Hardcore punk

Last updated

Hardcore punk (often abbreviated to hardcore) is a punk rock music genre and subculture that originated in the late 1970s. It is generally faster, harder, and more aggressive than other forms of punk rock. [9] Its roots can be traced to earlier punk scenes in San Francisco and Southern California which arose as a reaction against the still predominant hippie cultural climate of the time. It was also inspired by New York punk rock and early proto-punk. [7] New York punk had a harder-edged sound than its San Francisco counterpart, featuring anti-art expressions of masculine anger, energy, and subversive humor. Hardcore punk generally disavows commercialism, the established music industry and "anything similar to the characteristics of mainstream rock" [10] and often addresses social and political topics with "confrontational, politically-charged lyrics." [11]

Punk rock is a rock music genre that emerged in the mid-1970s in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia. Rooted in 1960s garage rock and other forms of what is now known as "proto-punk" music, punk rock bands rejected perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock. They typically produced short, fast-paced songs with hard-edged melodies and singing styles, stripped-down instrumentation, and often political, anti-establishment lyrics. Punk embraces a DIY ethic; many bands self-produce recordings and distribute them through independent record labels.

Subculture group of people within a culture that differentiates themselves from the larger culture to which they belong

A subculture is a group of people within a culture that differentiates itself from the parent culture to which it belongs, often maintaining some of its founding principles. Subcultures develop their own norms and values regarding cultural, political and sexual matters. Subcultures are part of society while keeping their specific characteristics intact. Examples of subcultures include hippies, goths and bikers. The concept of subcultures was developed in sociology and cultural studies. Subcultures differ from countercultures.

San Francisco Consolidated city-county in California, US

San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is a city in, and the cultural, commercial, and financial center of, Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, and the fourth-most populous in California, with 883,305 residents as of 2018. It covers an area of about 46.89 square miles (121.4 km2), mostly at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, and the fifth-most densely populated U.S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is also part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area.


Hardcore sprouted underground scenes across the United States in the early 1980s, particularly in Washington, D.C., New York, New Jersey, and Boston—as well as in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom. Hardcore has spawned the straight edge movement and its associated submovements, hardline and youth crew. Hardcore was heavily involved in the rise of the independent record labels in the 1980s and with the DIY ethics in underground music scenes. It has also influenced various music genres that have experienced widespread commercial success, including alternative rock and thrash metal.

Washington, D.C. hardcore, commonly referred to as DC hardcore, sometimes referred to in writing as harDCore, is the hardcore punk scene of Washington, D.C. Emerging in late 1979, it is considered one of the first and most influential punk scenes in the United States.

New York hardcore (NYHC) is hardcore punk music created in New York City, and the subculture and lifestyle associated with that music. New York hardcore grew out of the hardcore scene established in Washington, D.C., by bands such as Bad Brains and Minor Threat. Initially a local phenomenon of the 1980s and 1990s, New York Hardcore eventually grew to establish an international reputation with little to moderate mainstream popularity, but with a dedicated and enthusiastic underground following, primarily in the US and Europe. With a history spanning over more than 3 decades, many of the early NYHC bands are still in activity to this day; some of them being continuously or almost continuously active since their formation, and also in the form of reunion shows.

Straight edge punk subculture

Straight edge is a subculture originated from hardcore punk whose adherents refrain from using alcohol, tobacco and other recreational drugs, in reaction to the excesses of punk subculture. For some, this extends to refraining from engaging in promiscuous sex, following a vegetarian or vegan diet or not using caffeine or prescription drugs. The term straight edge was adopted from the 1981 song "Straight Edge" by the hardcore punk band Minor Threat.

While traditional hardcore has never experienced mainstream commercial success, some of its early pioneers have garnered appreciation over time. Black Flag's Damaged , Minutemen's Double Nickels on the Dime and Hüsker Dü's New Day Rising were included in Rolling Stone's list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time in 2003 and Dead Kennedys have seen one of their albums reach gold status over a period of 25 years. [12] In 2011, Rolling Stone writer David Fricke placed Greg Ginn of Black Flag 99th place in his 100 Greatest Guitarists list. Although the music genre started in English-speaking western countries, notable hardcore scenes have existed in Italy, Brazil, Japan, Europe and the Middle East.

Black Flag (band) American Hardcore Punk Band

Black Flag is an American punk rock band formed in 1976 in Hermosa Beach, California. Initially called Panic, the band was established by Greg Ginn, the guitarist, primary songwriter, and sole continuous member through multiple personnel changes in the band. They are widely considered to be one of the first hardcore punk bands as well as one of the pioneers of post-hardcore. After breaking up in 1986, Black Flag reunited in 2003 and again in 2013. The second reunion lasted well over a year, during which they released their first studio album in over two decades, What The… (2013). The band announced their third reunion in January 2019. Brandon Pertzborn was replaced by Isaias Gil on drums for the rest of the tour.

<i>Damaged</i> (Black Flag album) 1981 studio album by Black Flag

Damaged is the debut studio album by the American hardcore punk band Black Flag. SST Records released it on December 5, 1981.

Minutemen (band) punk rock band from San Pedro, California, USA

Minutemen were an American punk rock band formed in San Pedro, California in 1980. Composed of guitarist/vocalist D. Boon, bassist/vocalist Mike Watt, and drummer George Hurley, Minutemen recorded four albums and eight EPs before Boon's death in an automobile accident in 1985; after Boon's death, the band broke up. They were noted in the California punk community for a philosophy of "jamming econo"—a sense of thriftiness reflected in their touring and presentation—while their eclectic and experimental attitude was instrumental in pioneering alternative rock and post-hardcore.

Origin of term

Steven Blush states that the Vancouver-based band D.O.A.'s 1981 album, Hardcore '81 "...was where the genre got its name." [13] This album also helped to make people aware of the term "hardcore". [14] [15] Konstantin Butz states that while the origin of the expression "hardcore" "...cannot be ascribed to a specific place or time", the term is "...usually associated with the further evolution of California's L.A. Punk Rock scene", which included young skateboarders. [16] A September 1981 article by Tim Sommer shows the author applying the term to the "15 or so" punk bands gigging around the city at that time, which he considered a belated development relative to Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Washington D.C. [17] Hardcore historian Steven Blush said that the term "hardcore" is also a reference to the sense of being "fed up" with the existing punk and new wave music. [18] Blush also states that the term refers to "an extreme: the absolute most Punk." [19]

Steven Blush is an American author, journalist, record collector and film maker who is best known for his book American Hardcore and the movie of the same name. Blush has written five books, is the founder of Seconds magazine and has written articles for many magazines. Two of his books have been made into movies. Blush's work mainly specializes in hardcore punk music.

D.O.A. (band) Canadian hardcore punk band

D.O.A. is a Canadian punk rock band from Vancouver, British Columbia. They are often referred to as the "founders" of hardcore punk along with Black Flag, Bad Brains, Angry Samoans, the Germs, Negative Trend, and Middle Class. Their second album Hardcore '81 was thought by many to have been the first actual reference to the second wave of the American punk sound as hardcore.

<i>Hardcore 81</i> 1981 studio album by D.O.A.

Hardcore '81 is an album by the Canadian hardcore punk band D.O.A.. It is considered by some to be the first reference to the North American punk scene as hardcore.

Kelefa Sanneh states that the term "hardcore" referred to an attitude of "turning inwards" towards the scene and "ignoring broader society", all with the goal of achieving a sense of "shared purpose" and being part of a community. [20] Sanneh cites Agnostic Front's band member selection approach as an example of hardcore's emphasis on "scene citizenship"; prospective members of the band were chosen based on being part of the local hardcore scene and being regularly in the moshing pit at shows, rather than based on a musical audition. [20]

Agnostic Front American Hardcore/Thrash Band

Agnostic Front is an American hardcore punk band from New York City. Founded in 1980, the band helped start the New York hardcore scene. Despite being an important band in the hardcore punk genre, the band later started playing crossover thrash.

Moshing style of dance

Moshing or slamdancing is a style of dance in which participants push or slam into each other, typically performed in "aggressive" live music. Moshing usually happens in the center of the crowd, generally closer to the stage, in an area called the "pit". It is intended to be energetic and full of body contact.

Audition a sample performance

An audition is a sample performance by an actor, singer, musician, dancer or other performer. It typically involves the performer displaying their talent through a previously memorized and rehearsed solo piece or by performing a work or piece given to the performer at the audition or shortly before. In some cases, such as with a model or acrobat, the individual may be asked to demonstrate a range of professional skills. Actors may be asked to present a monologue. Singers will perform a song in a popular music context or an aria in a Classical context. A dancer will present a routine in a specific style, such as ballet, tap dance or hip-hop, or show his or her ability to quickly learn a choreographed dance piece.


Joy de Vivre from the influential UK anarcho-punk band Crass at a 1984 show. Crass Joy.jpg
Joy de Vivre from the influential UK anarcho-punk band Crass at a 1984 show.

An article in Drowned in Sound argues that 1980s-era "hardcore is the true spirit of punk", because "after all the poseurs and fashionistas fucked off to the next trend of skinny pink ties with New Romantic haircuts, singing wimpy lyrics", the punk scene consisted only of people "completely dedicated to the DIY ethics". [21] One definition of the genre is "a form of exceptionally harsh punk rock." [22] Like the Oi! subgenre of the UK, hardcore punk can be considered an internal music reaction. Hardcore has been called a "...faster, meaner genre" of punk that was also a "stern refutation" of punk rock; a "rebellion against a rebellion". [20] Steven Blush states that even though punk rock had an "unruly edge", "Reagan-era kids demanded something even more primal and immediate, with speed and aggression as the starting point." [13]


A poseur is someone who poses for effect, or behaves affectedly, who affects a particular attitude, character or manner to impress others, or who pretends to belong to a particular group. A poseur may be a person who pretends to be what he or she is not or an insincere person; they may have a flair for drama or behave as if they are onstage in daily life. "Poseuse", the feminine version of the word, is sometimes used.

New Romantic

The New Romantic movement was a pop culture movement that originated in the United Kingdom in the late 1970s. The movement emerged from the nightclub scene in London and Birmingham at venues such as Billy's and The Blitz. The New Romantic movement was characterized by flamboyant, eccentric fashion inspired by fashion boutiques such as Kahn and Bell in Birmingham and PX in London. Early adherents of the movement were often referred to by the press by such names as Blitz Kids, New Dandies and Romantic Rebels.

Oi! is a subgenre of punk rock that originated in the United Kingdom in the late 1970s. The music and its associated subculture had the goal of bringing together punks, skinheads, and other working-class youth. The movement was partly a response to the perception that many participants in the early punk rock scene were, in the words of The Business guitarist Steve Kent, "trendy university people using long words, trying to be artistic...and losing touch."

