Doom metal

Last updated

Doom metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music that typically uses slower tempos, low-tuned guitars and a much "thicker" or "heavier" sound than other heavy metal genres. [5] Both the music and the lyrics are intended to evoke a sense of despair, dread, and impending doom. [6] The genre is strongly influenced by the early work of Black Sabbath, [6] who formed a prototype for doom metal. During the first half of the 1980s, [6] a number of bands such as Witchfinder General and Pagan Altar from England, American bands Pentagram, Saint Vitus, the Obsessed, Trouble, and Cirith Ungol, and Swedish band Candlemass defined doom metal as a distinct genre. Pentagram, Saint Vitus, Trouble and Candlemass have been referred to as "the Big Four of Doom Metal". [7] [8]




The electric guitar, bass guitar, and drum kit are the most common instruments used to play doom metal (although keyboards are sometimes used), but its structures are rooted in the same scales as in blues. [3] Guitarists and bassists often down tune their instruments to very low notes and make use of large amounts of distortion, thus producing a very "thick" or "heavy" guitar tone, which is one of the defining characteristics of the genre. [9] Along with the usual heavy metal compositional technique of guitars and bass playing the same riff in unison, this creates a loud and bass-heavy wall of sound. Another defining characteristic is the consistent focus on slow tempos, [6] and minor tonality with much use of dissonance (especially in the form of the tritone), employing the usage of repetitive rhythms with little regard to harmonic progression and musical structure. [9]


Traditional doom metal vocalists favor clean vocals, which are often performed with a sense of despair, desperation, or pain; imitating the high-tone wails of Ozzy Osbourne (Black Sabbath), [10] Frank Ferrara (Bang), Bobby Liebling (Pentagram), [9] and Zeeb Parkes (Witchfinder General). So-called "epic doom" vocalists often take it a step further, singing in an operatic style. Doom metal bands influenced by other extreme metal genres often use growled or screamed vocals, as is the case of death-doom, black-doom, and funeral doom.

Lyrical themes

Lyrics in doom metal play a key role. Influenced by notable blues musicians like Robert Johnson and Son House, [3] normally they are gloomy and pessimistic, [10] including themes such as suffering, depression, fear, grief, dread, death, and anger. While some bands write lyrics in introspective and personal ways, others convey their themes using symbolism – which may be inspired by occult arts and literature. [3]

Some doom metal bands use religious themes in their music. Trouble, one of the genre's pioneers, were among the first to incorporate Christian imagery. Others have incorporated occult and pagan imagery. For many bands, the use of religious themes is for aesthetic and symbolic purposes only. Examples include lyrics/imagery about the Last Judgment to invoke dread, or the use of crucifixes and cross-shaped headstones to symbolize death.

Furthermore, some doom metal bands write lyrics about drugs or drug addiction. This is most common among stoner doom bands, who often describe hallucinogenic or psychedelic experiences.


Tony Iommi's guitar style greatly influenced and defined doom metal. Iommi at the Forum.jpg
Tony Iommi's guitar style greatly influenced and defined doom metal.

Origins (late 1960s–1970s)

The first traces of doom in rock music could be heard as far back as the Beatles' 1969 track "I Want You (She's So Heavy)". [11] [12] Black Sabbath are generally regarded as the progenitors of doom metal. [6] Black Sabbath's music is (in and of) itself stylistically rooted in blues, but with the deliberately doomy and loud guitar playing of Tony Iommi, and the then-uncommon dark and pessimistic lyrics and atmosphere, they set the standards of early heavy metal and inspired various doom metal bands. [9] In the early 1970s, both Black Sabbath and Pentagram (also as side band "Bedemon") composed and performed this heavy and dark music, which would in the 1980s begin to be known and referred to as doom metal by subsequent musicians, critics and fans. [3] Joe Hasselvander, Pentagram's drummer also cited bands like Black Widow, Toe Fat , Iron Claw, Night Sun, and Zior as pioneers of the doom metal sound. [13]

