Crust punk

Last updated

Crust punk (also known as crust or stenchcore [5] ) is a form of music influenced by English punk rock and extreme metal. [6] The style, which evolved in the early-1980s in England, [7] often has songs with dark and pessimistic lyrics that linger on political and social ills. The term "crust" was coined by Hellbastard on their 1986 Ripper Crust demo. [8]

Punk rock is a rock music genre that emerged in the mid-1970s in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia. Rooted in 1960s garage rock and other forms of what is now known as "proto-punk" music, punk rock bands rejected perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock. They typically produced short, fast-paced songs with hard-edged melodies and singing styles, stripped-down instrumentation, and often political, anti-establishment lyrics. Punk embraces a DIY ethic; many bands self-produce recordings and distribute them through independent record labels.

Extreme metal is a loosely defined umbrella term for a number of related heavy metal music subgenres that have developed since the early 1980s. It has been defined as a "cluster of metal subgenres characterized by sonic, verbal and visual transgression".

Hellbastard English Band

Hellbastard is a band formed in 1985 in the United Kingdom. "We're above all that pigeon-holed B-S cross-referenced, cross-indexed childish crap" claims former Bassist Jake Martin.


Crust is partly defined by its "bassy" and "dirty" sound. It is often played at a fast tempo with occasional slow sections. Vocals are usually guttural and may be grunted, growled or screamed. Crust punk takes cues from the anarcho-punk of Crass and Discharge [6] and the heavy metal of bands like Venom, Trouble, Hellhammer, Celtic Frost, Black Sabbath and Motörhead. [6] [9] While the term was first associated with Hellbastard, Amebix have been described as the originators of the style, along with Discharge and Antisect. [6]

The bass guitar is a plucked string instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric or an acoustic guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, and typically four to six strings or courses.

Distortion (music) form of audio signal processing giving "fuzzy" sound

Distortion and overdrive are forms of audio signal processing used to alter the sound of amplified electric musical instruments, usually by increasing their gain, producing a "fuzzy", "growling", or "gritty" tone. Distortion is most commonly used with the electric guitar, but may also be used with other electric instruments such as bass guitar, electric piano, and Hammond organ. Guitarists playing electric blues originally obtained an overdriven sound by turning up their vacuum tube-powered guitar amplifiers to high volumes, which caused the signal to distort. While overdriven tube amps are still used to obtain overdrive in the 2010s, especially in genres like blues and rockabilly, a number of other ways to produce distortion have been developed since the 1960s, such as distortion effect pedals. The growling tone of distorted electric guitar is a key part of many genres, including blues and many rock music genres, notably hard rock, punk rock, hardcore punk, acid rock, and heavy metal music.

In musical terminology, tempo is the speed or pace of a given piece. In classical music, tempo is typically indicated with an instruction at the start of a piece and is usually measured in beats per minute. In modern classical compositions, a "metronome mark" in beats per minute may supplement or replace the normal tempo marking, while in modern genres like electronic dance music, tempo will typically simply be stated in bpm.



Crust punk is a derivative form of hardcore punk and anarcho-punk, mixed with metal riffs. [6] The tempos are often fast, but just short of thrashcore or grindcore. However, many groups confine themselves to a crawling, sludgy pace. The overall musical sound has been described as being "stripped down". [10] Drumming is typically done at high speed, with D-beats sometimes being used. [3]

Hardcore punk Subgenre of punk rock

Hardcore punk is a punk rock music genre and subculture that originated in the late 1970s. It is generally faster, harder, and more aggressive than other forms of punk rock. Its roots can be traced to earlier punk scenes in San Francisco and Southern California which arose as a reaction against the still predominant hippie cultural climate of the time. It was also inspired by New York punk rock and early proto-punk. New York punk had a harder-edged sound than its San Francisco counterpart, featuring anti-art expressions of masculine anger, energy, and subversive humor. Hardcore punk generally disavows commercialism, the established music industry and "anything similar to the characteristics of mainstream rock" and often addresses social and political topics with "confrontational, politically-charged lyrics."

Anarcho-punk is punk rock that promotes anarchism. The term "anarcho-punk" is sometimes applied exclusively to bands that were part of the original anarcho-punk movement in the United Kingdom in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Some use the term more broadly to refer to any punk music with anarchist lyrical content, which may figure in crust punk, hardcore punk, folk punk, and other styles.

