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The music of Argentina includes a variety of traditional, classical and popular genres. One of the country's most significant cultural contributions is the tango, which originated in Buenos Aires and its surroundings during the end of the 19th century and underwent profound changes throughout the 20th century. Folk music was particularly popular during the 20th century, experiencing a "boom" in popularity during the 1950s and 1960s thanks to artists such as Atahualpa Yupanqui and Mercedes Sosa, prominent figures of the Nuevo cancionero movement. In the mid-to-late 1960s, the countercultural scene of Buenos Aires originated Argentine rock (known locally as rock nacional, Spanish for "national rock"), considered the earliest incarnation of Spanish-language rock for having an autochthonous identity that differed from that of England or the United States. It was widely embraced by the youth and since then has become part of the country's musical identity as much as traditional music. According to the Harvard Dictionary of Music , Argentina also "has one of the richest art music traditions and perhaps the most active contemporary musical life.
Folk music—called música folklórica or folklore in Spanish, from the English folklore —comes in many forms, developed in different parts of Argentina with different European and indigenous influences.
Among the first traditional folk groups to record extensively in Argentinia, three of the most influential were from the northwest:
Becoming nearly instant successes following their first albums around 1950, they inspired a revival of the genre in Argentinia. The folklorists Sixto Palavecino, Jorge Cafrune, Facundo Cabral and the folkloric group known as Los Manseros Santiagueños, as well as Los Nocheros are included in the genre.
Between 1960 and 1974, Leda Valladares created a documentary series, known as the Mapa musical argentino (Musical Map of Argentina), taping traditional folk music throughout the country. The recordings she made were funded by the National Endowment of the Arts and directed by Litto Nebbia for Melopea Records.
A famous soloist in the genre is guitarist Eduardo Falú, known for the many compositions that set traditional poetry into music. Traditional folk music became increasingly important during the protest movement against the military dictatorship and the community divisions of the 1970s, with artists like Mercedes Sosa and Atahualpa Yupanqui, contributing to the development of nueva canción. Soledad Pastorutti ('La Sole') has brought folklore to a new audience, and in the early 21st century Juana Molina has proposed a fusion between electronic music and folklore with ambient sounds, a gentle voice and short zambas. In 2004 the album Cantor de Cantores, of Horacio Guarany was candidate to the Latin Grammy Award for Best Folk Album.
A well-known venue for Argentine folklore music, the Cosquín National Folklore Festival, has been gathering musicians from the genre annually since 1961. A modest event at first, the festival has grown to include folk musicians from neighboring countries and Asia, as well as from throughout Argentina, itself. Focusing on folklore music, the festival nevertheless features talent from the worlds of tango, acoustic music and international culture.On the same time of year is made the Cosquín Rock festival. Cosquín National Folklore Festival typically includes representatives from all musical genres created or developed in Argentina:
In northern Argentina, on the borders with Bolivia and Chile, the music of the Andes reflects the spirit of the land with the sounds of local wind, percussion and string instruments. Jaime Torres is a famous Argentine/Bolivian charango player.
Originating in Santiago del Estero, this folk music is accompanied by Spanish guitars and bombo legüero. The name originates from the word "chacra" ("farm"), as it was usually danced in rural areas, but it slowly made its way to the cities of that area. It is one of the few Argentine dances for couples where the woman has an equal opportunity to show off.
Accordion-based Chamamé arose in the northeastern region (provinces of Corrientes, Chaco, Formosa & Misiones) a mostly mestizo area with many settlers from Poland, Ukraine and Germany. Polkas, Mazurkas and waltzes came with these immigrants, and soon mixed with the Spanish music already present in the area. Chamamé was not very popular internationally in the 20th century, though some artists, such as Argentine superstar Raúl Barboza, became popular later in the century. In the early 21st century Chango Spasiuk, a young Argentine of Ukrainian descent from Misiones province, has once again brought chamamé to international attention.The main basis of all the music of this area on the banks of the Paraná River is its roots in the music of Paraguay across the water.