According to one writer, "distressed by the 'art'ificiality [sic] of much post-punk and the emasculated sellouts of new wave, hardcore sought to strengthen its core punk principles." [1] Lacking the art-school grace of post-punk, hardcore punk "favor[ed] low key visual aesthetic over extravagance and breaking with original punk rock song patterns." [23] Hardcore "...disavows...synthetic technological effects...[and] the recording industry." [24] Around 1980, as punk became "moribund" and radio-friendly, angry "shorn-headed suburban teenagers" discarded new wave's artistic statements and pop music influences and created a new genre, hardcore, for which there were no places to play, which forced the performers to create independent and DIY venues. [25] Music writer Barney Hoskyns compared punk rock with hardcore and stated that hardcore was "younger, faster and angrier, full of the pent up rage of dysfunctional Orange County [(Los Angeles)] adolescents" who were sick of their life in a "bland Republican" area. [16] While the hardcore scene was mostly young white males, both onstage and in the audience, [26] [27] there are notable exceptions, such as the all-African-American band Bad Brains and notable women such as Crass singer Joy de Vivre and Black Flag's second bassist, Kira Roessler.

Steven Blush states that Minor Threat's Ian MacKaye "set in motion a die-hard mindset that begat almost everything we now call Hardcore" with his "virulent anti-[music] industry, anti-star, pro-scene exhortations." [13] One of the important philosophies in the hardcore scene is authenticity. The pejorative term "poseur" is applied to those who associate with punk and adopt its stylistic attributes but are deemed not to share or understand the underlying values and philosophy. Joe Keithley, the vocalist of D.O.A. said in an interview: "For every person sporting an anarchy symbol without understanding it there’s an older punk who thinks they’re a poseur." [28]

Musical characteristics

Singer Nuno Pereira performing at a A Wilhelm Scream show. A Wilhelm Scream-01.jpg
Singer Nuno Pereira performing at a A Wilhelm Scream show.

In the vein of earlier punk rock, most hardcore punk bands have followed the traditional singer/guitar/bass/drum format. The songwriting has more emphasis on rhythm rather than melody. Critic Steven Blush writes "The Sex Pistols were still rock'n'roll...like the craziest version of Chuck Berry. Hardcore was a radical departure from that. It wasn't verse-chorus rock. It dispelled any notion of what songwriting is supposed to be. It's its own form." [29] According to AllMusic, the overall blueprint for hardcore was playing louder, harder and faster. [30] Hardcore was a reaction to the "cosmopolitan art-school" style of new wave music. [31] Hardcore "eschew[ed] nuance, technique, [and] the avant-garde", and instead emphasized "speed and rhythmic intensity" using unpredictable song forms and abrupt tempo changes. [31]

The impact of powerful volume is important in hardcore. Noisey magazine describes one hardcore band as "...an all-encompassing, full-volume assault" in which "...[e]very instrument sounds like it's competing for the most power and highest volume." [32] Scott Wilson states that the hardcore of the Bad Brains emphasized two elements: "off-the-charts" loudness which reached a level of threatening, powerful "uncompromising noise" and rhythm, in place of the typically focused-on elements in mainstream rock music, harmony and pitch (i.e., melody). [33]

Hardcore vocalists often shout, [30] scream or chant along with the music, using "vocal intensity" [24] and an abrasive tone. [31] The shouting of hardcore vocalists is often accompanied by audience members who are singing along, making the hardcore vocalist like the "leader of a mob". [24] Steven Blush describes one early Minor Threat show where the crowd was singing the lyrics so loud they could be heard over the PA system. [34] Hardcore vocal lines are often based on minor scales [35] and songs may include shouted background vocals from the other band members. Hardcore lyrics expressed the "frustration and political disillusionment" of youth who were against 1980s-era affluence, consumerism, greed, Reagan politics and authority. [31] The polarizing socio-political messages in hardcore lyrics (and outrageous on-stage behaviour) meant that the genre garnered no mainstream popularity. [31]

Youth of Today at a 2010 show. A large 8x10" bass amp speaker stack can be seen onstage. Youth of Today at SO36 (2010).jpg
Youth of Today at a 2010 show. A large 8x10" bass amp speaker stack can be seen onstage.

In hardcore, guitarists frequently play fast power chords with a heavily distorted and amplified tone, creating what has been called a "buzzsaw" sound. [36] Guitar parts can sometimes be complex, technically versatile, and rhythmically challenging. [37] Hardcore guitarists use some approaches that are similar to their thrash counterparts: "...very high output pickups", "lots of upper midrange", "a full, bass-heavy" tone and the use of both guitar amp distortion and a "Tube Screamer or similar overdrive pedal", but without speaker distortion. [38] Guitar melody lines usually use the same minor scales used by vocalists (although some solos use pentatonic scales). [37] Hardcore guitarists sometimes play solos, octave leads and grooves, as well as tapping into the various feedback and harmonic noises available to them. There are generally fewer guitar solos in hardcore than in mainstream rock, because solos were viewed as representing the "excess and superficiality" of mainstream commercial rock. [31]

Hardcore bassists use varied rhythms in their basslines, ranging from longer held notes (whole notes and half notes) to quarter notes, to rapid eighth note or sixteenth note runs. To play rapid bass lines that would be hard to play with the fingers, some bassists use a pick. [37] Some bassists play fuzz bass by overdriving their bass tone. [39]

Hardcore drumming, with the drummer hitting the drums hard, has been called the "engine" and most essential element of the genre's aggressive sound of "unrelenting anger". [40] Two other key elements for hardcore drummers are playing "tight" with the other musicians, especially the bassist (this does not mean metronomic time; indeed coordinated tempo shifts are used in many important hardcore albums) and the drummer should have listened to a lot of hardcore, so that she or he can understand the "raw emotions" it expresses. [40] Lucky Lehrer, the drummer and co-founder of the Circle Jerks in 1979, was an early developer of hardcore drumming; he has been called the "Godfather of hardcore drumming" and Flipside zine calls him the best punk drummer. [41] According to Tobias Hurwitz, '[h]ardcore drumming falls somewhere between the straight-ahead rock styles of old-school punk and the frantic, warp-speed bashing of thrash." [42] Some hardcore punk drummers play fast D beat one moment and then drop tempo into elaborate musical breakdowns in the next. Drummers typically play eighth notes on the cymbals, because at the tempos used in hardcore it would be difficult to play a smaller subdivision of the beat. [37]


Punk fans burning a United States flag in the 1980s. Punks burning a flag.jpg
Punk fans burning a United States flag in the 1980s.

Hardcore punk lyrics often express anti-establishment, anti-militarist, anti-authoritarian, anti-violence, and pro-environmentalist sentiments, in addition to other typically left-wing, anarchist, or egalitarian political views. During the 1980s, the subculture often rejected what was perceived to be "yuppie" materialism and interventionist American foreign policy. [43] Numerous hardcore punk bands have taken far left political stances such as anarchism or other varieties of socialism and in the 1980s expressed opposition to political leaders such as then US president Ronald Reagan and British prime minister Margaret Thatcher. Reagan's economic policies, sometimes dubbed "Reaganomics", and social conservatism were common subjects for criticism by hardcore bands of the time. [44] [45] Jimmy Gestapo of Murphy's Law, however, endorsed Reagan and even went as far to call then former-president Jimmy Carter a "pussy" in a 1986 New York Magazine cover story. [46] Shortly after Reagan's death in 2004, the Maximumrocknroll radio show aired an episode composed of anti-Reagan songs by early hardcore punk bands. [47]

Certain hardcore punk bands have conveyed messages sometimes deemed "politically incorrect" by placing offensive content in their lyrics and relying on stage antics to shock listeners and people in their audience. Boston band the F.U.'s generated controversy with their 1983 album, "My America", whose lyrics contained what appeared to be conservative and patriotic views. Its messages were sometimes taken literally, when they were actually intended as a parody of conservative bands. [48] Another act from Massachusetts, Vile, were known to insult women, minorities and homosexuals in their lyrics and would even go as far as putting their albums on the windshields of people's cars. [49] On the other hand, Tim Yohannan and the influential punk rock fanzine Maximumrocknroll were criticized by some punks for acting as the "politically correct scene police" [50] and having what was perceived to be "a very narrow definition of what fits into Punk" and apparently being "authoritarian and trying to dominate the scene" with their views. [51]

During the 2001–2009 United States presidency of George W. Bush, it was not uncommon for hardcore bands to express anti-Bush messages. During the 2004 United States presidential election, several hardcore punk artists and bands were involved with the anti-Bush political activist group PunkVoter. [52] [53] A minority of hardcore musicians have expressed right wing views, such as the band Antiseen, whose guitarist Joe Young ran for public office as a North Carolina Libertarian. [54] Former Misfits singer Michale Graves appeared on an episode of The Daily Show , voicing support for George W. Bush. [55] Conservative Punk was an American website that attempted to merge right-wing politics with the punk subculture.


The early 1980s hardcore punk scene developed slam dancing (also called moshing), a style of dance in which participants push or slam into each other, and stage diving. Moshing works as a vehicle for expressing anger by "represent[ing] a way of playing at violence or roughness that allowed participants to mark their difference from the banal niceties of middle-class culture." [56] Moshing is in another way a "parody of violence," [43] [57] that nevertheless leaves participants bruised and sometimes bleeding. [43] The term mosh came into use in the early 1980s American hardcore scene in Washington, D.C. A performance by Fear on the 1981 Halloween episode of Saturday Night Live was cut short when moshers, including John Belushi and members of a few hardcore punk bands, invaded the stage, damaged studio equipment and used profanity. [58] [59] Those band members included John Joseph and Harley Flanagan of Cro-Mags and John Brannon of Negative Approach and Ian Mackaye of Minor Threat. [60] Other early examples of American hardcore dancing can be seen in the documentaries Another State of Mind , Urban Struggle , The Decline of Western Civilization , American Hardcore , and 30 Years of Northwest Punk.

Clothing style

Mike Watt, formerly the bassist for the Minutemen in a 2013 show. Mike Watt 2013.jpg
Mike Watt, formerly the bassist for the Minutemen in a 2013 show.

Many North American hardcore punk fans adopted a dressed-down style of T-shirts, jeans, combat boots or sneakers and crewcut-style haircuts. Women in the hardcore scene typically wore army pants, band T-shirts and hooded sweatshirts. [61] The clothing style was a reflection of hardcore ideology, which included dissatisfaction with suburban America and the hypocrisy of American culture. It was essentially deconstruction of American fashion staples—ripped jeans, holey T-shirts, torn stockings for women, and work boots. [62] The style of the 1980s hardcore scene contrasted with the more provocative fashion styles of late 1970s punk rockers (elaborate hairdos, torn clothes, patches, safety pins, studs, spikes, etc.).