Thrashcore fusion genre of thrash metal and hardcore punk

Thrashcore is a fast tempo subgenre of hardcore punk that emerged in the early 1980s. Thrashcore is essentially sped-up hardcore, often using blast beats. Songs can be very brief, and thrashcore is in many ways a less dissonant, less metallic forerunner of grindcore. The genre is sometimes associated with skateboarder subculture.

Vocals and lyrics

Vocals in crust punk are often shrieked or shouted, and may be shared between two or more vocalists. The lyrical content of crust punk tends to be bleak and nihilistic, yet politically engaged. Crust punk songs are often about nuclear war, militarism, animal rights, police, personal grievances, oppressive states and fascism. Amebix were also interested in various forms of mysticism and Gnosticism. [9] Malcolm "Scruff" Lewty, guitarist and vocalist of Hellbastard, describes the distinction between metal and crust punk lyrics:

Militarism belief of government that it should maintain a strong military and be prepared to use it

Militarism is the belief or the desire of a government or a people that a state should maintain a strong military capability and to use it aggressively to expand national interests and/or values. It may also imply the glorification of the military and of the ideals of a professional military class and the "predominance of the armed forces in the administration or policy of the state".

Animal rights Belief that non-human animals have basic interests that should be afforded similar consideration as those of humans

Animal rights is the idea in which some, or all, non-human animals are entitled to the possession of their own existence and that their most basic interests—such as the need to avoid suffering—should be afforded the same consideration as similar interests of human beings.

Fascism Form of radical, right-wing, authoritarian ultranationalism

Fascism is a form of far right-wing, authoritarian ultranationalism characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition, and strong regimentation of society and of the economy which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe. The first fascist movements emerged in Italy during World War I, before spreading to other European countries. Opposed to liberalism, Marxism, and anarchism, fascism is placed on the far-right within the traditional left–right spectrum.

Metal lyrics were so dumb, so far removed from daily life. Venom were going on about Satan... and bikes... and Satan... and women... and Satan! You know what? I never got up in the morning and said, 'Fuck yeah! Satan! Let's go and meet my disciples from Hell!' I'd switch on the TV and know I was going to see hundreds of people dying because there'd been an earthquake in the third world... and all these people starving to death while military expenditure still increased... That was — and still is — the reality of it. The whole heavy metal thing is just an escape from reality, into this other world of... well, bullshit basically. [11]



The initial inspiration for the crust punk scene came from the anarcho-punk of Crass [6] and D-beat of Discharge. [4] Swedish D-beat groups such as Crude SS, Skitslickers/Anti Cimex and Mob 47 and the Finnish Rattus were also early influences. [12] Amebix also brought in influences from various post-punk bands, including Public Image Ltd., Bauhaus, Joy Division, and especially Killing Joke. [9] The early metal sound of Black Sabbath and Motörhead was also a big influence on both Amebix and Antisect.

Crass British Anarcho-Punk Rock Band

Crass were an English art collective and punk rock band formed in 1977 who promoted anarchism as a political ideology, a way of life and a resistance movement. Crass popularised the anarcho-punk movement of the punk subculture, advocating direct action, animal rights, feminism, anti-fascism, and environmentalism. The band used and advocated a DIY ethic approach to its albums, sound collages, leaflets, and films.

D-beat Genre of hardcore punk

D-beat is a style of hardcore punk, developed in the early 1980s by imitators of Discharge, after whom the genre is named, as well as a drum beat characteristic of this subgenre. D-beat is known for its "grinding, distorted and brutally political" sound. Discharge may have themselves inherited the beat from Motörhead and the Buzzcocks. D-beat is closely associated with crust punk, which is a heavier, more complex variation. The style was particularly popular in Sweden, and developed there by groups such as Crude SS, Anti Cimex, Mob 47, and Driller Killer. Other D-beat groups include Doom and the Varukers from the UK; Disclose from Japan; Crucifix and Final Conflict from the U.S.; Ratos de Porão from Brazil; and MG15 from Spain. While the style initially developed in the early 1980s, a number of new groups working within the subgenre emerged in the mid-1990s. These include the Swedish groups Wolfbrigade, Totalitär, Avskum, Skitsystem, and Disfear.