Tango arose in the brothels, bars and port areas of Buenos Aires, where waves of Europeans poured into the country mixing various forms of music. The result, tango, came about as a fusion of disparate influences including:
That combination of European rhythms, brought to Argentinia and Uruguay by traders and immigrants, developed into the swinging milonga around 1900.The milonga quickly became the popular dance of Buenos Aires and slowly evolved into modern tango; since 1930, tango has changed from a dance-focused music to one of lyric and poetry, thanks to vocalists like Carlos Gardel, Roberto Goyeneche, Hugo del Carril, Tita Merello, Susana Rinaldi, Edmundo Rivero and Ignacio Corsini, was equally well known as a folk singer. The golden age of tango (1930 to mid-1950s) mirrored the golden age of Jazz and Swing in the United States, featuring large orchestral tango groups, too, like the bands (known as "Orquestas típicas") led, in particular, by Francisco Canaro, Julio de Caro, Osvaldo Pugliese, Aníbal Troilo, Juan d'Arienzo, and Alfredo De Angelis.
After 1955, as the Nueva canción and Argentine rock movements stirred, tango became more intellectual and listener-oriented, led by Ástor Piazzolla's new tango. Many of the musicians that helped Piazzolla promote nuevo tango went on to develop important careers of their own, like violinist Antonio Agri, fellow bandoneón virtuosi José Libertella and Rodolfo Mederos and pianists Horacio Salgán and Pablo Ziegler, who earned a 2005 Grammy Award. Today, tango continues to produce new exponents, has experienced a major revival, and the rise of neo tango is a global phenomenon with groups like Tanghetto, Bajofondo and Gotan Project.
Argentine rock and roll is commonly known as Argentine rock or Rock Nacional (national rock). In common use, the term includes also rock and pop from Uruguay, due to the common culture, and the existence of many bands with members of both nations (for example, the website Rock.com.ar lists many bands from Uruguay, and YouTube playlists of Argentine rock commonly include bands from both countries). Though the Rock Nacional usually includes hard core bands, in general terms it incorporates the following genres:
At the time (late 60s), popular music was a style called ritmo latino, a mainstream pop genre. Bohemian hangouts in Buenos Aires and Rosario were the cradles of the genre, relying heavily on British rock influences, but in the mid-1960s musicians began exploring local musical roots, creating a local sound. Musicians like Litto Nebbia of Los Gatos began recording their own kind of rock. Los Gatos' "La balsa", released early in their year, established the distinctive sound of Argentine rock.
In 1967, in the city of Quilmes, formed one of the most important bands in the history of Argentine rock and roll: Vox Dei.
By 1970 Argentine rock had become established among middle class youth (see Almendra, Pescado Rabioso and Sui Generis). In the 80s, Argentine rock bands became popular across Latin America and elsewhere (Serú Girán, Soda Stereo, Virus, Rata Blanca, Enanitos Verdes, Riff, Charly García).
From that decade become a staple of popular culture with many cultural/social styles: underground, mainstream oriented, some associated with:
Argentine rock and roll was the most listened-to music among youth in the late 80s and 90s; its influence and success has expanded internationally owing to a rich and uninterrupted evolution.
Popular bands and solo singers include Charly García, Indio Solari, Xavier Moyano, Skay Beilinson, Fabiana Cantilo, Andrés Ciro Martínez, Andrés Calamaro, Javier Calamaro, Sandra Mihanovich, Litto Nebbia, Juanse, es:Pequeña Orquesta Reincidentes, La Renga, Vox Dei, Enanitos Verdes, Las Pelotas, Horcas, Los Tipitos, Carajo, Tren Loco, Jauría, Cabezones, Jóvenes Pordioseros, Kapanga, Guasones, Divididos, Attaque 77, La 25, Pez, El Otro Yo, Los Auténticos Decadentes, Casi Justicia Social, Rata Blanca, Mancha de Rolando, Viejas Locas, La Beriso, Intoxicados, Estelares, Árbol, Catupecu Machu, Almafuerte, Malón, Bersuit Vergarabat, Massacre Palestina, 2 Minutos, Los Piojos, Él Mató a un Policía Motorizado, Salta la Banca, Alejandro Toledo, Cadena Perpetua, In Corp Sanctis, Enanitos Verdes, Banda de Turistas, Los Frenéticos, The Tormentos, The Broken Toys, Satan Dealers, Pelea de Gallos, Valle de Muñecas, Autopista, normA, Bôas Teitas, Los Barreiro, Los Primitivos, El Violinista del Amor & los Pibes que Miraban, Chillan Las Bestias, Crema del Cielo, Thes Siniestros, Los Lotus, The Hates, The Vulcanos, Cuadros Invitados, Error Positivo, Fantasmagoria, Los Acetones, Viaje an Ixtlan, Agente Naranja, Satélite Kingston, The Tandooris, Gram D Mori, The Jacqueline Trash, Los Alamos, Rubin y Los Subtitulados, Sick Porky, Hacia Dos Veranos, Caballeros de la Quema, Turf, Ciro y los Persas.