Aside from Pentagram and Black Sabbath, other groups from the 1970s would heavily influence the genre's development. Blue Cheer is often hailed as one of the first stoner metal bands. Through the use of loud amplifiers and guitar feedback, their debut Vincebus Eruptum created a template for other artists to follow. [14] Though lacking the pessimistic lyrical content of their contemporaries, Welsh heavy metal band Budgie would also produce heavy songs which were amongst the loudest of their day, stylistically influencing various doom metal acts. [15] Led Zeppelin's No Quarter is considered as one of the earliest examples of a doom metal song made by a rock band. [16] Early doom metal was also influenced by Japanese psychedelic rock albums, such as Kuni Kawachi & Friends' Kirikyogen and Flower Travellin' Band's Satori . [17] Bang's 1971 self-titled debut is considered an important forerunner to doom metal. [18] [19] Other notable groups include Sir Lord Baltimore, [20] Buffalo, [21] Necromandus, [22] Lucifer's Friend, [22] and Leaf Hound. [23]

Development (1980s)

During the early-mid-1980s, bands from England and the United States [6] contributed much to the formation of doom metal as a distinct genre. In 1982, English pioneers Witchfinder General released their debut album Death Penalty . During 1984, two American pioneers also released their debuts—Saint Vitus released their eponymous album and Trouble released Psalm 9 . That same year, American band Cirith Ungol (formed in 1971) released their second studio album, King of the Dead —regarded by many as an early influence on doom. [24] [25] The following year, American band Pentagram would go on to release their debut, Relentless . The Swedish Candlemass would also prove influential with their first record Epicus Doomicus Metallicus in 1986, from which epic doom metal takes its name. [6] [ failed verification ]

Some doom metal bands were also influenced by the underground gothic rock and post-punk scene of the 1980s, showing similarities with the dark themes addressed through lyrics and the atmosphere both music styles deal with. A doom metal band like Mindrot was often described as a cross-over between death metal and gothic rock.

Regional scenes

Like other extreme metal genres, doom metal also has regionally based scenes, with their own particular characteristics:

Finnish doom metal

In one of the greatest doom metal outputs, Finnish groups focus more on the depressive mood of the genre, evoking an intense grieving feeling. [26] The bands play with very slow tempos and melodic tones, creating an atmosphere of darkness and melancholia. [26] [27] This scene was kick-started by the band Rigor Mortis (which, due to an older US band with the same name, changed their name to Spiritus Mortis), which originated in 1987. [28] [29] Notable bands include Reverend Bizarre, [30] Minotauri, [29] Dolorian, [26] Shape of Despair, [26] Thergothon, [26] Skepticism, [26] and Unholy. [31]

Louisiana doom metal

Regarded as sludge metal's birthplace by AllMusic , [6] this scene originated in New Orleans in the late 1980s. [32] [33] [34] The bands of this scene employ some punk influences, like harsh vocals, guitar distortion and downtuned sound. [35] [36] [37] This scene was pioneered by Exhorder, who was the first band to combine doom metal with a punk-influenced metal sound. [34] In the 90s, several sludge and stoner metal bands arose in the state, mainly influenced by bands like Black Sabbath and Melvins, also mixing their sound with genres like hardcore punk and Southern rock. [33] [37] [38] [39] Notable bands include Eyehategod, [33] Down [38] Exhorder, [34] Crowbar, [37] and Acid Bath. [40] [41]

Washington D.C. doom metal

This scene formed in the early 1970s and was kickstarted by Pentagram and the Obsessed. [42] [43] Various doom/stoner bands, mostly from Washington, D.C. and its metropolitan area on Maryland and Virginia (thus also being labelled "Maryland doom sound" [42] ), formed in this region being heavily influenced by early hard rock and heavy metal bands, like UFO, Blue Cheer, Black Sabbath, Uriah Heep and Sir Lord Baltimore. [43] [44] This scene is also known as "Hellhound sound" for being closely related to the late Hellhound Records, [42] who signed with many important bands of the scene like Saint Vitus, [45] [46] Internal Void, [46] [44] Iron Man, [46] Revelation, [46] Wretched [46] and Unorthodox. [46] Other notable bands include Evoken, [47] Spirit Caravan, [43] [44] Earthride, [43] and the Hidden Hand. [45]

Pacific Northwest doom metal

The Pacific Northwest region – primarily Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia – has been host to a growing scene of doom, sludge, [48] and stoner metal [49] [50] since the 1990s. It is influenced by the geographical origin of grunge music and a sound pioneered in part by the Washington band Melvins. [51] [6] Common visual themes include the region's cold, rainy, forested climate, and many bands utilize psychedelic imagery influenced by bands like Sleep, Karp and Harkonen. [49] Musical styles often share crossover features with atmospheric/ambient black metal, drone metal, and post-metal as seen in Oregon's YOB, Agalloch, Witch Mountain, and Red Fang; Washington's Earth, and Sunn O))); and Vancouver's Anciients, Astrakhan, [52] and Aaron Turner project Sumac, among various others.