Discharge (band) British hardcore punk band

Discharge are a British punk rock band formed in 1977 in Stoke-on-Trent by Terence "Tezz" Roberts and Royston "Rainy" Wainwright. While the band undergone several line-up changes throughout its history, the classic line-up from the early 1980s featured bassist Wainwright, drummer Gary Maloney, Anthony "Bones" Roberts playing guitar, and vocalist Kelvin "Cal" Morris.


Pioneering English crust punk band Antisect performing in Finland in 2011 Antisect Finland 2011.jpg
Pioneering English crust punk band Antisect performing in Finland in 2011

Crust was founded by the bands Amebix [3] [13] and Antisect. [6] The term "crust" was coined by Hellbastard on their 1986 Ripper Crust demo. [6] As punk historian Ian Glasper puts it,

'Rippercrust' is widely regarded as the first time the word 'crust' was used in the punk context, and hence the specific starting point of the whole crust punk genre, although some would attribute that accolade to the likes of Disorder, Chaos UK, and Amebix several years earlier.


Malcolm "Scruff" Lewty, vocalist and guitarist of the group, commented,

A lot of people say we started the crust punk genre, but whatever. If they wanna say that, I don't mind, but I'm certainly no Malcolm McLaren, saying I invented something I didn't.


Punk journalist Felix von Havoc contends that Doom, Excrement of War, Electro Hippies and Extreme Noise Terror were among the first bands to have the traditional UK "crust" sound. [6] Additional subgenres of this style began to develop. Deviated Instinct, from Norwich, created "stenchcore", bringing "both the look and sound — dirty and metallic, respectively — to their natural conclusion". [14] Initially an anarcho-punk group, they began to take increasing influence from metal. As vocalist Julian "Leggo" Kilsby comments,

We were very much a part of the anarcho scene, to start with, very politically motivated... all the way through the band's existence, really, although it got less obvious as time went by. But I never really liked the straightforward 'War is bad...' lyrics that were so prevalent at the time, so as my writing skills improved I wanted to add more depth to our lyrics and make them more metaphorical; I'd always been into horror films, so that started to manifest itself in the imagery I was using...


Extreme Noise Terror is credited with developing this style into grindcore. [4] However, Pete Hurley, the guitarist for the group, declared that he had no interest in being remembered as a pioneer of this style: "'grindcore' was a legendarily stupid term coined by a hyperactive kid from the West Midlands, and it had nothing to do with us whatsoever. ENT were, are, and — I suspect — always will be a hardcore punk band... not a grindcore band, a stenchcore band, a trampcore band, or any other sub-sub-sub-core genre-defining term you can come up with." [16]

American crust punk began in New York City, also in the mid-1980s, with the work of Nausea. The group emerged from the Lower East Side squat scene and New York hardcore, [17] living with Roger Miret of Agnostic Front. [18] The early work of Neurosis, from San Francisco, also borrowed from Amebix, and inaugurated crust punk on the West Coast. [19] [20] Disrupt (Boston), [21] Antischism (South Carolina), MISERY and Destroy (Minneapolis) were also significant U.S. crust groups. [6]


An important American crust punk band was Aus Rotten [22] from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Crust punk also flourished in Minneapolis, shepherded by the Profane Existence label. [12] In this period, the ethos of crust punk became particularly codified, with vegetarianism, feminism, and sometimes straight edge being prescribed by many of the figures in the scene. [12] The powerviolence scene associated with Slap-a-Ham Records was in close proximity to crust punk, particularly in the case of Man Is the Bastard and Dropdead. [23] Crust was also prominent in the American South, where Prank Records and CrimethInc. acted as focal points of the scene. The most well-known representative of Southern crust was His Hero Is Gone. [3] [24] Prominent crust punk groups (Driller Killer, Totalitär, Skitsystem, Wolfbrigade, and Disfear) also emerged from Sweden, which had always had a strong D-beat scene. Many of these groups developed in parallel with the much more commercial Scandinavian death metal scene. [25]


Some notable crust bands in the 2000s include Iskra, [26] Behind Enemy Lines, [27] and Tragedy. The Spanish city A Coruña has a crust scene which includes bands as Black Panda, Ekkaia and Madame Germen. [28] In 2017, Bandcamp Daily wrote that Fluff Fest, held in Czechia since 2000, has become a "summer ritual" for many fans of crust punk in Europe. [29]

Relations with other genres

Vivian Slaughter of Gallhammer. Vivian Slaughter.jpg
Vivian Slaughter of Gallhammer.


