonality - Dynamics
D is a musical note a whole tone above C, and is known as Re within the fixed-Do solfege system. An enharmonic note is C
D♭ (D-flat) is a musical note lying a diatonic semitone above C and a chromatic semitone below D. It is thus enharmonic to C♯. In the French solfège it is known as re bémol.
D♯ (D-sharp) or re dièse is the fourth semitone of the solfège. It lies a chromatic semitone above D and a diatonic semitone below E, thus being enharmonic to mi bémol or E♭. However, in some temperaments, it is not the same as E♭. E♭ is a perfect fourth above B♭, whereas D♯ is a major third above B.
E - E♭ - E major - E minor - E-flat major - E-flat minor - Ear training - Early music - Early music festivals - Early music of the British Isles - Early music revival - Earworm - Echos - Eclecticism in music - Ecomusicology - Educational music - Eighth note - Ekphonetic notation - Elastic scoring - Electronic music - Electric piano - Electronic musical instrument - Elements of music - Eleventh - Eleventh chord - Emancipation of the dissonance - Embodied music cognition - Encore - English art song - English bagpipes - English cadence - English Musical Renaissance - Enharmonic - Enharmonic keyboard - Enharmonic scale - Enigmatic scale - Ensalada (music) - Entr'acte - Entrainment - Environmentalism in music - Epidiapente - Equal temperament - Equivalence class (music) - Escala nordestina - Estampie - Étude - Ethnomusicology - Euclidean rhythm - Euouae - Evolutionary musicology - Exposition (music) - Expression pedal - Extension (music) - Eye movement in music reading - Eye music
F - F♯ - F major - F minor - F-flat major - F-sharp major - F-sharp minor - F+ (pitch) - Factor (chord) - Faking (Western classical music) - Falset (music) - Falsetto - Falsettone - False relation - Falsobordone - Fandango - Fantasia (music) - Farsa - Fasıl - Fauxbourdon - Feedback - Fermata - Festa teatrale - Fifteenth - Fifth (chord) - Figure (music) - Figured bass - Filk music - Fill (music) - Film score - Finale (music) - Finale (software) - Finalis - Fingering (music) - Finger vibrato - Fioritura - First inversion - First Viennese School - The Five (composers) - Five-finger exercise - Five-limit tuning - Five string violin - Flamenco mode - Flat (music) - Flugelhorn - Flute - Flute choir - Flute quartet - Folia - Folk music - Formula composition - Forte - Fortepiano - Fortepiano (musical dynamic) - Fortspinnung - Four note group - Four-part harmony - Fragmentation (music) - Franco-Flemish School - Frankfurt Group - French classical music - French horn - French opera - French overture - French pop music - Frequency - Friction idiophone - Fugue - Function (music) - Fundamental structure - Futurism (music)
G - G♭ - G♯ - G major - G minor - G-flat major - G-sharp major - G-sharp minor - G run - Gagaku - Galliard - Gallican chant - Gamelan - Gamelan notation - Gamma scale - Gavotte - Gebrauchsmusik - Geisslerlieder - Generalized keyboard - Generative music - Generative theory of tonal music - Generic and specific intervals - German organ schools - Ghost note - Gigue - Giovane scuola - Glissando - Gong - Gongche notation - GNU LilyPond - Grace note - Grand motet - Grand opera - Graphic notation (music) - Grave (music) - Gregorian chant - Gregorian mode - Groove - Group of Eight (music) - Group piano - Grupo de los cuatro - Grupo renovación - Guidonian hand - Gymel
Hagiopolitan Octoechos - Half diminished scale - Half note - Half-time (music) - Hammond organ - Harmonic - Harmonic major scale - Harmonic rhythm - Harmonic scale - Harmonic series (music) - Harmonic seventh - Harmonization - Harmony - Harp - Harpsichord - Hauptstimme - Haute-contre - Head (music) - Head voice - Helmholtz pitch notation - Hemiola - Heptatonic scale - Hexachord - Hexatonic scale - Heyrati - Hip hop - Hirajōshi scale - Historically informed performance - History of lute-family instruments - History of music - History of music publishing - History of sonata form - History of the harpsichord - History of the violin - Holdrian comma - Humayun (mode) - Homophony - Homotonal - Hornbostel-Sachs - Hundred twenty-eighth note - Hungarian minor scale - Hurrian songs - Hymn - Hyperrealism (music) - Hypoaeolian mode - Hypoionian mode - Hypophrygian mode