Palm Desert Scene

Palm Desert, California, hosts a thriving desert rock and stoner metal scene, drawing heavy influences from psychedelia, blues and hardcore punk, often featuring distinctive repetitive drum beats, a propensity for free-form jamming, and "trance-like" or "sludgy" grooves. [53] [54] [55] Because of their integration, the term "stoner rock" is sometimes used interchangeably with the term "desert rock". [56] Notable bands include Kyuss, [57] [58] Queens of the Stone Age, [53] Dali's Llama, [59] Slo Burn, [60] and Brant Bjork. [61]

Stylistic divisions


Black-doom, also known as blackened doom, is a style that combines the slowness and thicker, bassier sound of doom metal with the shrieking vocals and heavily distorted guitar sound of black metal. [62] [63] [64] Black-doom bands maintain the Satanic ideology associated with black metal, while melding it with moodier themes more related to doom metal, like depression, nihilism, and nature. [62] They also use the slower pace of doom metal in order to emphasize the harsh atmosphere present in black metal. [65] Examples of black-doom bands include Barathrum, [66] Forgotten Tomb, [63] Woods of Ypres, [67] Deinonychus, [68] Shining, [69] Nortt, [70] Bethlehem, [71] early Katatonia, [72] Tiamat, [65] Dolorian, [65] October Tide, [65] and In the Woods... [65]

Depressive suicidal black metal

Pioneered by black-doom bands like Ophthalamia, Katatonia, Bethlehem, Forgotten Tomb, and Shining, depressive suicidal black metal, also known as suicidal black metal, depressive black metal, or DSBM, is a style that melds the second wave-style of black metal with doom metal, [73] with lyrics revolving around themes such as depression, self-harm, misanthrophy, suicide, and death. [74] [75] DSBM bands draw the lo-fi recording and highly distorted guitars of black metal, while employing the usage of acoustic instruments and non-distorted electric guitar's timbres present in doom metal, interchanging the slower, doom-like, sections with faster tremolo picking. [73] Vocals are usually high-pitched like in black metal, but lacking of energy, simulating feelings like hopelessness, desperation, and plea. [73] The presence of one-man bands is more prominent in this genre compared to others. [73] Examples of bands include Xasthur, [76] Leviathan, [73] Strid, [73] Silencer, [74] [75] Make a Change... Kill Yourself, [73] and I Shalt Become. [74] [75]

Blackened death-doom

Blackened death-doom is a genre that combines the slow tempos and monolithic drumming of doom metal, the complex and loud riffage of death metal and the shrieking vocals of black metal. [77] Examples of blackened death-doom bands include Morast, [77] Faustcoven, [77] the Ruins of Beverast, [77] Bolzer, [77] Necros Christos, [77] Harvest Gulgaltha, [78] Dragged into Sunlight, [79] Hands of Thieves, [80] and Soulburn. [81]


My Dying Bride at Frozen Rock Festival 2007 My Dying Bride 44.jpg
My Dying Bride at Frozen Rock Festival 2007

Death-doom is a style that combines the slow tempos and pessimistic atmosphere of doom metal with the deep growling vocals and double-kick drumming of death metal. [82] Influenced mostly by the early work of Hellhammer and Celtic Frost, the style emerged during the late 1980s and gained a certain amount of popularity during the 1990s. [82] Death-doom was pioneered by bands such as Winter, [83] Disembowelment, [83] Paradise Lost, [83] Autopsy, Anathema, My Dying Bride [83] and Novembers Doom. [84]

Funeral doom

Funeral doom is a genre that crosses death-doom with funeral dirge music. [85] It is played at an extremely slow tempo, and places an emphasis on evoking a sense of emptiness and despair. [3] Typically, electric guitars are heavily distorted and dark ambient aspects such as keyboards or synthesizers are often used to create a "dreamlike" atmosphere. [62] Vocals consist of mournful chants or growls and are often in the background. [62] Funeral doom was pioneered by Mournful Congregation, [86] Esoteric, Evoken, Funeral, Thergothon, [87] and Skepticism. [88]