As Amebix was heavily influenced by Killing Joke, [6] [9] who are among the founders of industrial rock, [30] crust punk has always had some relationship to this style. Nausea also eventually incorporated elements of industrial rock. [31]


Crust punk had a major impact on grindcore's emergence. The first grindcore, practiced by the British bands such as Napalm Death and Extreme Noise Terror emerged from the crust punk scene. [6] This early style is sometimes dubbed "crustgrind". [4]

Thrashcore and powerviolence

The thrashcore and powerviolence genres which emerged from American hardcore punk are also linked to crust, in the cases of Man Is the Bastard, Dropdead, [23] Septic Death and The Accüsed. [32]


Crustcore (also known as crusty hardcore), is a sub-genre of crust punk that takes influence from hardcore punk and sometimes thrashcore. Felix Havok described Extreme Noise Terror's segment of the "Earslaughter" split album with Chaos UK as the first album in the genre. Crustcore bands include Extreme Noise Terror, Doom, Disrupt, [6] Wolfbrigade, [33] Neurosis, [34] Baptists, [35] Discharge [36] and Filth. [37]

Crack rock steady

Crack rock steady is a punk rock fusion-genre, which combines elements of crust punk and ska punk. [38] Lyrics often focus on themes such as drug-use, religion, [38] politics [39] and social issues. [40] Other genres sometimes incorporated in conjunction with the style include black metal, [40] hardcore punk [38] classical music and heavy metal. [41] Notable bands within the genre include Choking Victim, Leftöver Crack, Morning Glory and Star Fucking Hipsters. [38]

Blackened crust

Crust punk groups, such as Antisect, Sacrilege and Anti System took some influence from early black metal bands like Venom, Hellhammer, and Celtic Frost, [6] while Amebix's lead vocalist and guitarist sent his band's early demo tape to Cronos of Venom, who replied by saying "We’ll rip you off". [42] Similarly, Bathory was initially inspired by crust punk as well as heavy metal. [43] Crust punk was affected by a second wave of black metal in the 1990s, with some bands emphasizing these black metal elements. Iskra are probably the most obvious example of second wave black metal-influenced crust punk; [26] Iskra coined their own phrase "blackened crust" to describe their new style. The Japanese group Gallhammer also fused crust punk with black metal [44] while the English band Fukpig has been said to have elements of crust punk, black metal, and grindcore. [45] [46] Germany's Downfall of Gaia has been described as mixing crustgrind and black metal, along with elements of sludge metal, doom metal and post-metal. [47] North Carolina's Young and in the Way have been playing blackened crust since their formation in 2009. [48] In addition, Norwegian band Darkthrone have incorporated crust punk traits in their more recent material. As Daniel Ekeroth wrote in 2008,

In a very ironic paradox, black metal and crust punk have recently started to embrace one another. Members of Darkthrone and Satyricon have lately claimed that they love punk, while among crusties, black metal is the latest fashion. In fact, the latest album by crust punk band Skitsystem sounds very black metal--while the latest black metal opus by Darkthrone sounds very punk! This would have been unimaginable in the early 90s.



Crust punk also has an associated DIY-oriented branch of punk garb. Similar to anarcho-punk, most clothing is black in color. Denim jackets and hooded sweatshirts with sewn-on patches, or vests covered in studs, spikes and band patches are characteristic elements of the crust punk style of dress or pants covered in band patches. [50] [51] Crusties sometimes wear dreadlocks. [52]

Julian "Leggo" Kilsby of Deviated Instinct describes crust as "a punk-y biker look, more akin to Mad Max. Mad Max 2 is the crustiest film ever made!" [53]

List of bands

Agrimonia Sweden2005 [54]
Amebix UK1978 [55]
Anti Cimex Sweden1981 [54]
Antischism USA1988 [6]
Antisect UK1982 [56]
Anti System UK1981 [6]
Aus-Rotten USA1992 [54]
Avskum Sweden1982 [7]
Behind Enemy Lines USA2000 [57]
Broken Bones UK1983 [58]
Concrete Sox UK1984 [6]
Corrupt Leaders Canada2013


