|New York hardcore|
|Cultural origins||Early 1980s, New York City, New York, United States|
|Derivative forms||Heavy hardcore|
|New York City|
New York hardcore (also known as NYHC) is both the hardcore punk music created in New York City and the subculture and lifestyle associated with that music. New York hardcore grew out of the hardcore scene established in Washington, D.C., by bands such as Bad Brains (which were the first east coast hardcore punk band) and Minor Threat. Initially a local phenomenon of the 1980s and 1990s, New York hardcore eventually grew to establish an international reputation with little to moderate mainstream popularity but with a dedicated and enthusiastic underground following, primarily in Europe and the United States. With a history spanning over more than 3 decades, many of the early New York hardcore bands are still in activity to this day, some of them being continuously or almost continuously active since their formation (Sick of It All, Agnostic Front, Nihilistics and Murphy's Law) and also in the form of reunion shows.
Around the mid to late 1970s New York City was arguably the birthplace of punk rock with the Ramones and the scene at CBGB. While the next generation of punks emerged in places like Washington, D.C. (Bad Brains and Minor Threat) and California (Black Flag, Dead Kennedys) in the early 1980s, NYC was initially quiet. A few bands like The Mad and The Stimulators hinted at a new direction. The Stimulators featured Harley Flanagan on drums, and attracted some of what would become the NYHC scene to their shows. The Stimulators and the Mad also made friends with Bad Brains, and gave the latter places to stay in town. In late 1980, Vinnie Stigma formed Agnostic Front, a long-running group who became known as the godfathers of New York Hardcore and arguably its most crucial band. Around the same time the term "hardcore" started being used instead of "punk rock" and bands like Cro-Mags, Murphy's Law and Warzone emerged, further cementing the blueprint for the characteristic NYHC sound. Roger Miret of Agnostic Front asserts that "We started using the term 'hardcore' because we wanted to separate ourselves from the punk scene that was happening in New York at the time ... We were rougher kids living in the streets. It had a rougher edge".The early scene was documented on the 1982 New York Thrash compilation. Rock clubs like L'Amour's, A7, Max's, and the already established CBGB's quickly became crucial spots for this newly formed scene.
New York City would come to play a central role in the development of hardcore. In 1981 the Bad Brains moved from DC to New York and an important scene finally emerged, this is regarded a key point in NYHC as the Bad Brains had an enormous impact on local bands at the time. Besides the main influences of Bad Brains, Minor Threat and the LA punk scene; New Jersey horror punk band The Misfits as well as midwest groups Necros and especially Negative Approach are also regarded as early influences on the NYHC scene and the development of a rawer and more aggressive hardcore sound. Early NYHC skinhead bands like Cause For Alarm and Agnostic Front were also heavily influenced by Oi! music as well as English punk bands like The Clash. Other early groups like Cro-Mags, Sheer Terror, Carnivore and Leeway started adding strong metal influences, contributing to the crossover subgenre. Around the late 1980s, NYHC became increasingly heavier and harder in sound as the metal influences grew stronger, consequently some NYHC bands who were previously skinheads started growing their hair and adopting metal looks. Early 1990s bands like Merauder, Darkside NYC and Confusion incorporated strong thrash and death metal leanings, pioneering an early metalcore sound; other second generation groups like Biohazard, Madball, Skarhead and 25 Ta Life were heavily influenced by hip-hop music, an influence which permeated through most of the mid to late 1990s NYHC scene. The heavy hardcore subgenre also emerged amidst the NYHC scene, this was a slower and heavier form of hardcore developed in the early to mid 1990s by bands like Bulldoze (from Brooklyn) and Neglect (from Long Island).
Sam McPheeters argues that
What early New York Hardcore bands lacked in distinctive output, however, they more than compensated for in sheer menace. As the scene coalesced in Reagan's first term, the New York Hardcore scene—known in the shorthand of graffiti and knuckle tattoos as NYHC—injected class into the subculture in a way that no other city could. It was a world marinating in poverty and violence.