Siri C. Brockmeier writes that "hardcore kids do not look like punks", since hardcore scene members wore basic clothing and short haircuts, in contrast to the "embellished leather jackets and pants" worn in the punk scene. [63] Lauraine Leblanc, however, claims that the standard hardcore punk clothing and styles included torn jeans, leather jackets, spiked armbands and dog collars and mohawk hairstyles and DIY ornamentation of clothes with studs, painted band names, political statements, and patches. [64] Tiffini A. Travis and Perry Hardy describe the look that was common in the San Francisco hardcore scene as consisting of biker-style leather jackets, chains, studded wristbands, multiple piercings, painted or tattooed statements (e.g., an anarchy symbol) and hairstyles ranging from military-style haircuts dyed black or blonde to mohawks and shaved heads. [65]

Circle Jerks frontman Keith Morris wrote: "the ... punk scene was basically based on English fashion. But we had nothing to do with that. Black Flag and the Circle Jerks were so far from that. We looked like the kid who worked at the gas station or sub. shop." [66] Henry Rollins stated that for him, getting dressed up meant putting on a black shirt and some dark pants; Rollins viewed an interest in fashion as being a distraction. [67] Jimmy Gestapo from Murphy's Law describes his own transition from dressing in a punk style (spiked hair and a bondage belt) to adopting a hardcore style (shaved head and boots) as being based on needing more functional clothing. [61]


UK and US zines UK and US zines.jpg
UK and US zines

In the pre-Internet era, fanzines, commonly called zines, enabled hardcore scene members to learn about bands, clubs, and record labels. Zines typically included reviews of shows and records, interviews with bands, letters, and ads for records and labels. Zines were DIY products, "proudly amateur, usually handmade, and always independent" and in the "’90s, zines were the primary way to stay up on punk and hardcore." They acted as the "blogs, comment sections, and social networks of their day." [68]

In the American Midwest, the zine Touch and Go described the Midwest hardcore scene from 1979 to 1983. We Got Power described the LA scene from 1981 to 1984, and it included show reviews and band interviews with groups including D.O.A., the Misfits, Black Flag, Suicidal Tendencies and the Circle Jerks. My Rules was a photo zine that included photos of hardcore shows from across the US. In Effect, which began in 1988, described the New York City scene. [68] By 1990, Maximum Rocknroll "had become the de facto bible of the scene." Maximum Rocknroll is a thick, monthly, newsprint magazine with subscriptions in many countries all over the world. MRR had a "passionate yet dogmatic view" of what hardcore was supposed to be, while HeartattaCk and Profane Existence were "even more religious about their DIY ethos." HeartattaCk was mainly about emo and post-hardcore. Profane Existence was mostly about crust punk. [68] The Bay Area zine Cometbus "captured an entire dimension of ’90s punk culture that provided necessary roughage compared to the empty calories of mainstream punk’s MTV/Warped Tour narrative."

Other 1990 zines included Gearhead, Slug and Lettuce and Riot Grrrl. [68] In Canada, the zine Standard Issue chronicles the Ottawa hardcore scene. With the arrival of the Internet, some hardcore punk zines became available online. One example is the e-zine chronicling the Australian hardcore scene, RestAssured.


Late 1970s-early 1980s

United States

Los Angeles

Michael Azerrad states that "[by] 1979 the original punk scene [in Southern California] had almost completely died out." "They were replaced by a bunch of toughs coming in from outlying suburbs who were only beginning to discover punk's speed, power and aggression";"dispensing with all pretension, these kids boiled the music down to its essence, then revved up the tempos...and called the result "hardcore", creating a music that was "younger, faster and angrier, [and] full of...pent-up rage..." [69] Hardcore historian Steven Blush states that for West coasters, the first hardcore record was Out of Vogue by the Santa Ana band Middle Class. [70] The band pioneered a shouted, fast version of punk rock which would shape the hardcore sound that would soon emerge. In terms of impact upon the hardcore scene, Black Flag has been deemed the most influential group. Michael Azerrad, author of Our Band Could Be Your Life , calls Black Flag the "godfathers" of hardcore punk and states that even "...more than the flagship band of American hardcore", they were "...required listening for anyone who was interested in underground music." [71] Blush states that Black Flag defined American hardcore in the same way that the Sex Pistols defined punk. [18] Formed in Hermosa Beach, California by guitarist and lyricist Greg Ginn, they played their first show in December 1977. Originally called Panic, they changed their name to Black Flag in 1978. [72] Black Flag's sound mixed the raw simplicity of the Ramones with atonal guitar solos and frequent tempo shifts.

Black Flag performing live in 1984 Blackflag84.jpg
Black Flag performing live in 1984

By 1979, Black Flag were joined by other Los Angeles-area bands playing hardcore punk, including Fear, the Germs, and the Circle Jerks (featuring Black Flag's original singer, Keith Morris). This group of bands was featured in Penelope Spheeris' 1981 documentary The Decline of Western Civilization . [73] By the time the film was released, other hardcore bands were making a name for themselves in Los Angeles and neighboring Orange County, including The Adolescents, Angry Samoans, Bad Religion, Dr. Know, Ill Repute, Minutemen, New Regime, Suicidal Tendencies, T.S.O.L., Wasted Youth, and Youth Brigade.

Whilst popular traditional punk bands such as the Ramones, The Clash, and Sex Pistols were signed to major record labels, the hardcore punk bands were generally not. Black Flag, however, was briefly signed to MCA subsidiary Unicorn Records, but were dropped because an executive considered their music to be "anti-parent". [74] Instead of trying to be courted by the major labels, hardcore bands started their own independent record labels and distributed their records themselves. Ginn started SST Records, which released Black Flag's debut EP Nervous Breakdown in 1979. SST went on to release a number of albums by other hardcore artists, and was described by Azerrad as "easily the most influential and popular underground indie of the Eighties." [71] SST was followed by a number of other successful artist-run labels—including BYO Records (started by Shawn and Mark Stern of Youth Brigade), Epitaph Records (started by Brett Gurewitz of Bad Religion), New Alliance Records (started by the Minutemen's D. Boon)—as well as fan-run labels like Frontier Records and Slash Records.

Bands also funded and organized their own tours. Black Flag's tours in 1980 and 1981 brought them in contact with developing hardcore scenes in many parts of North America, and blazed trails that were followed by other touring bands. [75] [76] [77] Concerts in the early Los Angeles hardcore scene increasingly became sites of violent battles between police and concertgoers. Another source of violence in LA was tension created by what one writer calls the invasion of "antagonistic suburban poseurs" into hardcore venues. [78] Violence at hardcore concerts was portrayed in episodes of the popular television shows CHiPs and Quincy, M.E.

San Francisco
Jello Biafra performing with the Dead Kennedys Jello-Biafra.jpg
Jello Biafra performing with the Dead Kennedys

Shortly after Black Flag debuted in Los Angeles, Dead Kennedys were formed in San Francisco. While the band's early releases were played in a style closer to traditional punk rock, In God We Trust, Inc. (1981) marked a shift into hardcore. Similar to Black Flag and Youth Brigade, Dead Kennedys released their albums on their own label, which in DK's case was Alternative Tentacles. While not as large as the scene in Los Angeles, the San Francisco Bay Area hardcore scene of the 1980s included a number of noteworthy bands, including Crucifix, Flipper, and Whipping Boy.

Additionally, during this time, seminal Texas-based bands The Dicks, MDC, Verbal Abuse, and Dirty Rotten Imbeciles (D.R.I.) relocated to San Francisco. This scene was helped in particular by the San Francisco club Mabuhay Gardens, whose promoter, Dirk Dirksen, became known as "The Pope of Punk". [79] Another important local institution was Tim Yohannan's fanzine, Maximumrocknroll, as well as his show on Berkeley, California public radio station KPFA Maximum RocknRoll Radio Show, which played the younger Northern California bands. One of those bands was Tales of Terror from Sacramento. Many, including Mark Arm, cite Tales of Terror as a key inspiration for the then-burgeoning grunge scene. [80]

Washington, D.C.
Bad Brains at 9:30 Club, Washington, D.C., 1983 Bad brains 1983.jpg
Bad Brains at 9:30 Club, Washington, D.C., 1983

The first hardcore punk band to form on the east coast of the United States was Washington, D.C.'s Bad Brains. Initially formed in 1977 as a jazz fusion ensemble called Mind Power, and consisting of all African-American members, their early foray into hardcore featured some of the fastest tempos in rock music. [81] The band released its debut single, "Pay to Cum", in 1980, and were influential in establishing the D.C. hardcore scene. Hardcore historian Steven Blush calls the single the first East coast hardcore record. [82]

Ian MacKaye and Jeff Nelson, influenced by Bad Brains, formed the band Teen Idles in 1979. The group broke up in 1980, and MacKaye and Nelson went on to form Minor Threat, who became a big influence on the hardcore punk genre. The band used faster rhythms and more aggressive, less melodic riffs than was common at the time. Minor Threat popularized the straight edge movement with its song "Straight Edge", which spoke out against alcohol, drugs and promiscuity. [83] [84] MacKaye and Nelson ran their own record label, Dischord Records, which released records by D.C. hardcore bands including: The Faith, Iron Cross, Scream, State of Alert, Government Issue, Void, and DC's Youth Brigade. The Flex Your Head compilation was a seminal document of the early 1980s DC hardcore scene. The record label was run out of the Dischord House, a Washington, D.C. punk house. Henry Rollins, who would come to prominence as lead singer of the California-based Black Flag, as well as his own later Rollins Band, grew up in Washington D.C. and was influenced by the music of Bad Brains and the bands of his childhood friend Ian MacKaye. Rollins first band, the D.C. based State of Alert, released a few recordings on Dischord Records produced by MacKaye. [85]


Seminal Boston hardcore bands included Jerry's Kids, Gang Green, The F.U.'s, SS Decontrol, Negative FX, The Freeze, Forced Coitus, and Siege. A faction of the scene was influenced by D.C.'s straight edge scene. Members of bands such as DYS, Negative FX, and SS Decontrol formed the Boston Crew, a militant straight edge group that frequently assaulted punks who drank alcohol or used drugs. The controversy surrounding this crew and their antics sparked a debate about violence within the hardcore scene. In the late 1980s, Elgin James became involved in the militant faction of the Boston straight edge scene, and he later helped found the organization Friends Stand United, which would eventually be classified as a street gang. [86] In 1982, Modern Method Records released This Is Boston, Not L.A. , a seminal compilation album of the Boston hardcore scene. The compilation included songs by The Proletariat, The Freeze, The F.U.'s, Jerry's Kids and Gang Green. Curtis Casella's Taang! Records was also pivotal in releasing material by bands from this era.

New York
Facade of the music club CBGB in New York City CBGB club facade.jpg
Facade of the music club CBGB in New York City

The New York City hardcore scene emerged in 1981 when Bad Brains moved to the city from Washington, D.C. [87] [88] Starting in 1981, there was an influx of new hardcore bands in the city, including Beastie Boys, Murphy's Law, Agnostic Front and Warzone. A number of bands associated with New York hardcore scene came from New Jersey, including Misfits, Adrenalin OD and Hogan's Heroes. [89] [90] Steven Blush calls the Misfits "crucial to the rise of hardcore." [91] New York hardcore had more emphasis on rhythm, in part due to the use of palm-muted guitar chords, an approach called the NY hardcore "chug". [20] The New York scene was known for its tough ethos, its "thuggery", and club shows that were a chaotic "proving ground" or even a "battleground". [20]

In the early 1980s, the New York hardcore scene centred around squats and clubhouses. [20] After the squats were closed down, the scene was headquartered in a small after-hours bar, A7, on the lower east side of Manhattan. Later, New York's hardcore scene was centered around the bar CBGB, whose owner, Hilly Kristal, embraced hardcore punk. The Dead Boys, originally from Cleveland but gained popularity in New York played at Hilly's club often and he even managed them. For several years, CBGB held weekly hardcore matinees on Sundays. This stopped in 1990 when violence led Kristal to ban hardcore shows at the club.