Cult Leader US2013 [60]
Darkthrone Norway1987 [49]
Deviated Instinct UK1984 [6]
Dirt UK1980 [61]
Discharge UK1977 [6]
Disfear Sweden1992 [62] [63]
Disrupt USA1987 [54]
Doom UK1987 [61]
Down Among the Dead Men Scandinavia2013 [64]
Downfall of Gaia Germany2008 [47]
Driller Killer Sweden1993 [65]
Dystopia USA1991 [66]
Early Graves USA2007 [67]
Extreme Noise Terror UK1985 [6]
Fall of Efrafa UK2005 [54]
Filth USA1989 [68]
Final Warning USA1982 [7]
F-Minus USA1995 [69]
From Ashes Rise USA1997 [70]
Fleas and Lice The Netherlands1993 [61]
Gallhammer Japan2003 [61]
Gauze Japan1981 [6]
Hellbastard UK1986 [61]
His Hero Is Gone USA1995 [71]
Iron Monkey UK1994 [72]
Kaaos Finland1980 [7]
Leftöver Crack USA1998 [73]
Mob 47 Sweden1982 [54]
Nausea USA1985 [74]
Neurosis USA1985 [54]
Raw Radar War USA2002 [75]
Sacrilege UK1984 [6]
Septic Tank UK1994 [76]
Skarp USA1999 [77]
Skitsystem Sweden1994 [54]
Sore Throat UK1987 [78]
Svalbard UK2011 [79]
Tau Cross International2013 [80] [81]
Totem Skin Sweden2012 [82]
Toxic Narcotic USA1989 [68]
Tragedy USA1995 [54]
The Varukers UK1979 [6]
Vorvaň Russia2009 [83]
Wolfbrigade Sweden1995 [84]
Young and in the Way USA2009 [85]

Crust punk record labels

See also

Related Research Articles

Grindcore is an extreme fusion genre of heavy metal and hardcore punk that originated in the mid-1980s, drawing inspiration from abrasive-sounding musical styles, such as: thrashcore, crust punk, hardcore punk, extreme metal, and industrial. Grindcore is characterized by a noise-filled sound that uses heavily distorted, down-tuned guitars, grinding overdriven bass, high speed tempo, blast beats, and vocals which consist of growls and high-pitched shrieks. Early groups like Napalm Death are credited with laying the groundwork for the style. It is most prevalent today in North America and Europe, with popular contributors such as Brutal Truth and Nasum. Lyrical themes range from a primary focus on social and political concerns, to gory subject matter and black humor.

Swedish death metal is a death metal music scene developed in Sweden. Many Swedish death metal bands are associated with the melodic death metal movement, thus giving Swedish death metal a different sound from other variations of death metal. Unlike American death metal groups, the first Swedish bands were rooted in hardcore punk. Although Norway is known for its quantity of black metal, Gothenburg in Sweden has a large melodic death metal scene, while Stockholm is known for its more raw death metal scene.

<i>Scum</i> (Napalm Death album) 1987 studio album by Napalm Death

Scum is the debut studio album by English grindcore band Napalm Death. It was released on 1 July 1987 through Earache Records. It is widely considered a formative influence on the grindcore genre.

A number of heavy metal genres have developed since the emergence of heavy metal during the late 1960s and early 1970s. At times heavy metal genres may overlap or are difficult to distinguish, but they can be identified by a number of traits. They may differ in terms of: instrumentation, tempo, song structure, vocal style, lyrics, guitar playing style, drumming style, and so on.

Amebix UK based punk/metal band

Amebix were an English punk rock band. Formed as "The Band with No Name", Amebix's original run was from 1978 to 1987, during which time they released three EPs and two full-length LPs. The group reunited in 2008 and disbanded again in November 2012.

Japanese hardcore is the hardcore punk scene in Japan, which originated to protest the social and economic changes sweeping the country in the 1980s. The band SS is regarded as the first, forming in 1977. Bands such as The Stalin and GISM soon followed, forming in 1980 and 1981 respectively. Occasionally, Japanese hardcore musicians include elements of crossover thrash, thrash metal, anarcho-punk, horror punk, D-beat and grindcore in their songs.