Former bands include Patricio Rey y sus Redonditos de Ricota, Soda Stereo, El Reloj, Pescado Rabioso, Serú Girán, Invisible, Los Gatos, Callejeros, Almendra, Los Violadores, Riff, V8, Ratones Paranoicos, A.N.I.M.A.L., Hermética, Latorre.
Popular Argentine rock musicians include Charly García, Gustavo Cerati, Andrés Calamaro, Luis Alberto Spinetta, Indio Solari, Litto Nebbia, Fito Páez and Pappo.
Argentine electronic music experienced a surge of popularity in the 1990s. [ full citation needed ] From the Zizek Club in Buenos Aires, ZZK Records began in 2007 to create a fusion of electronica and cumbia.Rocker Gustavo Cerati switched to electronica in 1999. Electronic dance parties and shows like Creamfields BA are favorites among thousands. Prominent electronica DJs include veteran Diego Ro-K, Hernán Cattáneo who has played Burning Man, and drum and bass star Bad Boy Orange. Indietronica bands like Entre Ríos have also become popular. Bajofondo Tango Club and the Gotan Project have fused tango with electronica.
Pop bands have seen great popularity, topped by Bandana, the most popular. Other artists in this genre include Miranda! with a touch of "electro" sound, Alejandro Lerner, Axel (singer), Valeria Lynch, María Jimena Pereyra and Babasónicos, of lasting popularity. Artists combining experimentation with glam include Airbag and Juana la Loca, in addition to Arbol, an artist combining hardcore with pop and violins. In the 2010s, Lali became the biggest exponent of pop music in Argentina.Following her debut in 2013, many artists have incursed in the genre, including Tini, Oriana, J Mena, and Emilia.
Trap music, although a recent novelty in Argentina and the rest of Latin America, in reality, is nothing new. It’s been around since the early 90s, when the unique mixture of electronic and hip-hop genres was born in Atlanta, Georgia. Usually including lyrics that are harsh and bleak, trap artists often use the genre as a platform for expressing their tough experiences on the street, the stark realities of a life spent in poverty, and their personal struggles for success. The word ‘trap’ refers to the places where drug deals are made. Telling the stories of the North American lower class, the emerging genre gave a voice to a generation that felt marginalized by society.Hhe The use of social media has also allowed Argentine trap artists to achieve fame and recognition much more quickly than their North American predecessors. One of these artists is Duki, who boasted over 47 million views with his single ‘Si Te Sentís Sola.’ As one of Argentina’s biggest names in trap, Duki combines rhythms found in both reggaetón and rap; his music is a unique blend of trap’s tough original sounds and more rhythmic electronic Latin American genres. Córdoba-born Paulo Londra is another young trap artist. Still living with his parents, the 20-year old rose to fame back in January 2017 with his single ‘Relax.’ Countering aggressive stereotypes often associated with trap music, Londra is keen to do things his way. His songs, which are all about positivity, good vibes, and gratitude, avoid the usual trap references to violence and drugs. Keen to push the boundaries and stray beyond the boxes of traditional trap, he’s probably the most polite trap artist around. Having already worked with the likes of Bad Bunny and J Balvin, his videos often push the view count beyond the 100 million mark.
Cumbia is an important part of contemporary Argentine music, originally derived from the Colombian cumbia. This genre become popular slowly from the 1960s with the irruption in Argentina of the important Colombian bands Los Wawancó and Cuarteto Imperial. Argentine bands and soloists of cumbia originated in the north of the country and in Santa Fe province, the first regions where cumbia become popular. In the next decades cumbia widespread by all the country, becoming in the late 1990s the most popular music in the lower class. In 1999, in the north of the Greater Buenos Aires, originated a lyric style of cumbia named cumbia villera (slum cumbia), who is aggressive and explicit (similar to punk rock or gangsta rap). From the 2000s to nowadays, cumbia become the most listened music genre among the youth.