Agnostic Front performing. Agnostic Front live in Rome.jpg
Agnostic Front performing.

Early radio support in New York's surrounding tri-state area came from Pat Duncan, who had hosted live punk and hardcore bands weekly on WFMU since 1979. [92] Bridgeport, Connecticut's WPKN had a radio show featuring hardcore called Capital Radio, hosted by Brad Morrison, beginning in February 1979 and continuing weekly until late 1983. In New York City, Tim Sommer hosted Noise The Show on WNYU. [93] In 1982, Bob Sallese produced The Big Apple Rotten To The Core compilation on S.I.N. Records, featuring The Mob, Ism and four other bands from the early A7 era. The album gained notoriety on the commercial radio station WLIR, and nationally on college radio. The LP was followed by The Big Apple Rotten To The Core, Vol. 2 in 1987 on Raw Power Records.

Other American cities

Minneapolis hardcore consisted of bands such as Hüsker Dü and The Replacements, while Chicago had Articles of Faith, Big Black and Naked Raygun. The Detroit area was home to Crucifucks, Degenerates, The Meatmen, Necros, Negative Approach, Spite and Violent Apathy. JFA and Meat Puppets were both from Phoenix, Arizona;, 7 Seconds were from Reno, Nevada; and Butthole Surfers, Big Boys, The Dicks, Dirty Rotten Imbeciles (D.R.I.), Really Red, Verbal Abuse and MDC were from Texas. Portland, Oregon hardcore punk bands included Poison Idea, Final Warning and The Wipers. Hardcore bands in Washington state included The Accüsed, The Fartz, Melvins, The Dehumanizers, Subvert, and 10 Minute Warning. Hardcore punk from Raleigh, North Carolina included Corrosion of Conformity. Hardcore punk from South Carolina included Bored Suburban Youth (Columbia), Scott Free (Myrtle Beach), Bazooka Joe (Myrtle Beach), Sex Mutants (Florence), Special Olympics (Charleston) Civilian Chaos Corps (Charleston), Colombian Neckties (Charleston) Uncalled Four (Charleston).Dayton, Ohio had Toxic Reasons.


D.O.A. formed in Vancouver, British Columbia in 1978 and were one of the first bands to refer to its style as "hardcore", with the release of their album Hardcore '81 . Other early hardcore bands from British Columbia included Dayglo Abortions, the Subhumans and The Skulls. In 1988, the Dayglo Abortions became the center of national media attention when a police officer instigated a criminal investigation of the band after his daughter brought home a copy of Here Today, Guano Tomorrow . Obscenity charges were laid against the Dayglo Abortion’s record label, Fringe Product, and the label's record store, Record Peddler, but those charges were cleared in 1990. [94] [95] [96]

Nomeansno is a hardcore band originally from Victoria, British Columbia and now located in Vancouver. SNFU formed in Edmonton in 1981 and also later relocated to Vancouver. Bunchofuckingoofs (BFGs), from the Kensington Market neighbourhood of Toronto, Ontario, formed in November 1983 as a response to "a local war with glue huffing Nazi skinheads." [97] Fucked Up is a Toronto band which won the 2009 Polaris Music Prize for the album The Chemistry of Common Life . One early Montreal hardcore band is The Asexuals, a mainstay of the Montreal punk scene in the 1980s.

United Kingdom

The UK anarcho-punk and D-beat band Antisect playing in Brighton in 1985. Antisect Brighton 1985.jpg
The UK anarcho-punk and D-beat band Antisect playing in Brighton in 1985.

In the United Kingdom a fertile hardcore scene took root early on. Referred to under a number of names including "U.K. Hardcore", "UK 82", "second wave punk", [98] "real punk", [99] and "No Future punk", [100] it took the previous punk sound and added the incessant, heavy drumbeats and heavily distorted guitar sound of new wave of British heavy metal bands, especially Motörhead. [101] Formed in 1977 in Stoke-on-Trent, Discharge played a large role in influencing other European hardcore bands. AllMusic calls the band's sound a "high-speed noise overload" characterized by "ferocious noise blasts." [102] Their style of hardcore punk was coined as D-beat, a term referring to a distinctive drum beat that a number of 1980s imitators of Discharge are associated with. [103] Formed in 1976, the hardcore UK Subs were an early example of street punk which would become very visible throughout the 'Eighties, with its distinctive mohawks, tattoos, studded vests and leather jackets, and clothing adorned with political slogans. The following year saw the emergence of Crass, with their politicised and creative anarcho-punk thrust. Conflict, formed a few years later in '81, were another standard bearer of this sub-genre.

Another UK band, The Varukers, were one of the original D-beat bands, [104] and Sweden in particular produced a number of D-beat bands during this time period including Anti-Cimex, Disfear, and Totalitär. Scottish band the Exploited were also influential, with the term "UK 82" (used to refer to UK hardcore in the early 1980s) being taken from one of their songs. They contrasted with early American hardcore bands by placing an emphasis on appearance. Frontman Walter "Wattie" Buchan had a giant red mohawk and the band continued to wear swastikas, an approach influenced by the wearing of this symbol by 1970s punks such as Sid Vicious. Because of this, the Exploited were labeled by others in the scene as "cartoon punks". [105] Other influential UK hardcore bands from this period included Broken Bones, Chaos UK, Charged GBH, Dogsflesh, Disorder, Anti-Establishment, English Dogs, and grindcore innovators Napalm Death.


Australian hardcore bands began appearing in the mid-1980s. Massappeal of Sydney began performing in 1985 and released its first album in 1986. [106] Adelaide's Where's the Pope? formed in 1985 and released their first album in 1987. [107] Other Australian hardcore bands include Mindsnare (formed in 1993), Break Even and 50 Lions (formed in 2005), Iron Mind (formed in 2006), and Confession (formed in 2008). Australian hardcore is played on the national Triple J network on the short.fast.loud program. [108] Veganism and straight edge beliefs are becoming more prominent in the hardcore scene, particularly in Adelaide. [109] Labels that release hardcore include Broken Hive Records, El Shaddai Records, Resist Records and UNFD Records.

Other countries

Hardcore scenes also developed in Italy, Spain and other European countries, Brazil, Japan, and the Middle East.

The Kominas at a Chicago show in 2007. The Taqwa Tour 2007 in Chicago - Flickr - Eye Steel Film.jpg
The Kominas at a Chicago show in 2007.

There was a dynamic Italian hardcore punk scene in the 1980s. Inspired by UK bands such as Crass and Discharge, many Italian groups had lyrics that were anti-war and anti-NATO. Groups included Wretched, Raw Power, and Negazione. The Last White Christmas festival, held in Pisa on Dec. 4, 1983, was an important concert for Italian groups (CCM, I Refuse It!, Raw Power, Purid Fever, War Dogs). Sweden developed several influential hardcore bands, including Mob 47 and Anti Cimex, whose music has also inspired many foreign bands. Since the early 1990s, many Swedish groups were D-beat "tribute bands" to groups such as UK's Discharge. A hardcore scene that emerged in Umeå and other northern cities in the 1990s, with bands such as Refused (Umeå) and Raised Fist (Luleå). Finland produced some influential hardcore bands, including Terveet Kädet, one of the first hardcore groups to emerge in the country. In Eastern Europe notable hardcore bands included Hungaria's Galloping Coroners from 1975, Yugoslavia's 1980s-era Niet from Ljubljana, KUD Idijoti from Pula, and KBO!.

In Brazil, the hardcore scene was jump started with the opening of a punk record shop called Punk Rock Discos in São Paulo in 1979. By the early 1980s, the store was bringing records from British bands like Discharge and Disorder as well as Swedish and Finnish hardcore. Around 1981, punk gigs were happening often around São Paulo, where there were already dozens of active bands, mostly playing hardcore punk and similar styles, most importantly Cólera and Inocentes.

A Japanese hardcore scene arose to protest the social and economic changes sweeping the country in the late 1970s and during the 1980s. The band SS is regarded as the first, forming in 1977. [110] Bands such as The Stalin and GISM soon followed, both forming in 1980. Other notable Japanese hardcore bands include: Balzac, Disclose (a D-beat band), Garlic Boys, Gauze, SOB, [111] and The Star Club.

In recent years, Muslim hardcore bands have emerged in the US, Canada, Pakistan, and Indonesia. The development of Muslim hardcore has been traced to the impact of a 2010 film Taqwacore , a documentary about the Muslim hardcore scene. Bands include "The Kominas from Boston, the all-girl Secret Trial Five from Toronto, Al Thawra (The Power) from Chicago and even a few bands out in Pakistan and Indonesia." [112]


Corrosion of Conformity playing in Denver in 1986 COC 1986.jpg
Corrosion of Conformity playing in Denver in 1986

The mid-1980s were a time of transition for the hardcore scene. Bands such as Hüsker Dü, Articles of Faith, and new bands formed by members of bands like Deep Wound and Minutemen experimented with other genres and were embraced by college radio, coining the term "College Rock". Many Boston bands such as SS Decontrol, Gang Green, DYS, and The F.U.'s, as well as Midwestern hardcore bands Necros, Negative Approach and The Meatmen moved in a slower, heavier hard rock direction. Crossover thrash was another influential movement in mid-1980s hardcore, with bands like D.R.I., Corrosion of Conformity, Suicidal Tendencies, Los Cycos, Cro-Mags, Fang, Agnostic Front, Rich Kids on LSD, The Accüsed and Cryptic Slaughter embracing the thrash metal of bands like Slayer. Most of the Washington, D.C. hardcore scene eschewed hardcore in favor of a college rock-influenced style of punk.

Late 1980s

By the mid to late 1980s, many of the most prominent early hardcore punk bands had broken up. Bad Religion made a progressive rock album with Into the Unknown , [113] the Beastie Boys gained fame by playing hip hop, and Bad Brains incorporated more reggae into their music, such as in their 1989 album Quickness . [114] Social Distortion went on hiatus after its first album was released, due to Mike Ness's drug problems, and returned with a sound based more on country music, which was referred to as cowpunk. [115]

Youth crew

During the late 1980s in New York City, influenced by original straight edge bands 7 Seconds, Minor Threat, Bl'ast, and Uniform Choice, bands spearheaded a youth crew movement. An extension to the original pioneers' groundwork of lyrically expressing views against drugs, alcohol and promiscuous sex, this rebirth also focused on issues such as vegetarianism or veganism. [116] In the late 1980s, NYC bands associated with youth crew included Bold, Gorilla Biscuits, Side by Side, and Youth of Today, and in Southern California, bands such as Chain of Strength and Inside Out.