Nausea (band) music band

Nausea was an American crust punk band from New York City, active from 1985–1992. Nausea is usually cited as being integral in the rise of American crust punk, a fusion of anarcho-punk and thrash metal styles.

<i>Terrorizer</i> (magazine)

Terrorizer was an extreme music magazine published by Dark Arts Ltd. in the United Kingdom. It was released every four weeks with thirteen issues a year and featured a "Fear Candy" covermount CD, a twice yearly "Fear Candy Unsigned" CD, and a double-sided poster.

Gallhammer band

Gallhammer is a Japanese extreme metal group that draws on blackened crust, black metal, doom metal, and crust punk. They formed in Tokyo in 2003, and have released three studio albums.

A number of overlapping punk rock subgenres have developed since the emergence of punk rock in the mid-1970s. Even though punk genres at times are difficult to segregate, they usually show differing characteristics in overall structures, instrumental and vocal styles, and tempo. However, sometimes a particular trait is common in several genres, and thus punk genres are normally grouped by a combination of traits.

Crossover thrash is a fusion genre of thrash metal and hardcore punk. The genre lies on a continuum between heavy metal and hardcore punk. Other genres on the same continuum, such as metalcore and grindcore, may overlap with crossover thrash.

Street punk is an urban working class-based subgenre of hardcore punk inspired by New Wave of British Heavy Metal which emerged in the early 1980s in the United Kingdom, partly as a rebellion against the perceived artistic pretensions of the first wave of British punk. Street punk emerged from the style of early Oi! bands such as Sham 69 and Cockney Rejects, and the Oi! bands that followed them such as Blitz, The Business and Angelic Upstarts. A key band in defining the aesthetic was The Exploited. However, street punk continued beyond the confines of the original Oi! form with bands such as GBH, Chaos UK, Discharge, The Anti-Nowhere League and Oxymoron. Street punks generally have a much more ostentatious and flamboyant appearance than the working class or skinhead image cultivated by many Oi! groups. Street punks commonly sported multi-coloured hair, mohawks, tattoos, heavily studded vests and leather jackets, and clothing, especially plaids, adorned with political slogans, patches, and/or the names of punk bands.

Punk rock and hardcore punk have created a punk subculture in Sweden since punk music became popular in the 1970s. The most famous Swedish punk band was Ebba Grön, followed by KSMB; other notable bands were Asta Kask, Kriminella Gitarrer, Tant Strul, Pink champagne, The Pain and Göteborg Sound. In the 1980s hardcore punk, kängpunk and raw punk became popular in Sweden. The two perhaps most influential bands are Mob 47 and Anti Cimex, whose music has also inspired many foreign bands. Some other examples of influential bands are Moderat Likvidation, Black Uniforms, Totalitär and Avskum. Together with the early American hardcore bands and the British band Discharge, the Swedish punk scene since the early 1990s consisted almost exclusively of "tribute bands" to the above. In the 1990s the aggressive punk scene turned more towards crust punk with bands like Driller Killer, Skitsystem, Wolfbrigade, and Disfear.

Septic Tank (band)

Septic Tank are a British punk rock band formed out of Coventry doom metal band Cathedral. The band was originally formed in 1994, while the then-Cathedral were on tour, and later reformed in 2013 after Cathedral's breakup. Once the band reunited, producer and former member of the UK band Trouble, Jaime "Gomez" Arellano, replaced drummer Barry Stern, due to his death in 2005. The band have currently released one self-titled EP and one full-length album, entitled "Rotting Civilisation".