Los Palmeras, Los del Fuego, Damas Gratis, Los Leales, Agapornis, La Nueva Luna, Amar Azul, Los Lamas, Flor de Piedra, Meta Guacha, Mala Fama, Supermerk2, La Liga, Ráfaga, Jambao, Grupo Trinidad, Antonio Ríos, Daniel Agostini, Karina, Dalila, Sebastián Mendoza, Mario Luis, Mario Pereyra, Sonido Mazter, Antonio Rios, Organización X, Los Astros and Grupo Green. Popular defunct bands and deceased solo acts include: Los del Bohío, Los Wachiputos, Los Wachiturros, Yerba Brava, Pibes Chorros, La Base Musical, Grupo Sombras, Leo Mattioli and Gilda.
Cachengue, also known as Cumbiatón, is a form of Argentine cumbia heavely influenced by Reggaeton which became popular in Argentinia during the 2010s. Artists and groups such as Los Wachiturros, Nene Malo and others became popular in mid-2011 foreign countries spreadly popularity in countries such as Bolivia, Chile and Uruguay. DJ Fer Palacio would start bundling up famous Reggaeton songs and would remix it to make it his own version in his "Previa and Cachengue" containing Cumbiatón with EDM influences which his video reached millions of views. Following new producers such as DJ Alex and many others would start creating this sound in Argentina.
Cuarteto, or Cuartetazo, is a form of dance music similar to Merengue. It became popular in Argentinia during the 1940s, beginning with the genre's namesake and innovator, Cuarteto Leo and underwent a revival in the 1980s, especially in Córdoba. A national idol emerged in the brief career of Rodrigo in the late 1990s. The most popular and enduring cuarteto singer is La Mona Jiménez, who has released more than 100 albums and continues recording; his work inspired other musicians in the genre.
Though much of Argentinia's jazz scene revolves around the new tango popularized by Ástor Piazzolla in the 1960s, Argentine musicians have created or interpreted a considerable body of be-bop, straight-ahead and latin jazz, since then.
Among the first to garner a wide audience was guitarist Oscar Alemán who, after performing with Brazilian artists, moved to Paris and performed for legendary dancer Josephine Baker; his swing style earned him a loyal following through the 1940s and 1950s. The popularity of mambo and latin jazz, generally, during the 1950s opened doors for drummer Tito Alberti, who recorded frequently with Cuban "mambo king" Dámaso Pérez Prado and popularized the genre locally with his renowned "Jazz Casino." The later emergence of the use of synthesizers in jazz found an Argentine adherent in Jorge Anders, whose quartet became known for modal jazz compositions like Suave como un amanecer in 1965. One of his frequent collaborators, pianist Gustavo Kereztesachi, became acclaimed for his airy interpretations of John Coltrane and Oliver Nelson standards, as well as for compositions of his own like the swinging The gun and Como luces esta noche.
Following the emergence of "new tango" in the 1960s, one of Piazzolla's fellow bandoneónists he influenced most became a noted jazz composer in his own right. Rodolfo Mederos' 1976 album Fuera de broma 8 fused be-bop with tango and acoustic rock; Mederos has since recorded numerous albums and film scores. His success with jazz fusion inspired others, like fellow bandoneónist Dino Saluzzi, guitarist Lito Epumer and alto sax man Bernardo Baraj.
Later in the 1970s and through the 1990s, drummer Pocho Lapouble became well known for his jazz trio and film scores. Argentine jazz saxophonists have also become prominent in their genre. Alto saxophonist Andrés Boiarsky, who emerged in 1986 performing the film score for Hombre mirando al sudeste ("Man Facing Southeast"), records extensively to this day, collaborating with latin jazz greats like Paquito D'Rivera and Claudio Roditi. Carlos Franzetti's work and arrangements for the 1992 feature film, The Mambo Kings , earned him a Latin Grammy.
The best-known Argentine jazz musician internationally is probably Leandro Gato Barbieri. The tenor saxophonist worked with renowned big band orchestra conductor Lalo Schifrin in the early 1960s, shortly before Schifrin became internationally known for his composition of the theme to Mission: Impossible . Hired by jazz trumpeter Don Cherry, the two recorded Complete Communion in 1965, an album that secured their reputation in the jazz world. Barbieri went on to record his influential Caliente! (1976), an album combining latin jazz and experimental work such as his own and jazz fusion great Carlos Santana's, as well as Qué pasa (1997), which draws more deeply from Argentine folklore roots.