Mathcore band Dillinger Escape Plan The Dillinger Escape Plan-23.jpg
Mathcore band Dillinger Escape Plan

In the beginning of the 1990s, bands such as Born Against, Rorschach, Burn and Drive Like Jehu took the 1980s styles of hardcore and pushed them into more contemporary sounds. Many of the bands from this era were strongly influenced by other genres, such as heavy metal, alternative, pop, and even rap. Hardcore subsequently became a broad term, as a variety of different genres arose, such as melodic hardcore (Avail, Lifetime, Kid Dynamite), emo (Endpoint, Saves the Day), D-beat (Avskum, Aus Rotten, Skitsystem), powerviolence (Spazz, Dropdead, Charles Bronson), thrashcore (What Happens Next?, Voorhees, Vivisick), mathcore (The Dillinger Escape Plan, Botch, Converge), screamo (Heroin, Antioch Arrow, Portraits of Past, Swing Kids) and rapcore (Biohazard). [117] [118] [119] [120] [121]

While the 1990s had many different sounds and styles emerging, the genre primarily branched into two directions; new school metallic hardcore (also referred as metalcore), which incorporated aspects of thrash metal and death metal for a heavier and more technical sound, and old school, reminiscent of the classic beginnings of hardcore punk. "New school" bands such as Earth Crisis, Snapcase, Strife, Hatebreed, 108, Integrity and Damnation A.D. dominated the scene in the early 1990s, but towards the end of the decade, a new-found interest in "old school" had developed, represented by bands like Battery, Ten Yard Fight, In My Eyes, Good Clean Fun, H2O and Better Than a Thousand. [122] [123] [124] [125] As usage of the Internet became a mainstream tool, music festivals such as Hellfest were born. Many of the bands during this time wrote lyrics about abstinence from drugs, politics, civil rights, animal rights and spirituality.


With the increased popularity of punk rock in the mid-1990s and the 2000s, some hardcore bands signed with major record labels. The first was New York's H2O, who released its album Go (2001) for MCA. Despite an extensive tour and an appearance on Late Night with Conan O'Brien , the album was not commercially successful, and when the label folded, the band and the label parted ways. In 2002, California's AFI signed to DreamWorks Records and changed its sound considerably for its successful major label debut Sing the Sorrow . Chicago's Rise Against were signed by Geffen Records, and three of its releases on the label were certified platinum by the RIAA. [126] Rise Against gradually diminished hardcore elements from their music, culminating with 2008's Appeal to Reason , which lacked the intensity found in their earlier albums. [127] Notable independent label Bridge 9 Records have seen several of their artists rise to prominence, including Defeater, Verse and Have Heart, who had a Billboard chart entry with their second album, 'Songs To Scream At The Sun'. [128]

United Kingdom band Gallows were signed to Warner Bros. Records for £1 million. [129] Their major label debut Grey Britain was described as being even more aggressive than their previous material, and the band was subsequently dropped from the label. [130] The UK has also seen a flurry of melodic hardcore bands in the 2010s, including Landscapes (who have signed to notable Californian label Pure Noise Records, Bridge 9 Records' Dead Swans, and Heart in Hand).

Los Angeles band The Bronx briefly appeared on Island Def Jam Music Group for the release of their 2006 self-titled album, which was named one of the top 40 albums of the year by Spin magazine. [131] They appeared in the Darby Crash biopic What We Do Is Secret , playing members of Black Flag. In 2007, Toronto's Fucked Up appeared on MTV Live Canada , where they were introduced as "Effed Up". [132] During the performance of its song "Baiting the Public", the majority of the audience was moshing, which caused $2000 in damages to the set. [133]

Partly due to developments in digital communications, there has been a rise in interaction between hardcore scenes in different places and subgenres, particularly in Europe. In September 2017, Bandcamp Daily wrote that Fluff Fest, which has been held in Czechia since 2000 and features an international lineup of independent bands ranging in style from crust punk to screamo, "has established itself as the main DIY hardcore punk event in Europe". [134]

Subgenres and fusion genres

Hardcore punk has spawned a number of subgenres, fusion genres and derivative forms. Its subgenres include D-beat, emo, [23] melodic hardcore and thrashcore. Important fusion genres include crossover thrash, [23] crust punk, [23] grindcore, [23] and metalcore, [23] all of which fuse hardcore punk with extreme metal. Key derivatives include post-hardcore and skate punk, and hardcore punk has also influenced a number of heavy metal sub genres.



D-beat (also known as discore or kängpunk) is a hardcore punk subgenre, developed in the early 1980s by imitators of the band Discharge, after whom the genre is named, as well as a drum beat characteristic of this subgenre. The bands Discharge [135] and The Varukers [136] are pioneers of the D-beat genre. Robbie Mackey of Pitchfork Media described D-beat as "hardcore drumming set against breakneck riffage and unintelligible howls about anarchy, working-stiffs-as-rats, and banding together to, you know, fight." [137]

Guy Picciotto of Rites of Spring and Fugazi Guy Picciotto.jpg
Guy Picciotto of Rites of Spring and Fugazi

Emo and post-hardcore

The 1980s saw the development of post-hardcore, which took the hardcore style in a more complex and dynamic direction, with a focus on singing rather than screaming. The post-hardcore style first took shape in Chicago, with bands such as Big Black, The Effigies and Naked Raygun, [138] while later developed in Washington, DC within the community of bands on Ian MacKaye's Dischord Records with bands such as Fugazi, The Nation of Ulysses, and Jawbox. [139] The style has extended until the late 2000s. [139] The mid-80s Washington, D.C. post-hardcore scene would also see the birth of emo. Guy Picciotto formed Rites of Spring in 1984, breaking free of hardcore's self-imposed boundaries in favor of melodic guitars, varied rhythms, and deeply personal, impassioned lyrics dealing with nostalgia, romantic bitterness, and poetic desperation. [140] Other D.C. bands such as Gray Matter, Beefeater, Fire Party, Dag Nasty, also became connected to this movement. [141] [142] The style was dubbed "emo", "emo-core", [143] or "post-harDCore" [144] (in reference to one of the names given to the Washington, D.C. hardcore scene [145] ).

Heavy hardcore

Heavy hardcore is a style of hardcore punk which has deep, hoarse vocals, down-tuned electric guitars, blast beats, and slow breakdowns. [146] [147] [148] More heavy metal-influenced than traditional hardcore punk, [149] Strife, Shai Hulud, Madball and Hatebreed all are heavy hardcore bands. [150] [151] [148] [152]


Often confused with crossover thrash and sometimes thrash metal, is thrashcore. [153] Thrashcore (also known as fastcore [154] ) is a subgenre of hardcore punk that emerged in the early 1980s. [155] It is essentially sped-up hardcore punk, with bands often using blast beats. [154] Just as hardcore punk groups distinguished themselves from their punk rock predecessors by their greater intensity and aggression, thrashcore groups (often identified simply as "thrash") sought to play at breakneck tempos that would radicalize the innovations of hardcore. Early American thrashcore groups included Cryptic Slaughter (Santa Monica), D.R.I. (Houston), Septic Death (Boise) and Siege (Weymouth, Massachusetts). Thrashcore spun off into powerviolence, another raw and dissonant subgenre of hardcore punk. [153] Notable powerviolence bands include Man is the Bastard and Spazz.

Fusion genres


Grindcore is an extreme genre of music that began the early–mid 1980s. Grindcore music relies on heavy metal instrumentation and eventually changed into a genre similar to death metal. Grindcore vocals, according to AllMusic, range "from high-pitched shrieks to low, throat-shredding growls and barks". [156] Grindcore also features blast beats; [157] according to Adam MacGregor of Dusted, "the blast-beat generally comprises a repeated, sixteenth-note figure played at a very fast tempo, and divided uniformly among the kick drum, snare and ride, crash, or hi-hat cymbal." [157] The band Napalm Death invented the grindcore genre; their debut album Scum was described by AllMusic as "perhaps the most representative example of" grindcore. [158]


Metalcore is a fusion genre that merges hardcore punk with extreme metal. Metalcore has screaming, growling, heavy guitar riffs, breakdowns, and double bass drumming. [159] Heavy metal-hardcore punk hybrids arose in the mid-1980s and would also radicalize the innovations of hardcore as the two genres and their ideologies intertwined noticeably, [160] resulting in two main genres one being metalcore. The term has been used to refer to bands that were not purely hardcore nor purely metal such as Earth Crisis, Integrity and Hogan's Heroes. [161] Metallica and Slayer, pioneers of the heavy metal subgenre thrash metal, were influenced by a number of hardcore bands. Metallica's cover album Garage Inc. included covers of two Discharge and three Misfits songs, while Slayer's cover album Undisputed Attitude consisted of covers of predominately hardcore punk bands. During the 2000s, many more metalcore bands became known. Bullet for My Valentine, Killswitch Engage, Atreyu, Shadows Fall, and As I Lay Dying all had some popularity during the 2000s. [159]

Influence on other genres

Alternative rock

The Replacements The Replacements (band).jpg
The Replacements

Some hardcore bands began experimenting with other styles as their careers progressed in the 1980s, becoming known as alternative rock. [162] Bands such as Minutemen, Meat Puppets, Hüsker Dü, and The Replacements drew from hardcore they had played earlier in their careers, but broke away from its "loud and fast" formula.


In the mid-1980s, northern West Coast state bands such as Melvins, Flipper and Green River developed a sludgy, "aggressive sound that melded the slower tempos of heavy metal with the intensity of hardcore," creating an alternative rock subgenre known as grunge. [163] Grunge evolved from the local Seattle punk rock scene, and it was inspired by bands such as The Fartz, 10 Minute Warning and The Accüsed. [164] Grunge fuses elements of hardcore and heavy metal, although some bands performed with more emphasis on one or the other. Grunge's key guitar influences included Black Flag and The Melvins. [165] Black Flag's 1984 record My War , on which the band combined heavy metal with their traditional sound, made a strong impact in Seattle. [166]

Electronic music

Digital hardcore is a music genre fusing elements of hardcore punk and various forms of electronic music and techno. [167] [168] It developed in Germany during the early 1990s, and often features sociological or left-extremist lyrical themes. [167] [168] Nintendocore, another musical style, fuses hardcore with video game music, chiptunes, and 8-bit music. [169] [170] [171]

Sludge metal

The Washington state band Melvins, aside from their influence on grunge, helped create what would be known as sludge metal, which is also a combination between Black Sabbath-style music and hardcore punk. [172] This genre developed during the early 1990s, in the Southern United States (particularly in the New Orleans metal scene). [173] [174] [175] Some of the pioneering bands of sludge metal were: Eyehategod, [172] Crowbar, [176] Down, [177] Buzzov*en, [174] Acid Bath [178] and Corrosion of Conformity. [175] Later, bands such as Isis and Neurosis, [179] with similar influences, created a style that relies mostly on ambience and atmosphere [180] that would eventually be named atmospheric sludge metal or post-metal. [181]

See also

Related Research Articles

Grindcore is an extreme fusion genre of heavy metal and hardcore punk that originated in the mid-1980s, drawing inspiration from abrasive-sounding musical styles, such as: thrashcore, crust punk, hardcore punk, extreme metal, and industrial. Grindcore is characterized by a noise-filled sound that uses heavily distorted, down-tuned guitars, grinding overdriven bass, high speed tempo, blast beats, and vocals which consist of growls and high-pitched shrieks. Early groups like Napalm Death are credited with laying the groundwork for the style. It is most prevalent today in North America and Europe, with popular contributors such as Brutal Truth and Nasum. Lyrical themes range from a primary focus on social and political concerns, to gory subject matter and black humor.