Drone metal

Sunn O))) performing live Sunno)))cloaks.jpg
Sunn O))) performing live

Drone metal (also known as drone doom) is a style of doom metal that is largely defined by drones; notes or chords that are sustained and repeated throughout a piece of music. [89] [90] [91] Typically, the electric guitar is performed with large amounts of reverb and feedback [89] while lacking the presence of drums and vocals. [62] [92] Songs are often very long and lack beat or rhythm in the traditional sense. [62] Drone metal is generally influenced by drone music, [89] noise music, [89] and minimalist music. [89] The style emerged in the early 1990s and was pioneered by Earth, [93] Boris, and Sunn O))). [89]

Epic doom

Epic doom has a heavy classical influence. One of the main characteristics are the vocals; vocalists typically employ clean, operatic, and choral singing, accompanied by keyboarding and drumming performed in a bombastic fashion in order to evoke an "epic" sensation. [62] [94] [95] Lyrics and imagery are typically inspired by fantasy or mythology. [62] Examples of prominent epic doom bands include Candlemass, [96] Solitude Aeturnus, [97] Solstice, [98] While Heaven Wept, [95] and Doomsword. [99]


Gothic-doom, also known as doom-gothic, is a style that combines more traditional elements of doom metal with gothic rock. [100] [101] Gothic-doom bands usually play at slow and mid-tempos and employ the usage of instruments that are more related to classical music, alongside traditional doom metal instruments, in order to create darker and meditative atmospheres. [100] Doom-gothic lyrics combines the dramatic and romantic elements of gothic rock with the sorrowness and melancholy present in doom metal, while being more introspective and focused on personal experiences such as love, grief, irreparable loss, loss of faith, etc. [100] Unlike in gothic metal and death-doom, gothic-doom bands prefer the use of cleaner vocals instead of employing death growls, [101] although some of them employ harsher vocals occasionally, and avoid the usage of death metal-like riffage. [100] Bands labelled as gothic-doom include Weeping Silence, [102] the Foreshadowing, [101] Grave Lines, [103] Artrosis, [104] Ava Inferi, [105] Draconian, [106] and Type O Negative. [107]

Progressive doom

Progressive doom is a fusion genre that combines elements of progressive metal and doom metal. [108] Notable bands include King Goat, [108] Below the Sun, [109] Sierra, [110] Oceans of Slumber, [111] and Green Carnation. [112]

Sludge metal

Sludge metal (also known as sludge doom [9] [65] ) is a style that combines doom metal and hardcore punk. [9] [65] [6] [92] Many sludge bands compose slow and heavy songs that contain brief hardcore passages. [33] [37] However, some bands emphasise fast tempos throughout their music. [113] The string instruments are heavily distorted and are often played with large amounts of feedback to produce an abrasive, sludgy sound. [114] [35] Drumming is often performed in typical doom metal fashion,[ citation needed ] but drummers may employ hardcore d-beat or double-kick drumming during faster passages. Vocals are usually shouted or screamed, and lyrics often focus on suffering, drug abuse, politics and anger towards society. The style was pioneered in the early late 1980s by the Melvins, and in the 1990s by bands such as Eyehategod, [33] Crowbar, [37] Buzzov*en, [113] Acid Bath, [115] and Grief. [116]


Sludgecore further combines sludge metal with hardcore punk, and possesses a slow pace, a low and dark pitch, and a grinding dirge-like feel. [117] Bands regarded as sludgecore include Acid Bath, Eyehategod, Soilent Green, [118] [119] Black Sheep Wall, Admiral Angry, and The Abominable Iron Sloth. [120] Crowbar mixed "detuned, lethargic sludged-out metal with hardcore and southern elements". [121]

Stoner metal

Jus Oborn of Electric Wizard ElectricWizard by Christian Misje 02.jpg
Jus Oborn of Electric Wizard

Stoner metal or stoner doom [122] [123] describes doom metal that incorporates psychedelic rock and acid rock elements. [92] [124] [125] Stoner metal is often heavily distorted, groove-laden bass-heavy sound, making much use of guitar effects such as fuzz, phaser, or flanger. [126] Stoner bands typically play in slow-to-mid tempo, employing the usage of melodic vocals and "retro" production. [127] It was pioneered in the early–mid-1990s by bands such as Kyuss, [128] Sleep, [129] [130] Acid King, [131] [132] Electric Wizard, [133] [130] Orange Goblin, [133] and Sons of Otis. [134]