Growing from the Jazzología series begun by local jazz enthusiast Carlos Inzillo in 1984, the Buenos Aires Jazz Festival has, since 2002, attracted legends and newcomers from all major jazz genres, as well as avant-garde sounds. The festival has been graced by performers like Kenny Barron, Michael Brecker, Dee Dee Bridgewater, Herbie Hancock, Freddie Hubbard, Ron Carter and Chucho Valdés.
The Buenos Aires Philharmonic has its home in the renowned Colón Opera House. Founded in 1946, it is considered one of the more prestigious orchestras in its nation, and has received several honors in 60 years of history. Another well established orchestra is the Argentine National Symphony Orchestra.
Prominent Argentine composers in the genre include symphonic composer Juan José Castro, Alberto Williams, who was known for his early fusion of nativist and classical genres, Carlos Guastavino, known for his romanticist works, Judith Akoschky and Alberto Ginastera, a composer considered one of the most important Argentine contributors to classical music. Internationally known performers include pianist Martha Argerich, violinist Alberto Lysy, guitarist María Isabel Siewers, tenor José Cura, mezzo-soprano Margherita Zimmermann, and pianist and conductor Daniel Barenboim, who has directed the Orchestre de Paris, the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and the Berlin State Opera. Les Luthiers are included in the genre.
Astor Pantaleón Piazzolla was an Argentine tango composer, bandoneon player, and arranger. His works revolutionized the traditional tango into a new style termed nuevo tango, incorporating elements from jazz and classical music. A virtuoso bandoneonist, he regularly performed his own compositions with a variety of ensembles. In 1992, American music critic Stephen Holden described Piazzolla as "the world's foremost composer of Tango music".
Nueva canción is a left-wing social movement and musical genre in Iberian America and the Iberian peninsula, characterized by folk-inspired styles and socially committed lyrics. Nueva canción is widely recognized to have played a profound role in the pro-democracy social upheavals in Portugal, Spain and Latin America during the 1970s and 1980s, and was popular amongst socialist organizations in the region.
The most distinctive music of Uruguay is to be found in the tango and candombe; both genres have been recognized by UNESCO as an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. Uruguayan music includes a number of local musical forms such as murga, a form of musical theatre, and milonga, a folk guitar and song form deriving from Spanish and italian traditions and related to similar forms found in many American countries.
Tango is a style of music in 2
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4 time that originated among European immigrant populations of Argentina and Uruguay. It is traditionally played on a solo guitar, guitar duo, or an ensemble, known as the orquesta típica, which includes at least two violins, flute, piano, double bass, and at least two bandoneóns. Sometimes guitars and a clarinet join the ensemble. Tango may be purely instrumental or may include a vocalist. Tango music and dance have become popular throughout the world.
The culture of Argentina is as varied as the country's geography and is composed of a mix of ethnic groups. Modern Argentine culture has been largely influenced by Italian, Spanish, and other European immigration, while there is still a lesser degree of elements of Amerindian and African origin and influence, particularly in the fields of music and art. Buenos Aires, its cultural capital, is largely characterized by both the prevalence of people of European descent, and of European styles in architecture. Museums, cinemas, and galleries are abundant in all the large urban centers, as well as traditional establishments such as literary bars, or bars offering live music of a variety of genres.
The Chacarera is a dance and music that originated in Santiago del Estero, Argentina. It is a genre of folk music that, for many Argentines, serves as a rural counterpart to the cosmopolitan imagery of the Tango. A dance form played by contemporary musicians as soloists or in small ensembles of voice, guitar, violin and bombo drum, the Chacarera is often legitimized by its “origin” in the remote province of Santiago del Estero. It is also the product of a romanticized construction of national identity projected by urban cultural institutions and disseminated through the mass media. A recent and very well known singer, Soledad Pastorutti, made an important popularization across all Argentine provinces, during the 1990s, 2000s and 2010s.
Cumbia villera is a subgenre of cumbia music originated in Argentina in the late 1990s and popularized all over Latin America and the Latin communities abroad.
Mexican cumbia is a musical subgenre of cumbia which was reinvented in Mexico.