Punk subculture Anti-establishment culture

The punk subculture includes a diverse array of ideologies, fashion, and other forms of expression, visual art, dance, literature and film. It is largely characterised by anti-establishment views and the promotion of individual freedom, and is centred on a loud, aggressive genre of rock music called punk rock. Its adherents are referred to as "punks", also spelled "punx" in the modern day.

SST Records is an American independent record label formed in 1978 in Long Beach, California by musician Greg Ginn. The company was formed in 1966 by Ginn at age 12 as Solid State Tuners, a small business through which he sold electronics equipment. Ginn repurposed the company as a record label to release material by his band Black Flag.

Math rock style of rock music

Math rock is a style of indie rock that emerged in the late 1980s in the United States, influenced by post-hardcore, progressive rock bands such as King Crimson, and 20th century minimal music composers such as Steve Reich. Math rock is characterized by complex, atypical rhythmic structures, counterpoint, odd time signatures, angular melodies, and extended, often dissonant, chords. It bears similarities to post-rock.

Alternative metal is a rock music fusion genre that infuses heavy metal with influences from alternative rock and other genres not normally associated with metal. Alternative metal bands are often characterized by heavily downtuned, mid-paced guitar riffs, a mixture of accessible melodic vocals and harsh vocals and sometimes unconventional sounds within other heavy metal styles. The term has been in use since the 1980s, although it came into prominence in the 1990s.

A number of heavy metal genres have developed since the emergence of heavy metal during the late 1960s and early 1970s. At times heavy metal genres may overlap or are difficult to distinguish, but they can be identified by a number of traits. They may differ in terms of: instrumentation, tempo, song structure, vocal style, lyrics, guitar playing style, drumming style, and so on.

Noise rock is a noise-oriented style of experimental rock that spun off from punk rock in the 1980s. Drawing on movements such as minimalism, industrial music, and New York hardcore, artists indulge in extreme levels of distortion through the use of electric guitars and, less frequently, electronic instrumentation, either to provide percussive sounds or to contribute to the overall arrangement.

Crust punk is a form of music influenced by English punk rock and extreme metal. The style, which evolved in the early-1980s in England, often has songs with dark and pessimistic lyrics that linger on political and social ills. The term "crust" was coined by Hellbastard on their 1986 Ripper Crust demo.

Sludge metal is an extreme style of music that originated through combining elements of doom metal and hardcore punk. It is typically harsh and abrasive, often featuring shouted vocals, heavily distorted instruments and sharply contrasting tempos. While the Melvins from the US state of Washington laid the groundwork for both sludge metal and grunge in the 1980s, sludge as a distinct genre emerged after 1990 through the work of Louisiana bands such as Eyehategod and Crowbar. Later bands often border on stoner rock or post-metal.

Metalcore is a fusion genre combining elements of extreme metal and hardcore punk, that originated in the late 1980s. Among other styles blending metal and hardcore, such as crust punk and grindcore, metalcore is noted for its use of breakdowns, which are slow, intense passages conducive to moshing. Other defining instrumentation includes heavy guitar riffs often utilizing percussive pedal tones and double bass drumming. Vocalists in the genre typically perform screaming, more popular bands often combine this with the use of standard singing, usually during the bridge or chorus of a song. However the death growl is also a popular technique within the genre.

Thrashcore fusion genre of thrash metal and hardcore punk

Thrashcore is a fast tempo subgenre of hardcore punk that emerged in the early 1980s. Thrashcore is essentially sped-up hardcore, often using blast beats. Songs can be very brief, and thrashcore is in many ways a less dissonant, less metallic forerunner of grindcore. The genre is sometimes associated with skateboarder subculture.

Post-hardcore is a punk rock music genre that maintains the aggression and intensity of hardcore punk but emphasizes a greater degree of creative expression initially inspired by post-punk and noise rock. Like post-punk, the term has been applied to a broad constellation of groups. Post-hardcore began in the 1980s with bands like Hüsker Dü, Black Flag, and Minutemen. The genre expanded in the 1980s and 1990s with releases by bands from cities that had established hardcore scenes, such as Fugazi from Washington, D.C. as well as groups such as Big Black and Jawbox that stuck closer to post-hardcore's noise rock roots. In the 2000s, post-hardcore achieved mainstream success with the popularity of bands like My Chemical Romance, AFI, Hawthorne Heights, The Used, At the Drive-In and Senses Fail. In the 2010s, post-hardcore bands like Sleeping With Sirens and Pierce the Veil achieved success and bands like Title Fight and La Dispute experienced underground popularity.

Discharge (band) British hardcore punk band

Discharge are a British punk rock band formed in 1977 in Stoke-on-Trent by Terence "Tezz" Roberts and Royston "Rainy" Wainwright. While the band undergone several line-up changes throughout its history, the classic line-up from the early 1980s featured bassist Wainwright, drummer Gary Maloney, Anthony "Bones" Roberts playing guitar, and vocalist Kelvin "Cal" Morris.

Mathcore is a genre of music often seen as a subgenre of metalcore that combines the speed and aggression of hardcore punk and extreme metal. The genres roots can also be traced to post-hardcore and math rock bands of the early 1990s. Bands in the genre emphasizes complex and fluctuant rhythms through the use of irregular time signatures, polymeters, syncopations and tempo changes. Early mathcore lyrics were addressed from a realistic worldview and with a pessimistic, defiant, resentful or sarcastic point of view.

Minneapolis hardcore is a form of hardcore punk that has evolved since the mid-1970s. Minneapolis-St. Paul featured a lively music scene in the 1960s and 1970s that included an established tradition of local indie labels and live music venues. The Litter were one of the protopunk bands to emerge from the scene in 1966. Their heavily distorted guitar amplifiers played a high volumes became the signature sound for many punk bands that emerged much later. A punk rock scene started to coalesce in the mid-late 1970s around Jay's Longhorn Bar and Oar Folkjokeopus record store. The first recognized punk rock band from Minnesota was the Suicide Commandos, who formed in 1975. Their first 7" EP was released in 1976. They released another 7" EP in 1977 before recording their LP later that year on Blank Records, a sub-label of Mercury Records.

Wasted Youth was a hardcore punk band in the early 1980s from Los Angeles, California. The band followed in the footsteps of Black Flag and the Circle Jerks. It was a prominent and popular act among the Los Angeles punk underground. Other bands active in the early 1980s Los Angeles punk scene were The Adolescents, T.S.O.L., Social Distortion, Bad Religion, Agent Orange, and The Stains.

<i>American Hardcore</i> (film) 2006 film by Paul Rachman

American Hardcore: The History of American Punk Rock 1980-1986 is a documentary directed by Paul Rachman and written by Steven Blush. It is based on the book American Hardcore: A Tribal History also written by Blush. It was released on September 22, 2006 on a limited basis. The film features some early pioneers of the hardcore punk music scene including Bad Brains, Black Flag, D.O.A., Minor Threat, Minutemen, SSD, and others. It was released on DVD by Sony Pictures Home Entertainment on February 20, 2007.

Since the late 1970s, California has had a thriving regional punk rock movement. It primarily consists of bands from the Los Angeles, Orange County, Ventura County, San Diego, San Fernando Valley, San Francisco, Fresno, Bakersfield, Alameda County, Sacramento, Lake Tahoe, Oakland and Berkeley areas.

A number of overlapping punk rock subgenres have developed since the emergence of punk rock in the mid-1970s. Even though punk genres at times are difficult to segregate, they usually show differing characteristics in overall structures, instrumental and vocal styles, and tempo. However, sometimes a particular trait is common in several genres, and thus punk genres are normally grouped by a combination of traits.

Crossover thrash is a fusion genre of thrash metal and hardcore punk. The genre lies on a continuum between heavy metal and hardcore punk. Other genres on the same continuum, such as metalcore and grindcore, may overlap with crossover thrash.