Desert rock

Desert rock combines the psychedelic elements of stoner metal with hard rock characteristics. [58] [92] Bands of this style include Kyuss, [135] Fu Manchu, [135] Queens of the Stone Age, [136] Earthlings? [135] and Yawning Man. [135] [136]

Traditional doom

Influenced by 70s and 80s heavy metal, [137] traditional doom metal bands more commonly use higher guitar tunings, and do not play as slow as many other doom bands. [62] Traditional doom bands typically play slow to mid-tempo songs with a thick and heavy sound with the electric bass following the melody line, and sometimes employ the usage of keyboards, although assuming a secondary role on traditional doom metal songs. [10] Vocals are usually clean with the occasional growl or scream. [62] The lyrics in traditional doom usually are eerie and dark like other doom metal divisions. Some bands who play traditional doom metal are Orodruin, [138] [139] Reverend Bizarre, [140] Witchcraft, Saint Vitus, [10] and Count Raven. [10]

See also

Related Research Articles

Death metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music. It typically employs heavily distorted and low-tuned guitars, played with techniques such as palm muting and tremolo picking; deep growling vocals; aggressive, powerful drumming, featuring double kick and blast beat techniques; minor keys or atonality; abrupt tempo, key, and time signature changes; and chromatic chord progressions. The lyrical themes of death metal may include slasher film-style violence, political conflict, religion, nature, philosophy, true crime and science fiction.

Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom and United States. With roots in blues rock, psychedelic rock and acid rock, heavy metal bands developed a thick, monumental sound characterized by distorted guitars, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats and loudness.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Southern rock</span> Subgenre of rock music and a genre of Americana

Southern rock is a subgenre of rock music and a genre of Americana. It developed in the Southern United States from rock and roll, country music, and blues and is focused generally on electric guitars and vocals. Author Scott B. Bomar speculates the term "southern rock" may have been coined in 1972 by Mo Slotin, writing for Atlanta's underground paper, The Great Speckled Bird, in a review of an Allman Brothers Band concert.

<i>Blues for the Red Sun</i> 1992 studio album by Kyuss

Blues for the Red Sun is the second studio album by American rock band Kyuss, released in 1992. While the album received mainly favorable reviews, it fared poorly commercially, selling only 39,000 units. It has since become a very influential album within the stoner rock genre. It was the last Kyuss album to feature bassist Nick Oliveri, who was replaced by Scott Reeder shortly after recording had been completed.

<i>Black Sabbath</i> (album) 1970 studio album by Black Sabbath

Black Sabbath is the debut studio album by English heavy metal band Black Sabbath, released on 13 February 1970 by Vertigo Records in the United Kingdom and Warner Bros. Records in the United States on 1 June 1970. The album is widely regarded as the first heavy metal album, and the opening track, "Black Sabbath", has been referred to as the first doom metal song.

A number of heavy metal genres have developed since the emergence of heavy metal during the late 1960s and early 1970s. At times, heavy metal genres may overlap or are difficult to distinguish, but they can be identified by a number of traits. They may differ in terms of instrumentation, tempo, song structure, vocal style, lyrics, guitar playing style, drumming style, and so on.

Extreme metal is a loosely defined umbrella term for a number of related heavy metal music subgenres that have developed since the early 1980s. It has been defined as a "cluster of metal subgenres characterized by sonic, verbal, and visual transgression".

Sludge metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music that combines elements of doom metal and hardcore punk. The genre generally includes slow tempos, tuned down guitars and nihilistic lyrics discussing poverty, drug addiction and pollution.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cathedral (band)</span> English doom metal band

Cathedral were a doom metal band from Coventry, England. The group gained attention upon release of its debut album, Forest of Equilibrium (1991), which is considered a classic of the genre. However, the band's sound evolved quickly and began to adopt characteristics of 1970s metal, hard rock and progressive rock. After releasing ten full-length albums and touring extensively for over two decades, Cathedral broke up after the release of The Last Spire in 2013.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Iron Monkey (band)</span> English sludge metal band

Iron Monkey is an English sludge metal band that formed in Nottingham in 1994. The original members were Justin Greaves, Johnny Morrow (vocals), Jim Rushby, Steve Watson and Doug Dalziel. The group's sound was influenced by the doom metal and sludge metal genres and in particular by bands such as Grief, Black Sabbath and Eyehategod.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">The Wizard (Black Sabbath song)</span> Song by Black Sabbath

"The Wizard" is a song by the English heavy metal rock band Black Sabbath from their 1970 album Black Sabbath. "The Wizard" was selected as their debut single in France, backed by "Evil Woman" which was released as A-side in many other countries. It was also the B-side to the 1970 single "Paranoid", which reached number 4 on the UK Singles Chart and number 61 on the Billboard Hot 100.