ii–V–I progression - Implication-Realization - Impressionism in music - Impromptu - Improvisation - In scale - Incidental music - Incipit - Incomplete repetition - Incomposite interval - Indefinite pitch - Indeterminacy (music) - Indian Classical Music - Industrial music Inganno - Inharmonicity - In scale - Insects in music - Insen scale - Instrumental idiom - Instrumentation (music) - Intabulation - Interactive music - Interdominant - Intermedio - Intermezzo - Interpolation (classical music) - Interval - Interval class - Interval ratio - Interval vector - Intonation - Introduction (music) - Intuitive music - Inversion (music) - Ionian mode - Irmos - Irrational rhythm - Irregular resolution - Islamic music - Ison (music) - Isorhythm - Istrian scale - Italian opera - Italian overture - Iwato scale
Japanese mode - Japanese musical scales - Jazz - Jazz standard - Jins - Jubilus - Just intonation
Kammersänger - Kapellmeister - Karabakh Shikastasi (mode) - Key - Key signature - Key signature names and translations - Keyboard bass - Keyboard instrument - Keyboard tablature - Keyboardist - Khrennikov's Seven - Klang (music) - Klangfarbenmelodie - Kleisma - Korean court music
L'istesso tempo - Lacuna (music) - Lament bass - Landini cadence - Larghetto - Layali - Leading-tone - Lead instrument - Lead sheet - Ledger line - Legato - Leitmotif - Les Six - Letter notation - Level (music) - Libretto - Lied - Ligature - Limit (music) - Linear - Linear progression - Lining out - Linzer Orgeltabulatur - Lisztomania - Literaturoper - Live electronic music - Locrian mode - Longa (music) - Ludomusicology - Luri music - Lydian augmented scale - Lydian cadence - Lydian mode
Macro analysis - Madrigal - Madrigal comedy - Maestoso - Maestro - Magic chord - Major chord - Major fourth and minor fifth - Major limma - Major Locrian scale - Major second - Major scale - Major seventh - Major sixth - Major third - Mannheim school - Manualism (hand music) - Manuscript paper - Māori music - March (music) - Marching band - Mariachi - Marimba - Martial music - Mass (music) - Matrix (music) - Maxima (music) - Maximal evenness - Mazurka - Meantone temperament - Measure - Mediant - Medieval music - Melharmony - Melisma - Melodic expectation - Melodic fission - Melodic motion - Melodic pattern - Melody - Melody type - Mensural notation - Mensurstrich - Messa di voce - Method (music) - Metre (hymn) - Metre (music) - Metric modulation - Metronome - Mezzo-soprano - Micropolyphony - Microsound - Microtonal music - Middle Eastern music - Military band - Millioctave - Miming in instrumental performance - Minimal music - Minnesang - Minor chord - Minor diatonic semitone - Minor second - Minor scale - Minor seventh - Minor sixth - Minor third - Minuet - Missing fundamental - Mistuning - Mix tape - Mixed-interval chord - Mixing - Mixolydian mode - Modal frame - Modal voice - Mode - Modernism (music) - Modes of limited transposition - Modified Stave Notation - Modular music - Modulation (music) - Modus (medieval music) - Moment form - Monad (music) - Money note - Monodrama - Monody - Monophony - Monotonic scale - Motet - Motif (music) - Mouthpiece (brass) - Mouthpiece (woodwind) - Movement (music) - Mozarabic chant - Mozart and G minor - Mozart effect - Multiphonic - Multiplication (music) - Muqam - Museme - Music - Music acquisition - Music alignment - Music and artificial intelligence - Music and emotion - Music and mathematics - Music and politics - Music appreciation - Music archaeology - Music community - Music criticism - Music drama - Music education - Music Encoding Initiative - Music engraving - Music examination - Music festival - Music genre - Music history - Music journalism - Music industry - Music in early modern Scotland - Music in Medieval England - Music in Medieval Scotland - Music in Paris - Music in psychological operations - Music in space - Music in Tatarstan - Music learning theory - Music lesson - Music librarianship - Music manuscript - Musico - Music of Afghanistan - Music of Albania - Music of Algeria - Music of Ancient Greece - Music of Andorra - Music of Argentina - Music of Armenia - Music of Australia - Music of Austria - Music of Badakhshan - Music of Bahrain - Music of Barbados - Music of Belarus - Music of Belgium - Music of Belize - Music of Bermuda - Music of Bolivia - Music of Bosnia and Herzegovina - Music of Brazil - Music of Brunei - Music of Bulgaria - Music of Canada - Music of Catalonia - Music of Chile - Music of Colombia - Music of Costa Rica - Music of Croatia - Music of Cuba - Music of Cyprus - Music of Denmark - Music of Easter Island - Music of Ecuador - Music of Egypt - Music of El Salvador - Music of Estonia - Music of Fiji - Music of Finland - Music of France - Music of French Guiana - Music of Georgia (country) - Music of Germany- Music of Guadeloupe - Music of Guatemala - Music of Guyana - Music of Haiti - Music of Hawaii - Music of Honduras - Music of Hungary - Music of Iceland - Music