  1. 1 2 Ellis, Iain (2008). Rebels Wit Attitude: Subversive Rock Humorists. Counterpoint Press. p. 172. ISBN   978-1593762063.
  2. Thompson, Stacy (Feb 1, 2012). Punk Productions: Unfinished Business. SUNY Press. p. 71. ISBN   978-0791484609.
  3. James F. Short, Lorine A. Hughes (Jan 1, 2006). Studying Youth Gangs. Rowman Altamira. p. 149. ISBN   978-0759109391.
  4. Moore, Ryan (Dec 1, 2009). Sells like Teen Spirit: Music, Youth Culture, and Social Crisis. NYU Press. p. 50. ISBN   978-0814796030.
  5. Waksman, Steve (Jan 5, 2009). This Ain't the Summer of Love: Conflict and Crossover in Heavy Metal and Punk. University of California Press. p. 210. ISBN   978-0520943889.
  6. 1 2 3 Chapman, Roger (2010). Culture Wars. M.E. Sharpe. p. 449. ISBN   978-0765622501.
  7. 1 2 Leblanc, Lauraine (1999). Pretty in Punk: Girls' Gender Resistance in a Boys' Subculture. Rutgers University Press. p. 49. ISBN   9780813526515.
  8. Von Havoc, Felix (1984-01-01). "Rise of Crust". Profane Existence. Archived from the original on 2008-06-15. Retrieved 2008-06-16.
  9. Blush, Stephen (November 9, 2001). American Hardcore: A Tribal History. Feral House. ISBN   0-922915-71-7.
  10. Milagros Peña, Curry Malott (2004). Punk Rockers' Revolution: A Pedagogy of Race, Class, and Gender. Peter Lang. p. 56. ISBN   9780820461427.
  11. Campbell, Michael. Popular Music in America:The Beat Goes On. Nelson Education, 2012. p. 360
  12. "Recording Industry Association of America". RIAA. Archived from the original on 2013-01-07. Retrieved 2011-12-04.
  13. 1 2 3 Blush, Steven (2 March 2016). "WHAT IS HARDCORE?". greenroom-radio.com. Archived from the original on 9 August 2017. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  14. "D.O.A. To Rock Toronto International Film Festival". PunkOiUK. Archived from the original on 2007-03-11. Retrieved 2006-12-22.
  15. "D.O.A." punknews.org. Archived from the original on 2007-02-27. Retrieved 2006-12-22.
  16. 1 2 Butz, Konstantin. Grinding California: Culture and Corporeality in American Skate Punk. Verlag, 2014. p. 79
  17. Tim Sommer Sounds 10 October 1981 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-07-22. Retrieved 2016-02-17.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  18. 1 2 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-11-02. Retrieved 2014-05-20.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) p. 9
  19. Steven Blush. American Hardcore: a Tribal History. Feral House, 2001. p. 18
  20. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Sanneh, Kelefa (2 March 2015). "United Blood: How hardcore conquered New York". www.newyorker.com. The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 17 June 2017. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  21. Symonds, Rene (16 August 2007). "Features – Soul Brothers: DiS meets Bad Brains". Drowned in Sound. Archived from the original on 11 October 2008. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
  22. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2009. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
  23. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Kuhn, Gabriel (Feb 1, 2010). Sober Living for the Revolution. PM Press. p. 16. ISBN   9781604863437.
  24. 1 2 3 Malory, Curry and Pena, Milagros. Punk Rockers' Revolution: A Pedagogy of Race, Class, and Gender. Peter Lang, 2004. p. 56
  25. Westhoff, Ben (15 October 2013). "What Does 'Hardcore' Mean In Different Music Genres?". www.laweekly.com. LA Weekly. Archived from the original on 17 August 2017. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
  26. Williams, Sarah. "Hardcore". In Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music Volume 8: North America. Edited by John Shepherd and David Horn. p. 257
  27. Butz, Konstantin. Grinding California: Culture and Corporeality in American Skate Punk. Verlag, 2014. p. 94
  28. Ladouceur, Liisa (2004). "Lords Of The New Church". This Magazine. Archived from the original on 2014-11-08.
  29. Blush, Steven (January 2007). "Move Over My Chemical Romance: The Dynamic Beginnings of US Punk". Uncut .
  30. 1 2 Pop/Rock » Punk/New Wave » Hardcore Punk. "Hardcore Punk | Significant Albums, Artists and Songs". AllMusic. Archived from the original on 2014-06-05. Retrieved 2014-08-20.
  31. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Williams, Sarah. "Hardcore". In Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music Volume 8: North America. Edited by John Shepherd and David Horn. p. 257-260
  32. Ozzi, Dan (31 March 2016). "'Progression Through Unlearning,' Snapcase's Timeless Hardcore Classic, Turns 20". noisey.vice.com. Noisey. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
  33. Wilson, Scott A. Music at the Extremes: Essays on Sounds Outside the Mainstream. McFarland, 2015. p. 40
  34. American Hardcore (Second Edition): A Tribal History. p. 158
  35. Kortepeterp, Derek, The Rage and the Impact: An Analysis of American Hardcore Punk Archived 2017-05-05 at the Wayback Machine , p. 12
  36. Steven Blush. American Hardcore: A Tribal Tradition. Feral House, 2001. p. 151
  37. 1 2 3 4 Kortepeter, Derek. "Kortepeterp, Derek, ''The Rage and the Impact: An Analysis of American Hardcore Punk''". Academia.edu. Archived from the original on 2015-03-21. Retrieved 2014-08-20.
  38. Hodgson, Peter (9 April 2011). "METAL 101: Face-melting guitar tones". iheartguitarblog.com. I Heart Guitar. Archived from the original on 24 August 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
  39. "NATE NEWTON OF CONVERGE FEATURED ON BASSPLAYER.COM". epitaph.com. Epitaph. 10 March 2005. Archived from the original on 30 March 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  40. 1 2 Uicic, Gustav. www.straightandalert.com. Straight and Alert Records http://www.straightandalert.com/articles/dynamics-hardcore-drumming. Archived from the original on 22 June 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2017.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  41. Rose, Rustyn (28 October 2016). "Interview: Punk icon Lucky Lehrer talks music and Mary Jane [marijuana], Part Two". www.axs.com. AXS. Archived from the original on 12 June 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
  42. Hurwitz, Tobias (1999). Punk Guitar Styles: The Guitarist's Guide to Music of the Masters. WAlfred Music Publishing. p. 32.
  43. 1 2 3 Williams, J. Patrick (Apr 17, 2013). Subcultural Theory: Traditions and Concepts. John Wiley & Sons. p. 111. ISBN   9780745637327.
  44. "Reagan". nestorindetroit.com. Archived from the original on 2007-12-13.
  45. "Tax Policy, Economic Growth and American Families". house.gov . Internet Archive. July 20, 1995. Archived from the original on July 11, 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-04.
  46. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-09-21. Retrieved 2013-09-20.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  47. "Maximum Rocknroll Radio · Dead Reagan Special". Radio.maximumrocknroll.com. 2004-06-06. Archived from the original on 2012-03-09. Retrieved 2011-12-04.
  48. Blush, Steven (2001). American Hardcore. USA: Feral House. p. 186. ISBN   9781932595895.
  49. "Vile Kill From The Heart Page". Kill From The Heart. Archived from the original on 2015-11-20.
  50. "Maximum Rocknroll: Kick-Ass Photos From Iconic Punk Mag". WIRED. Archived from the original on 2015-09-25. Retrieved 2015-10-19.
  51. Duncombe, Stephen (2014-11-29). Notes from Underground: Zines and the Politics of Alternative Culture. Microcosm Publishing. ISBN   9781621062783.
  52. Swanson, David (January 14, 2004). "Punk Rockers Invade Iowa". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on November 5, 2013. Retrieved 2009-03-31.
  53. "About Punkvoter.com: Members". punkvoter.com. Internet Archive. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007.
  54. Cotton, Quinn (2001-11-17). "Rocked By The Vote | News | Creative Loafing Charlotte". Charlotte.creativeloafing.com. Archived from the original on 2013-04-08. Retrieved 2011-12-04.
  55. "Brendan Kelly, Michael Graves Daily Show footage online". Punknews.org. Archived from the original on 2009-11-25. Retrieved 2011-12-04.
  56. Martin, Bradford (Mar 1, 2011). The Other Eighties: A Secret History of America in the Age of Reagan. Macmillan. p. 111. ISBN   9781429953429.
  57. Palmer, Craig T. (Spring 2005). "Mummers and Moshers: Two Rituals of Trust in Changing Social Environments." Retrieved 2014-11-29
  58. Fear at AllMusic
  59. "Fear on SNL and Ian MacKaye". culturebully.com. 1 March 2006. Archived from the original on 1 July 2009.
  60. "Spit Stix interview". Markprindle.com. Archived from the original on 2011-12-16. Retrieved 2011-12-04.
  61. 1 2 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-11-02. Retrieved 2014-05-20.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Brockmeier, Siri C., “Not Just Boys’ Fun?”: The Gendered Experience of American Hardcore, MA Thesis in American Studies Department of Literature, Area Studies and European Languages ILOS (Universitet I Oslo, 2009) p. 12
  62. Thompson, William Forde (Aug 12, 2014). Music in the Social and Behavioral Sciences: An Encyclopedia. SAGE Publications. p. 500. ISBN   9781452283029.
  63. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-11-02. Retrieved 2014-05-20.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) p. 11
  64. Leblanc, Lauraine, Pretty in Punk: Girls' Gender Resistance in a Boys' Subculture. (Rutgers University Press, 1999), p. 52
  65. Travis, Tiffini A. and Perry Hardy, Skinheads: A Guide to an American Subculture (ABC-CLIO, 2012), p. 123 (section entitled "From San Francisco Hardcore Punks to Skinheads")
  66. "CITIZINE Interview – Circle Jerks' Keith Morris (Black Flag, Diabetes)". Citizinemag.com. 2003-02-17. Archived from the original on 2011-10-06. Retrieved 2011-12-04.
  67. "Hardcore Punk | Complex". M.complex.com. Archived from the original on 2013-11-03. Retrieved 2014-08-20.
  68. 1 2 3 4 Heller, Jason (2013-10-15). "With zines, the '90s punk scene had a living history · Fear Of A Punk Decade · The A.V. Club". Avclub.com. Archived from the original on 2014-08-23. Retrieved 2014-08-20.
  69. Azerrad, Michael (2001). Our Band Could Be Your Life. Bay Back Books. pp. 13–14. ISBN   9780316787536.
  70. Steven Blush. American Hardcore: A Tribal Tradition. Feral House, 2001. p. 19
  71. 1 2 Azerrad, Michael. Our Band Could Be Your Life: Scenes from the American Indie Underground, 1981–1991. Underground Music. ISBN   0-316-78753-1.
  72. Grad, David (July 1997). "Fade to Black". Spin .
  73. The Decline of Western Civilization on IMDb
  74. "Black Flag". Sounds magazine. Retrieved May 27, 2006.
  75. Punknews.org. "Black Flag". Punknews.org. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  76. Black Flag at the Encyclopædia Britannica
  77. "Black Flag". VH1. Archived from the original on 26 May 2009.
  78. "Fantagraphics Books – Los Bros. Hernandez". Fantagraphics.com. Retrieved 7 February 2012.
  79. Selvin, Joel (2006-11-22). "KEN GARCIA – S.F. Punk – Those Were The Days / Mabuhay Gardens featured likes of Switchblades, Devo". The San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on 2012-10-10.
  80. Gustafson, Guphy (2010-01-01). "Tales of Terror: Bad Dream or Acid Trip?". Midtown Monthly. Archived from the original on 2011-08-14. Retrieved 2012-04-27.
  81. "Bad Brains". homepages.nyu.edu. New York University. Archived from the original on 2009-01-01.
  82. Steven Blush. American Hardcore: A Tribal Tradition." Feral House, 2001. p. 19
  83. Cogan, Brian (2008). The Encyclopedia of Punk. New York: Sterling. ISBN   978-1-4027-5960-4.
  84. Azerrad, Michael (2001). Our Band Could Be Your Life: Scenes from the American Indie Underground, 1981–1991. New York: Little, Brown and Company. p. 121. ISBN   0-316-78753-1.