  1. "A History Of Metal - Punk Special: Crust Punk".Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  2. Popoff, Martin (2017). Speed Metal.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Peter Jandreus, The Encyclopedia of Swedish Punk 1977-1987, Stockholm: Premium Publishing, 2008, p. 11.
  4. 1 2 3 4 "In Grind We Crust," p. 46.
  5. Cunha, Ricardo. "Crust: the other side of the coin" . Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Von Havoc, Felix (1984-01-01). "Rise of Crust". Profane Existence. Archived from the original on 2008-06-15. Retrieved 2008-06-16.
  7. 1 2 3 4 "In Crust We Trust" . Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  8. 1 2 3 Glasper 2009, 185
  9. 1 2 3 4 Glasper 2006. "Amebix." p. 198-201.
  10. Loolwa Khazzoom, Special to The Chronicle (2005-03-11). "Livermore: All's well with the Bay Area punk scene say members of the Sick". Retrieved 2010-08-01.
  11. Glasper 2009, 183.
  12. 1 2 3 "In Grind We Crust," p. 51.
  13. "The Gauntlet". The Gauntlet. 2008-02-29. Retrieved 2010-08-01.
  14. Glasper 2009, 284
  15. Glasper 2009, 286
  16. Glasper 2009, 279
  17. Init 5, September 25, 2007. Access date: June 18, 2008.
  18. John John Jesse interview, Hoard Magazine, June 2005. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-09-21. Retrieved 2009-10-12.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Access date: June 18, 2008
  19. Adam Louie, Mastodon, Neurosis show review, Prefix magazine, January 29, 2008 Access date: June 18, 2008
  20. Anthony Bartkewicz, Decibel Magazine No. 31, May 2007. Access date: June 18, 2008
  21. Nick Mangel, Disrupt LP review, Maximum Rock'n'Roll #301, June 2008, record reviews section.
  22. "Crust-punks Behind Enemy Lines release One Nation Under The Iron Fist of God
  23. 1 2 "Powerviolence: The Dysfunctional Family of Bllleeeeaaauuurrrgghhh!!." Terrorizer no. 172. July 2008. p. 36-37.
  24. Andrew Childers, "Kick in the South: A Look Back at Prank Records and the Southern Crust Scene." April 5, 2008. Access date: June 21, 2008
  25. Ekeroth, p. 107, 266.
  26. 1 2 Iskra Interviews Archived June 15, 2006, at the Wayback Machine .
  27. Mervis, Scott (2007-02-01). "Pittsburgh Calling: A capsule look at Pittsburgh bands making news". Retrieved 2010-08-01.
  28. es:Crust punk#D.C3.A9cada de los 90s.2F00s .28Portland.2C Suecia.2C Espa.C3.B1a.29
  29. Sanna, Jacopo (20 September 2017). "The Sincere and Vibrant World of the Czech DIY Scene". Bandcamp. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  30. Reynolds, Simon (2005). Rip it up and start again: Postpunk 1978-1984. London: Faber and Faber Limited, p. 435
  31. "All through the 80’s I was very into bands and styles other than punk or metal like Killing Joke, Einsturzende Neubauten, Test Dept. ..." - Roy Mayorga, interview with Bela. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-12-24. Retrieved 2009-03-21.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Access date: August 4, 2008.
  32. Fixell, Ethan. "THE UNITED STATES OF HARDCORE". Kerrang! . Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  33. LUEDTKE, CHRISTOPHER. "Album Review: WOLFBRIGADE Run With The Hunted". Metal Injection. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  34. Kelly, Kim. "Thrash 'n burn: why 1985 was metal's defining year" . Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  35. Adams, Gregory. "Ladyhawk Celebrate 10th Anniversary with "Decade of Passive Aggression" Canadian Tour, Outline New Album Possibilities". Exclaim! . Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  36. Adams, Gregory. "Discharge Sign with Nuclear Blast for First Album in 8 Years". Exclaim! . Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  37. Breihan, Tom. "White Fence – "Today's Lesson" (Filth Cover)" . Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  38. 1 2 3 4 GENTILE, JOHN. "Sonic Reducer: Crack Rock Steady" . Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  39. MOSES, JEFF. "Leftover Crack Doesn't Just Talk About Being Punk". Phoenix New Times . Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  40. 1 2 "14 Bush-era political artworks that stood the test of time". The A.V. Club . Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  41. VERDUCCI, RICHARD. "Scott Sturgeon (Leftover Crack/Star F*cking Hipsters)" . Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  42. Dunlap, Xander. "Directionless people are malleable—easily pointed in the wrong directions". Thrasher . Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  43. Ekeroth, p. 27.
  44. "Hard of Hearing", Terrorizer no. 171, June 2008, p. 56.