Since its early stages, New York hardcore has been heavily associated with hardcore skinhead culture (unrelated to neo-Nazi skinheads), gang ideology and tattoo culture as well as squatting. In the mid to late 1980s, Youth Crew ideology and graffiti culture started to make an impact on the scene and had a long-lasting influence on the genre. Critics and observers have also noted an inspiration and influence from gritty, urban and/or dystopian films such as Death Wish , Taxi Driver , The Warriors , and Escape From New York .Historically, political stances in New York Hardcore have been varied and sometimes controversial. Some of the mid-1980s NYHC groups were aligned with right-wing ideology and had strong stances on immigration and patriotism, all the while openly condemning racism and nazism. There were also leftist groups associated with the scene such as Born Against and Nausea. Beginning with Cro-Mags and inspired by the spirituality of the Bad Brains, some groups also followed the International Society for Krishna Consciousness. By the mid-1990s, NYHC became an international phenomenon with prominent bands all over the globe being heavily influenced by the genre, such as Integrity from Cleveland, Strife from Los Angeles, Hatebreed from Connecticut, and Cold As Life from Detroit; an important scene also emerged in europe with Kickback from France, Ryker's from Germany, Arkangel from Belgium and Backfire from Netherlands, amongst many others.
Hardcore punk is a punk rock music genre and subculture that originated in the late 1970s. It is generally faster, harder, and more aggressive than other forms of punk rock. Its roots can be traced to earlier punk scenes in San Francisco and Southern California which arose as a reaction against the still predominant hippie cultural climate of the time. It was also inspired by New York punk rock and early proto-punk. Hardcore punk generally disavows commercialism, the established music industry and "anything similar to the characteristics of mainstream rock" and often addresses social and political topics with "confrontational, politically-charged lyrics."
Punk fashion is the clothing, hairstyles, cosmetics, jewellery, and body modifications of the punk subculture. Punk fashion varies widely, ranging from Vivienne Westwood designs to styles modeled on bands like The Exploited to the dressed-down look of North American hardcore. The distinct social dress of other subcultures and art movements, including glam rock, skinheads, rude boys, greasers, and mods have influenced punk fashion. Punk fashion has likewise influenced the styles of these groups, as well as those of popular culture. Many punks use clothing as a way of making a statement.
Moshing is a style of dance in which participants push or slam into each other, typically performed to "aggressive" live music. Moshing usually happens in the center of the crowd, generally closer to the stage, in an area called the "pit". It is intended to be energetic and full of body contact.
Agnostic Front is an American hardcore punk band from New York City. Founded in 1980, the band is considered an important influence to the New York hardcore scene, as well as for pioneering the crossover thrash genre.
Metalcore is a fusion music genre that combines elements of extreme metal and hardcore punk. As with other styles blending metal and hardcore, such as crust punk and grindcore, metalcore is noted for its use of breakdowns, slow, intense passages conducive to moshing. Other defining instrumental qualities include heavy riffs and stop-start rhythm guitar playing, occasional blast beats, and double bass drumming. Vocalists in the genre typically yell or scream. Some later metalcore bands combine this with clean singing, often during the chorus. Death growls and gang vocals are common. 1990s metalcore bands were inspired by hardcore while later metalcore bands were inspired by melodic death metal. Melodic death metal bands like At the Gates and In Flames influenced later metalcore bands.
Youth crew is a music subculture of hardcore punk attributed to bands who were primarily active during the mid-to-late 1980s, particularly during the New York hardcore scene of the late 1980s. Youth crew is distinguished from other hardcore and punk scenes by its optimism and moralist outlook. The original youth crew bands and fans were predominantly straight edge and vegetarian advocates.
Crumbsuckers was an American crossover thrash band formed by bass player Gary Meskil in 1982, in Baldwin, Nassau County, New York.
Murphy's Law is an American hardcore punk band from New York City, formed in 1982. While vocalist Jimmy Gestapo remains the only founding member of the band, the line-up has consisted of numerous musicians who have performed with a selection of musical acts across multiple genres, such as Skinnerbox, Danzig, The Bouncing Souls, Mucky Pup, Dog Eat Dog, Hanoi Rocks, Agnostic Front, Warzone, Cro-Mags, D Generation, New York Dolls, Joan Jett & the Blackhearts, The Slackers, Thursday, Skavoovie and the Epitones, and Glen Campbell.
The history of the punk subculture involves the history of punk rock, the history of various punk ideologies, punk fashion, punk visual art, punk literature, dance, and punk film. Since emerging in the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia in the mid-1970s, the punk subculture has spread around the globe and evolved into a number of different forms. The history of punk plays an important part in the history of subcultures in the 20th century.