Raúl Alberto Antonio Gieco, better known as León Gieco is an Argentine folk rock performer, composer and interpreter. He is known for mixing popular folkloric genres with Argentinian rock and roll, and lyrics with social and political connotations. This has led to him being called "The Argentine Bob Dylan".
Rock en español is a term used widely in the English-speaking world to refer any kind of rock music featuring Spanish vocals. Unlike English-speaking bands, very few acts reached worldwide success and often not even between different Spanish-speaking countries due to a lack of promotion. Despite rock en español 's origins in the late 1950s, many rock acts achieved at best nationwide fame until the Internet consolidated the listeners. However, some rock en español artists did become internationally popular with the help of a promotional campaign from the mid 1980s to the mid 1990s called "Rock en tu idioma". Some specific rock-based styles influenced by folkloric rhythms have also developed in these regions. Some of the more prominent styles are Argentine rock, Latin rock ; Latin alternative, an alternative rock scene which blended a Latin sound with other genres like Caribbean ska, reggae, and soca; or Andalusian rock, a flamenco-influenced style that emerged in Spain.
Soledad "La Sole" Pastorutti is an Argentine folk singer, who brought the genre to the younger generations at the end of the 20th century, and the beginning of the 21st.
Horacio "Chango" Spasiuk is an Argentine chamamé musician and accordion player.
Amelita Baltar is an Argentine singer, one of the leading voices of tango, that appeared in the 60's to be considered, along with Susana Rinaldi, as a modern counterpart of older divas such as Libertad Lamarque and Tita Merello. She is mostly known for her collaboration with composer Astor Piazzolla and writer Horacio Ferrer, specially as first performer of their song “Balada para un loco”. She starred in places such as Olympia (Paris), De Kleine Komedie (Amsterdam), Cemal Reşit Rey Concert Hall, Cocoanut Grove at Ambassador Hotel or Ginásio do Maracanãzinho and shared the stage with celebrities such as Charles Aznavour, Franck Pourcel, Henry Mancini, Gerry Mulligan, Gary Burton and Chick Corea.
The Cosquín Folk Festival is one of the most important folk music festivals of Argentina, and most important in Latin America.
José Bragato was an Italian-born Argentine cellist, composer, conductor, arranger and musical archivist who, in his early career, was principal cellist in the Colón Theatre orchestra in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Apart from his involvement in classical music he also performed for many years in a number of Ástor Piazzolla's Nuevo tango ensembles where his cello solos, which had never before featured in tango, put him in the vanguard of Nuevo tango from its birth in the 1950s. Since then he has done numerous and varied arrangements of Piazzolla's compositions.
Luis Pereyra is a dancer and choreographer of Tango Argentino and Argentinian folk dances.
Teresa Adelina Sellarés, best known as Teresa Parodi, is an Argentine singer and songwriter. She held the inaugural post of the Minister of Culture of Argentina from May 6, 2014 to December 9, 2015. She was a deputy to the Mercosur Parliament (Parlasur) representing the nationwide district of Argentina from December 10, 2015 to October 6, 2016. She was elected on the Front for Victory ticket in the 2015 election.
Abel Pintos, is an Argentinian singer-songwriter. He started his solo career at the age of 13 with his album Para cantar he nacido, supported financially by León Gieco. After the release of four studio albums, he started writing his own songs that marked a departure from his folk style.
El Sonido de mi Tierra is a company from Argentina, for Tango Argentino and Folklore Argentino, founded by Luis Pereyra in 1996. "El Sonido de mi Tierra" means "The sound of my land". The Great Dance of Argentina is the international name of the same company, but used outside of Argentina and Spanish speaking countries. Both names are of the same company and same production.
Leda Valladares was an Argentine singer, songwriter, musicologist and folklorist, and poet. Born in San Miguel de Tucumán in northern Argentina, she grew up surrounded by both classical European music and the folk music of the Amerindian people living in the area. From a young age she studied piano and in her teens began a band with her brother that explored folk music, jazz, and blues. She published works of poetry throughout her life. Although she began her university studies at the National University of Tucumán as an English major, after a year she changed course and studied philosophy and education, graduating in 1948. Her schooling was interrupted by a foray into the study of music at the Academy of Fine Art and in independent research among those who performed traditional folk music.