of India - Music of Indonesia - Music of Iraq - Music of Ireland - Music of Jamaica - Music of Jordan - Music of Kazakhstan - Music of Kenya - Music of Kuwait - Music of Latvia - Music of Lebanon - Music of Libya - Music of Liechtenstein - Music of Lithuania - Music of Luxembourg - Music of Malta - Music of Martinique - Music of Mauritius - Music of Mesopotamia - Music of Mexico - Music of Moldova - Music of Monaco - Music of Mongolia - Music of Montenegro - Music of Morocco - Music of Myanmar - Music of Namibia - Music of New Zealand - Music of Nicaragua - Music of Niue - Music of North Macedonia - Music of Norway - Music of Oman - Music of Palestine - Music of Panama - Music of Paraguay - Music of Peru - Music of Polynesia - Music of Portugal - Music of Puerto Rico - Music of Qatar - Music of Russia - Music of San Marino - Music of Samoa - Music of Saudi Arabia - Music of Scotland - Music of Scotland in the eighteenth century - Music of Scotland in the nineteenth century - Music of Serbia - Music of Seychelles - Music of Singapore - Music of Slovakia - Music of Slovenia - Music of South Korea - Music of Sweden - Music of Switzerland - Music of Syria - Music of Thailand - Music of Thessaly - Music of the Bahamas - Music of the Cayman Islands - Music of the Channel Islands - Music of the Comoros - Music of the Czech Republic - Music of the Dominican Republic - Music of the Faroe Islands - Music of the Federated States of Micronesia - Music of the Lesser Antilles - Music of the Maldives - Music of the Netherlands - Music of the Philippines - Music of the Trecento - Music of the Turks and Caicos Islands - Music of the United Arab Emirates - Music of the United Kingdom - Music of Tibet - Music of Tokelau - Music of Tonga - Music of Tunisia - Music of Turkey - Music of Ukraine - Music of Uruguay - Music of Vatican City - Music of Venezuela - Music of Vienna - Music of Vietnam - Music of Western Sahara - Music of Yemen - Music of Zambia - Music of Zimbabwe - Music piracy - Music psychology - Music publisher (sheet music) - Music-related memory - Music school - Music-specific disorders - Music stand - Music technology - Music theory - Music therapy - Music tourism - Music transposer - MusicWriter - Musica ficta - Musica poetica - Musica reservata - Musical acoustics - Musical argument - Musical composition - Musical cryptogram - Musical development - Musical ensemble - Musical expression - Musical form - Musical gesture - Musical hallucinations - Musical historicism - Musical instrument - Musical keyboard - Musical literacy - Musical notation - Musical note - Musical phrasing - Musical prefix - Musical semantics - Musical setting - Musical similarity - Musical syntax - Musical system of ancient Greece - Musical technique - Musical tone - Musical tuning - Musicality - Musician - Musicology - Mute (music) - Mystic chord
Nashville Number System - Natural (music) - Neapolitan scale - Neapolitan School - Nenano - Neobyzantine Octoechos - Neoconservative postmodernism - Neo-Medieval music - Neue Deutsche Härte - Neume - Neuroscience of music - Neutral interval - Neutral sixth - New German School - New interfaces for musical expression - New Music Manchester - New musicology - New Venice School - Niente - Ninth - Ninth chord - Nocturne - Noise music - Nonchord tone - Nonet (music) - Notehead - Note nere - Notes inégales - Notre-Dame school - Novelette (music) - Novelty song - Number (music) - Numbered musical notation - Number opera - Numerical sight-singing
Obbligato - Oboe - Octatonic scale - Octave - Octave glissando - Octave illusion - Octet (music) - Octoechos - "Ode-to-Napoleon" hexachord - Oeldorf Group - Offstage instrument or choir part in classical music - Open chord - Opera - Opéra-ballet - Opera buffa - Opéra comique - Opéra féerie - Opera house - Opera in Arabic - Opera in English - Opera in German - Opera in Scotland - Opera semiseria - Opera seria - Operetta - Optical music recognition - Opus number - Oratorio - Orchestra - Orchestral enhancement - Orchestra hit - Orchestration - Orff Schulwerk - Organ - Organ tablature - Organetto - Organology - Organum - Oriental riff - Origin of the harp in Europe - Origins of opera - Oriscus - Ornament (music) - Orwell comma - Ostinato - Ossia - Otonality and Utonality - Ottoman classical music - Overtone - Overture