  45. "Fukpig". Supersonic Festival. 22 October 2010. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  46. "C: Do you think that FUKPIG has founded a style of his own? Misery: Nah its just d-beat crust, with added horror C: and then What difference to FUKPIG from the rest of the bands? Misery: We add more black metal / horror influences, but are still inspired by the same things C: Is Necro-Punk your style? Misery: Yeah, necro in the black metal style playing crust punk, so yeah Necro Punk." Interview: Fukpig Archived 2013-11-10 at the Wayback Machine
  47. 1 2 Weber, Austin (4 December 2014). "Downfall of Gaia: "Aeon Unveils the Thrones of Decay"". No Clean Singing . Retrieved 20 October 2016.
  48. Zorgdrager, Bradley. "Young and in the Way When Life Comes to Death". Exclaim! . Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  49. 1 2 Ekeroth, p. 258.
  50. Kevin Stewart-Panko, "I Saw Disfear Three Times in Three Days", Decibel, no. 46, August 2008, p. 22.
  51. "Crustypunks, The Wandering Nomads Of The East Village (PHOTOS)". The Huffington Post.
  52. Hetherington, K. New Age Travellers, page 9. Cassell. 2000
  53. Glasper 2009, 287
  54. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Kelly, Kim. "The Swedish post-metal iconoclasts display deep crust punk roots on new album 'Awaken,' and the way they interpret the genre says a lot about its past—and its future". Vice Media . Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  55. Kott, Paul. "Amebix discography". Allmusic . Retrieved 2010-11-14.
  56. Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Antisect biography". MusicMight . Retrieved 2010-11-14.
  57. Hopper, Justin. "Crust-punks Behind Enemy Lines release One Nation Under The Iron Fist of God". Pittsburgh City Paper . Retrieved 2010-11-14.
  58. Wagner, Jeff (2010). Mean Deviation: Four Decades of Progressive Heavy Metal. p. 105. ISBN   9780979616334.
  59. "Corrupt Leaders Premiere New Song 'Masters Of War' With Terrorizer". Terrorizer.
  60. Schreurs, Jason. "Cult Leader Nothing For Us Here". Exclaim! . Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  61. 1 2 3 4 5 Hannon, Sharon M. (2010). Punks: A Guide to an American Subculture. ABC-CLIO. ISBN   9780313364563 . Retrieved 2011-01-15.
  62. Born, R. "Disfear biography". MusicMight. Archived from the original on 2011-11-27. Retrieved 2010-11-14.
  63. "DISFEAR: Montreal Show Sells Out, Second Date Added". . Archived from the original on 2012-09-09. Retrieved 2010-11-14.
  64. "Down Among The Dead Men – …And You Will Obey Me (2018) REVIEW" . Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  65. Born, R. "Driller Killer biography". MusicMight . Retrieved 2011-01-15.
  66. Born, R. "Dystopia biography". MusicMight . Retrieved 2011-01-15.
  67. Jeffries, David. "Early Graves biography". Allmusic . Retrieved 2011-01-15.
  68. 1 2 Hefflon, Scott. "Toxic Narcotic" . Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  69. "F-Minus Wake Up Screaming". AllMusic . Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  70. Walter, Matt. "From Ashes Rise – Rejoice The End/Rage Of Sanity 7" . Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  71. Kott, Paul. "15 Counts of Arson review". Allmusic . Retrieved 2011-01-16.
  72. Sword, Harry. "The Strange Tale of Cult Sludge-Metal Band Iron Monkey". Vice Media . Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  73. Earles, Andrew. "Leftover Crack at the Hi-Tone" . Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  74. Griffin, John. "Nausea biography". Allmusic . Retrieved 2011-01-16.
  75. -, Matthew. "Miniature history of: Raw Radar War". Terrorizer . Retrieved 5 January 2019.
  76. "Oldschool Sunday: SEPTIC TANK [Cathedral, Repulsion Members]".
  77. Pratt, Greg. "Skarp Requiem". Exlaim! . Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  78. Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Sore Throat biography". MusicMight. Archived from the original on 2010-07-29. Retrieved 2011-01-16.
  79. Dedman, Remfry. "Svalbard – Discography 2012-2014: Album Stream". The Independent . Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  80. Stasis, Spyros. "Tau Cross: Pillar of Fire" . Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  81. Thorley, Andy. "Featured Band: Tau Cross" . Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  82. "Review: Dödsrit" . Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  83. Beebe, Alexander. "Underground music column: Khaki Blazer and Vorvaň are among this week's most exciting underground releases" . Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  84. "Wolfbrigade Interview" . Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  85. Zukowski, Zenae. "Young and in the Way disband due to sexual assault accusations" . Retrieved 19 July 2018.

Further reading