American Hardcore: The History of American Punk Rock 1980–1986 is a documentary directed by Paul Rachman and written by Steven Blush. It is based on the 2001 book American Hardcore: A Tribal History also written by Blush. It was released on September 22, 2006 on a limited basis. The film features some early pioneers of the hardcore punk music scene including Bad Brains, Black Flag, D.O.A., Minor Threat, Minutemen, SSD, and others. It was released on DVD by Sony Pictures Home Entertainment on February 20, 2007.
Leeway is an American crossover thrash band formed in Astoria, New York, United States, in 1984 by guitarist A.J. Novello and vocalist Eddie Sutton under the name The Unruled. To date, the band has released four studio albums — Born to Expire (1989), Desperate Measures (1991), Adult Crash (1994) and Open Mouth Kiss (1995) — and broken up and reformed several times over the years. Despite never achieving notable commercial success, Leeway is considered to be an integral part of the 1980s NYHC and crossover thrash scenes.
A7 was a club in New York City. From 1981 to 1984, it was the unofficial headquarters of the New York hardcore scene. The tiny space was located on the southeast corner of East 7th Street and Avenue A in Manhattan's East Village. The Violators were one of the first punk bands to play there, performing once a month for over a year. Other bands that played on the Violators' night included Minor Threat, Social Distortion, The Undead and False Prophets. Many of the NYC Oi! and hardcore bands would play on the bill, including hardcore icons Bad Brains, and gradually the A7 club turned into a hardcore scene. The club was staffed by members of the NYHC scene, including Doug Holland of Kraut, Raybeez of Agnostic Front and Warzone, and Jimmy Gestapo of Murphy's Law. The club operated without a liquor license and was often raided by police. A warning spray-painted on the outside of the building read: "Out of town bands remember where you are".
A number of overlapping punk rock subgenres have developed since the emergence of punk rock in the mid-1970s. Even though punk genres at times are difficult to segregate, they usually show differing characteristics in overall structures, instrumental and vocal styles, and tempo. However, sometimes a particular trait is common in several genres, and thus punk genres are normally grouped by a combination of traits.
Crossover thrash is a fusion genre of thrash metal and hardcore punk. The genre lies on a continuum between heavy metal and hardcore punk. Other genres on the same continuum, such as metalcore and grindcore, may overlap with crossover thrash.
Punk rock and hardcore punk in Brazil originated in the late 1970s, influenced by bands such as Sex Pistols, The Clash, Stiff Little Fingers and The Ramones. The first known Brazilian punk rock band was Restos de Nada, which appeared in mid-1978 and set the stage for the emergence of many other bands that formed the scene Brazilian punk scene.
Hardcore skinheads are skinheads who mainly associate with hardcore and sometimes heavy metal instead of Oi!, ska, soul or other music genres associated with the skinhead subculture.
Krishnacore is a subgenre of hardcore punk which draws inspiration from the Hare Krishna tradition. Although some hardcore punk bands had already made references to Krishna Consciousness in the 1980s, the subgenre was established in the early 1990s by the bands Shelter and 108. The name is a portmanteau of "Krishna" and "hardcore".
The Stimulators were an American punk rock band from New York City. Although they have a limited discography, they are notable for being consistently cited as an important transitional band between the late-1970s New York City punk rock scene and New York hardcore, and for being the musical entry point for future Cro-Mags founder Harley Flanagan.
Heavy hardcore is a subgenre of hardcore punk that incorporates more music elements of heavy metal than traditional hardcore punk. Heavy hardcore features aggressive vocals, down-tuned electric guitars, gang vocals, and heavy breakdowns. The genre emerged in the late 1980s and early 1990s with bands such as Killing Time, Madball, and Sheer Terror. In the mid-to-late 1990s and early 2000s, many other heavy hardcore bands, such as Hatebreed, Bulldoze, Shai Hulud, and Strife, all became prominent heavy hardcore bands. Heavy hardcore bands such as Terror and Death Before Dishonor gained cult followings in the mid-to-late-2000s. New York hardcore bands such as Agnostic Front, Warzone, Sick of It All, and Cro-Mags and the thrash metal subgenre crossover thrash paved the way for heavy hardcore.
Straight Ahead was an American straight edge hardcore punk band formed in Queens, New York in 1984, by drummer and vocalist Tommy Carroll, guitarist Gordon Ancis and bassist Tony Marc Shimkin.