Pandiatonicism - Papadic Octoechos - Parallel and counter parallel - Parallel harmony - Parallel key - Parlour music - Parody music - Parsons code - Part (music) - Partbook- Partimento - Partita - Pasodoble - Passacaglia - Passaggio - Passing chord - Passion music - Pasticcio - Pastorale - Pastorale héroïque - Patter song - Pattern completion - Pavane - Pedal keyboard - Pedal point - Pedal tone - Pelog - Pensato - Pentachord - Pentatonic scale - Percussion instrument - Percussion notation - Perfect fourth - Perfect fifth - Period (music) - Permutation (music) - Perpetuum mobile - Persian scale - Persian traditional music - Pervading imitation - Pesante - Petasti - Petrushka chord - Philosophy of music - Phonograph - Phrase (music) - Phrygian dominant scale - Phrygian mode - Piano - Piano concerto - Piano duet - Piano extended technique - Piano four hands - Piano history and musical performance - Piano pedagogy - Piano pedals - Piano piece - Piano quartet - Piano quintet - Piano sextet - Piano six hands - Piano solo - Piano sonata - Piano trio - Piano-vocal score - Pianto - Picardy third - Piccolo - Piccolo trumpet - Pierrot ensemble - Pipe band - Pipe organ - Piston valve - Pitch - Pitch axis theory - Pitch class - Pitch class space - Pitch of brass instruments - Pitch space - Pit orchestra - Pizzicato - Plainsong - Playing by ear - Polish opera - Polychord - Polyphonic Era - Polyphony - Polyrhythm - Polystylism - Polytempo - Polytonality - Pop music - Popular music - Portato - Postminimalism - Postmodern music - Post-tonal music theory - Potpourri (music) - Power chord - Precomposition - Predominant chord - Prehistoric music - Prelude (music) - Prelude and fugue - Preparation (music) - Prima donna - Primary tone - Primary triad - Principal (music) - Privileged pattern - Process music - Program music - Progressive music - Progressive tonality - Projected set - Prolation - Prolation canon - Prolongation - Prompter (opera) - Prosody (music) - Pro Tools - Protein music - Protest song - Pseudo-octave - Psychedelic music - Psychoacoustics - Psychoanalysis and music - Psychology of music preference - Ptolemy's intense diatonic scale - Public domain music - Pulse - Punctualism - Pygmy music - Pyknon - Pythagorean comma - Pythagorean interval - Pythagorean tuning
Qanun (instrument) - Quartal and quintal harmony - Quarter-comma meantone - Quarter note - Quarter tone - Quartet - Quintet - Quintus (vocal music) - Quodlibet
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In music theory, a diatonic scale is a heptatonic scale that includes five whole steps and two half steps (semitones) in each octave, in which the two half steps are separated from each other by either two or three whole steps, depending on their position in the scale. This pattern ensures that, in a diatonic scale spanning more than one octave, all the half steps are maximally separated from each other.
In music, just intonation or pure intonation is the tuning of musical intervals as (small) whole number ratios of frequencies. Any interval tuned in this way is called a just interval. Just intervals and chords are aggregates of harmonic series partials and may be seen as sharing a (lower) implied fundamental. For example, a tone with a frequency of 300 Hz and another with a frequency of 200 Hz are both multiples of 100 Hz. Their interval is, therefore, an aggregate of the second and third partials of the harmonic series of an implied fundamental frequency 100 Hz.
In music theory, a scale is any set of musical notes ordered by fundamental frequency or pitch. A scale ordered by increasing pitch is an ascending scale, and a scale ordered by decreasing pitch is a descending scale. Some scales contain different pitches when ascending than when descending, for example, the melodic minor scale.
In music theory, an interval is the difference in pitch between two sounds. An interval may be described as horizontal, linear, or melodic if it refers to successively sounding tones, such as two adjacent pitches in a melody, and vertical or harmonic if it pertains to simultaneously sounding tones, such as in a chord.
In music theory, the tritone is defined as a musical interval composed of three adjacent whole tones. For instance, the interval from F up to the B above it is a tritone as it can be decomposed into the three adjacent whole tones F–G, G–A, and A–B. According to this definition, within a diatonic scale there is only one tritone for each octave. For instance, the above-mentioned interval F–B is the only tritone formed from the notes of the C major scale. A tritone is also commonly defined as an interval spanning six semitones. According to this definition, a diatonic scale contains two tritones for each octave. For instance, the above-mentioned C major scale contains the tritones F–B and B–F. In twelve-equal temperament, the tritone divides the octave exactly in half.