  85. Azerrad, Michael. Our Band Could Be Your Life: Scenes from the American Indie Underground, 1981–1991 . Little Brown and Company, 2001. ISBN   0-316-78753-1.
  86. "FBI — Alleged Founder of Street Gang that Uses Violence to Control Hardcore Punk Rock Music Scene Arrested on Extortion Charge for Shaking Down $5,000 from Recording Artist for Protection". Fbi.gov. Archived from the original on 2014-04-28. Retrieved 2014-08-20.
  87. Andersen, Mark; Mark Jenkins (2001). Dance of Days: Two Decades of Punk in the Nation's Capital. New York: Soft Skull Press. ISBN   1-887128-49-2.
  88. Blush, Steven (2001). American Hardcore: A Tribal History. Los Angeles: Feral House. ISBN   0-922915-71-7.
  89. Bello, John (October 1988). Maximum RockNRoll. New York City: 82.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  90. 1948–1999 Muze, Inc. Hogan's Heroes "POP Artists beginning with 'HOD'". Phonolog (7–278B): 1. 1999. Section 207.
  91. Steven Blush. American Hardcore: A Tribal Tradition. Feral House, 2001. p. 195
  92. "Playlists and Archives for Pat Duncan". WFMU. Archived from the original on 2007-02-02. Retrieved 2006-12-22.
  93. "Tim Sommer". Beastiemania.com. Archived from the original on 2006-10-29. Retrieved 2006-12-22.
  94. "Record Company Found Not Guilty of Obscenity - Los Angeles Times". Articles.latimes.com. Reuters. 1990-11-09. Archived from the original on 2011-01-30. Retrieved 2014-08-20.
  95. Mary (2012-04-26). "Dayglo Abortions | theVAULTmagazine". Thevaultmag.com. Archived from the original on 2014-07-20. Retrieved 2014-08-20.
  96. Canadian Press, "Record firms, rights groups laud obscenity case ruling: Impact on music industry, criminal laws still in doubt" (November 10, 1990)., Reprinted in The Globe and Mail , p. C13.
  97. "Goof for life: Garbage day with Crazy Steve of T.O. punk legends Bunchofuckingoofs". Montreal Mirror. Archived from the original on 2002-11-23.
  98. Glasper 2004, p. 8-9
  99. Liner notes, Discharge, Hear Nothing See Nothing Say Nothing , Castle, 2003
  100. Glasper 2004, p. 384.
  101. Glasper 2004, p. 47
  102. Dean McFarlane (2002-07-09). "Discharge - Discharge | Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". AllMusic. Archived from the original on 2015-07-26. Retrieved 2014-08-20.
  103. "I just wanna be remembered for coming up with that f-ckin' D-beat in the first place! And inspiring all those f-ckin' great Discore bands around the world!" – Terry "Tez" Roberts, Glasper 2004, p. 175.
  104. Glasper 2004, p. 65.
  105. Glasper 2004, p. 360
  106. "KFTH - Mass Appeal Page". Homepages.nyu.edu. Archived from the original on 2011-06-07. Retrieved 2014-08-20.
  107. "KFTH - Where's the Pope? Page". Homepages.nyu.edu. Archived from the original on 2011-06-22. Retrieved 2014-08-20.
  108. "SHORT.FAST.LOUD. on Triple J". Abc.net.au. 2004-06-30. Archived from the original on 2014-07-27. Retrieved 2014-08-20.
  109. "We're just a hardcore band! - Interview with Parkway Drive". Archived from the original on 7 July 2017. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  110. グローバル・プラス株式会社. "<パンクロックの封印を解く>"東京ロッカーズ"の全貌に迫る『ROCKERS[完全版]| V.A.(PUNK) | BARKS音楽ニュース". Barks.jp. Archived from the original on 2014-04-20. Retrieved 2014-08-20.
  111. Ian Christe, Sound of the Beast. The Complete Headbanging History of Heavy Metal (in German), ItBooks, p. 262, ISBN   978-0-380811-27-4
  112. Sanjiv Bhattacharya. "How Islamic punk went from fiction to reality." The Guardian, Thursday 4 August 2011. Available online at: "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-12-21. Retrieved 2016-12-19.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Accessed on July 28, 2014.
  113. Hobey Echlin (2010-03-25). "Bad Religion's Recipe for Longevity – Page 1 – Music – Orange County". OC Weekly. Archived from the original on 2012-09-22. Retrieved 2011-12-04.
  114. "Darryl Jenifer Of Bad Brains: 'I Want To Be The Soldier Of My Music'". Ultimate Guitar Archive. 2007-07-12. Archived from the original on 2009-06-22.
  115. "A Conversation with Mike Ness of Social Distortion – Music – Music Features – Pittsburgh City Paper". Pittsburghcitypaper.ws. Archived from the original on 2009-10-04. Retrieved 2011-12-04.
  116. "Tension building interview with Ray Cappo". FortuneCity . Internet Archive. Archived from the original on 4 July 2004.
  117. Ambrose, Joe (2001). "Moshing - An Introduction". The Violent World of Moshpit Culture. Omnibus Press. p. 5. ISBN   0711987440.
  118. McIver, Joel (2002). "The Shock of the New". Nu-metal: The Next Generation of Rock & Punk. Omnibus Press. p. 10. ISBN   0711992096.
  119. Dent, Susie (2003). The Language Report. Oxford University Press. p. 43. ISBN   0198608608.
  120. Signorelli, Luca (ed.). "Stuck Mojo". Metallus. Il libro dell'Heavy Metal (in Italian). Giunti Editore Firenze. p. 173. ISBN   8809022300.
  121. Bush, John (2002). "Limp Bizkit". All Music Guide to Rock. Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 656. ISBN   087930653X. One of the most energetic groups in the fusion of metal, punk and hip-hop sometimes known as rapcore
  122. Revelation Records. "Bands: Battery". Archived from the original on 28 April 2009. Retrieved 30 August 2009.
  123. SAVEYOURSCENE.COM. Interviews: Good Clean Fun. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-12-06. Retrieved 2009-08-31.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link). Retrieved 2009-08-30.
  124. Insound. MP3: Ten Yard Fight, "Hardcore Pride".. Retrieved 2009-08-30. Archived November 5, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  125. Epitaph Records. "Artist Info: Better Than A Thousand". Archived from the original on 15 January 2010. Retrieved 30 August 2009.
  126. "Recording Industry Association of America". RIAA. Archived from the original on 2013-02-25. Retrieved 2011-12-04.
  127. Stewart, Bill. "Rise Against: Appeal to Reason < PopMatters". Popmatters.com. Archived from the original on 2011-05-25. Retrieved 2011-12-04.
  128. "Have Heart". Archived from the original on 12 March 2017. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  129. "Gallows working on new album". Archived from the original on 2010-12-27.
  130. Myers, Ben (2010-01-06). "Gallows' great rock'n'roll swindle". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 2013-09-30.
  131. "The 40 Best Albums of 2006". SPIN.com. 2006-12-14. Archived from the original on 2011-12-09. Retrieved 2011-12-04.
  132. Sutherland, Sam (2007). "What the Fuck? Curse Word Band Names Challenge the Music Industry". Exclaim! Magazine. Archived from the original on 2012-03-02. Retrieved 2007-10-31.
  133. "Fucked Up Banned From MTV". VICE magazine . TypePad. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04.
  134. Sanna, Jacopo (20 September 2017). "The Sincere and Vibrant World of the Czech DIY Scene". Bandcamp. Archived from the original on 12 March 2018. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  135. Glasper 2009, p. 26.
  136. Glasper 2004, p. 65.
  137. Mackey, Robbie (February 15, 2008). "Disfear: Live the Storm". Pitchfork Media . Archived from the original on June 24, 2013.
  138. Huey, Steve. "Effigies – Biography". AllMusic . Archived from the original on December 28, 2010. Retrieved March 28, 2011.
  139. 1 2 Post-Hardcore at AllMusic
  140. Greenwald, p. 12-13.
  141. Blush, Steven (2001). American Hardcore: A Tribal History . New York: Feral House. p. 157. ISBN   0-922915-71-7.
  142. Greenwald, p. 14.
  143. Azerrad, Michael (2001). Our Band Could Be Your Life: Scenes from the American Indie Underground 1981–1991 . New York: Little, Brown and Company. p. 380. ISBN   0-316-78753-1.
  144. Grubbs, Eric (2008). POST: A Look at the Influence of Post-Hardcore-1985-2007. Bloomington, IN: iUniverse, Inc. p. 27. ISBN   0-595-51835-4 . Retrieved March 25, 2011.
  145. Grubbs, p. 14.
  146. "5 Under the Radar Metal Bands That Are Pushing Boundaries". Radio.com. October 21, 2013. Retrieved November 11, 2017.
  147. "A Taste for Blood Official Biography". Abridged Pause Recordings. October 26, 2013. Retrieved November 13, 2017.
  148. 1 2 Ramirez, Carlos (June 28, 2016). "Best Bestdown Hardcore Bands". No Echo. Retrieved November 11, 2017.
  149. Gramlich, Chris (October 1, 2000). "Shutdown Few and Far Between". Exclaim! . Retrieved November 10, 2017.
  150. Levi, Josh (August 4, 2011). "Madball". River Front Times . Retrieved November 12, 2017.
  151. "CD Reviews - The Final Beatdown Bulldoze". Blabbermouth.net . Retrieved November 11, 2017.
  152. Prato, Greg. "Strife | Biography & History". AllMusic. Retrieved November 11, 2017.
  153. 1 2 "Powerviolence: The Dysfunctional Family of Bllleeeeaaauuurrrgghhh!!". Terrorizer (172): 36–37. July 2008.
  154. 1 2 "Interview with Max Ward". Maximum Rock'n'Roll . Archived from the original on 30 March 2010. Retrieved 19 June 2008.
  155. Felix von Havoc. Maximumrocknroll. Issue 219
  156. "Grindcore". AllMusic . Archived from the original on 2016-03-12.
  157. 1 2 MacGregor, Adam (June 11, 2006). "Agoraphobic Nosebleed - PCP Torpedo / ANBrx". Dusted. Archived from the original on December 21, 2008.
  158. Grindcore at AllMusic . Retrieved 23 February 2014.
  159. 1 2 Bowar, Chad. "What Is Metalcore?". About.com. Archived from the original on 2009-06-19.
  160. Ferris, D.X. (Jun 1, 2008). Slayer's Reign in Blood. A&C Black. p. 146. ISBN   9780826429094.
  161. 1948–1999 Muze, Inc. Hogan's Heroes. Pop Artists Beginning with Hod, Phonolog, 1999, p. 1. No. 7-278B Section 207.
  162. Reynolds, Simon (2005). Rip It Up and Start Again: Post Punk 1978–1984. London and New York: Faber and Faber. pp. 460–467. ISBN   0-571-21569-6.
  163. Azerrad, Michael (2001). Our Band Could Be Your Life . New York: Little, Brown. p. 419. ISBN   0-316-78753-1.
  164. Pray, D., Helvey-Pray Productions (1996). Hype! Republic Pictures.
  165. Prown, Pete and Newquist, Harvey P. Legends of Rock Guitar: The Essential Reference of Rock's Greatest Guitarists. Hal Leonard Corporation, 1997. p. 242-243
  166. Azerrad, Michael. Our Band Could Be Your Life: Scenes from the American Indie Underground, 1981-1991 . Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 2001. ISBN   0-316-78753-1, p. 419.
  167. 1 2 Interview with J. Amaretto of DHR, WAX Magazine, issue 5, 1995. Included in liner notes of Digital Hardcore Recordings, Harder Than the Rest!!! compilation CD.
  168. 1 2 Empire, Alec (28 December 2006). "On the Digital Hardcore scene and its origins". Indymedia.ie . Archived from the original on 9 June 2008. Retrieved 28 May 2008.
  169. Loftus, Johnny. "HORSE the Band – Biography". AllMusic . Rovi Corporation . Retrieved March 14, 2011.
  170. Payne, Will B. (2006-02-14). "Nintendo Rock: Nostalgia or Sound of the Future". The Harvard Crimson . Archived from the original on 2011-06-04. Retrieved 2011-03-14.
  171. Wright (2010-12-09). "Subgenre(s) of the Week: Nintendocore (feat. Holiday Pop)". The Quest. Archived from the original on January 21, 2012. Retrieved 2011-03-21.
  172. 1 2 Huey, Steve. Eyehategod at AllMusic . Retrieved 2008-07-22.
  173. Doom metal at AllMusic . Retrieved 2008-07-22.
  174. 1 2 York, William. Buzzov*en at AllMusic . Retrieved 2008-06-21.
  175. 1 2 Huey, Steve. Corrosion of Conformity at AllMusic . Retrieved 2008-06-21.
  176. Huey, Steve. Crowbar at AllMusic . Retrieved 2008-06-22.
  177. Prato, Greg. Down at AllMusic . Retrieved 2008-06-21.
  178. York, William. Acid Bath at AllMusic . Retrieved 2008-06-21.
  179. Burgess, Aaron (2006-05-23). "The loveliest album to crush our skull in months". Alternative Press . Archived from the original on 2011-08-09. Retrieved 2008-06-22.
  180. Downey, Ryan J.. Isis at AllMusic . Retrieved 2008-06-21.
  181. Karan, Tim (2007-02-02). "Post-metal titans sniff, jump into the ether". Alternative Press . Archived from the original on 2011-06-09. Retrieved 2008-06-21.