In modern musical notation and tuning, an enharmonic equivalent is a note, interval, or key signature that is equivalent to some other note, interval, or key signature but "spelled", or named differently. Thus, the enharmonic spelling of a written note, interval, or chord is an alternative way to write that note, interval, or chord. For example, in twelve-tone equal temperament, the notes C♯ and D♭ are enharmonic notes. Namely, they are the same key on a keyboard, and thus they are identical in pitch, although they have different names and different roles in harmony and chord progressions. Arbitrary amounts of accidentals can produce further enharmonic equivalents, such as B
A fourth is a musical interval encompassing four staff positions in the music notation of Western culture, and a perfect fourth is the fourth spanning five semitones. For example, the ascending interval from C to the next F is a perfect fourth, because the note F is the fifth semitone above C, and there are four staff positions between C and F. Diminished and augmented fourths span the same number of staff positions, but consist of a different number of semitones.
In music theory, a perfect fifth is the musical interval corresponding to a pair of pitches with a frequency ratio of 3:2, or very nearly so.
A chord, in music, is any harmonic set of pitches consisting of multiple notes that are heard as if sounding simultaneously. For many practical and theoretical purposes, arpeggios and broken chords, or sequences of chord tones, may also be considered as chords.
A semitone, also called a half step or a half tone, is the smallest musical interval commonly used in Western tonal music, and it is considered the most dissonant when sounded harmonically. It is defined as the interval between two adjacent notes in a 12-tone scale. For example, C is adjacent to C♯; the interval between them is a semitone.
An augmented triad is a chord, made up of two major thirds. The term augmented triad arises from an augmented triad being considered a major chord whose top note (fifth) is raised. When using popular-music symbols, it is indicated by the symbol "+" or "aug". For example, the augmented triad built on C, written as C+, has pitches C–E–G♯:
Chromaticism is a compositional technique interspersing the primary diatonic pitches and chords with other pitches of the chromatic scale. Chromaticism is in contrast or addition to tonality or diatonicism. Chromatic elements are considered "elaborations of or substitutions for diatonic scale members".
Chromaticism is almost by definition an alteration of, an interpolation in or deviation from this basic diatonic organization.
A quarter tone is a pitch halfway between the usual notes of a chromatic scale or an interval about half as wide as a semitone, which itself is half a whole tone. Quarter tones divide the octave by 50 cents each, and have 24 different pitches.
In classical music from Western culture, an augmented sixth is an interval produced by widening a major sixth by a chromatic semitone. For instance, the interval from C to A is a major sixth, nine semitones wide, and both the intervals from C♭ to A, and from C to A♯ are augmented sixths, spanning ten semitones. Being augmented, it is considered a dissonant interval.
In music theory, a comma is a minute interval, the difference resulting from tuning one note two different ways. The word comma used without qualification refers to the syntonic comma, which can be defined, for instance, as the difference between an F♯ tuned using the D-based Pythagorean tuning system, and another F♯ tuned using the D-based quarter-comma meantone tuning system. Intervals separated by the ratio 81:80 are considered the same note because the 12-note Western chromatic scale does not distinguish Pythagorean intervals from 5-limit intervals in its notation. Other intervals are considered commas because of the enharmonic equivalences of a tuning system. For example, in 53TET, B
In music, 53 equal temperament, called 53 TET, 53 EDO, or 53 ET, is the tempered scale derived by dividing the octave into 53 equal steps.
In music, 22 equal temperament, called 22-TET, 22-EDO, or 22-ET, is the tempered scale derived by dividing the octave into 22 equal steps.
In diatonic set theory, Rothenberg propriety is an important concept, lack of contradiction and ambiguity, in the general theory of musical scales which was introduced by David Rothenberg in a seminal series of papers in 1978. The concept was independently discovered in a more restricted context by Gerald Balzano, who termed it coherence.
Music theory has no axiomatic foundation in modern mathematics, yet the basis of musical sound can be described mathematically and exhibits "a remarkable array of number properties". Elements of music such as its form, rhythm and metre, the pitches of its notes and the tempo of its pulse can be related to the measurement of time and frequency, offering ready analogies in geometry.
Diatonic and chromatic are terms in music theory that are most often used to characterize scales, and are also applied to musical instruments, intervals, chords, notes, musical styles, and kinds of harmony. They are very often used as a pair, especially when applied to contrasting features of the common practice music of the period 1600–1900.