<i>Come My Fanatics…</i> 1997 studio album by Electric Wizard

Come My Fanatics… is the second studio album by English heavy metal band Electric Wizard. The album was released in January 1997 on Rise Above Records and was produced by Rolf Startin, Mike Hurst and band member Jus Oborn. It was the group's follow-up to their eponymous album Electric Wizard. Oborn described the release as a reaction to the music on the earlier album, which he had felt was not as heavy as he wanted the group to sound. The songs on Come My Fanatics… were described by Lee Dorrian, Rise Above Records owner, as breaking from the traditional doom metal style, with an unpolished and chaotic approach.

Post-metal is a music genre rooted in heavy metal but exploring approaches beyond metal conventions. It emerged in the 1990s with bands such as Neurosis and Godflesh, who transformed metal texture through experimental composition. In a way similar to the predecessor genres post-rock and post-hardcore, post-metal offsets the darkness and intensity of extreme metal with an emphasis on atmosphere, emotion, and even "revelation", developing an expansive but introspective sound variously imbued with elements of ambient, noise, psychedelic, progressive, and classical music. Songs are typically long, with loose and layered structures that discard the verse–chorus form in favor of crescendos and repeating themes. The sound centres on guitars and drums, while any vocals are usually screamed or growled and resemble an additional instrument.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">MeteorCity</span> American record label

MeteorCity Records is an American record label founded in 1997 by Jadd Shickler and Aaron Emmel in Albuquerque, New Mexico. With the release of its compilation album Welcome to MeteorCity showcasing young unsigned Kyuss-like bands, MeteorCity helped launch the stoner rock genre and many of the genre's first bands, plus side projects from members of well-known bands including The Atomic Bitchwax and Hermano. MeteorCity Records was one of the first record labels dedicated exclusively to Stoner rock, doom metal, sludge metal, drone metal and psychedelic rock.

Death-doom is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal. It combines the slow tempos and pessimistic or depressive mood of doom metal with the deep growling vocals and double kick drumming of death metal. The genre emerged in the late-1980s and gained a certain amount of popularity during the 1990s, but had become less common by the turn of the 21st century. In turn, death-doom gave rise to the closely related genre of funeral doom as well as to the more melodic, gloomy and romantic gothic metal.

Stoner rock, also known as stoner metal or stoner doom, is a rock music fusion genre that combines elements of doom metal with psychedelic rock and acid rock. The genre emerged during the early 1990s and was pioneered foremost by Kyuss and Sleep.

<i>To Walk a Middle Course</i> 2005 studio album by Kylesa

To Walk a Middle Course is the second studio album by American heavy metal band Kylesa. Released on March 22, 2005, by Prosthetic Records, it was produced by English record producer Alex Newport, who is known for his projects Fudge Tunnel and Nailbomb.

Bevar Sea originally called Dirt Bucket is a stoner/doom metal band based in Bangalore, India. Originally it was a bedroom project of Srikanth Panaman and Kaustubh Thirumalai, and band members Sriranjan, JP, Nikhil and Indy. However, the band formed into a quintet in late 2010 and currently consists of Avinash Ramchander, Michael Talreja, Ganesh Krishnaswamy, and Srikanth Panaman. Their self-titled debut album was mixed by Billy Anderson and released on October 16, 2012. It received critical acclaim and was included in Ninehertz's best albums of 2012. Bevar Sea was named the "Best Emerging Act" at the Rolling Stone Metal Awards India 2013.

Occult rock is a subgenre of rock music that originated in the late 1960s to early 1970s, pioneered by bands such as Coven and Black Widow.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Biker metal</span> Musical genre

Biker metal is a fusion genre that combines elements of punk rock, heavy metal, rock and roll and blues, that was pioneered in the late-1970s to early-1980s in England and the United States, by Motörhead, Plasmatics, Anti-Nowhere League and Girlschool.


  1. Nolan Stolz, Experiencing Black Sabbath: A Listener's Companion (Prince George's County: Rowman & Littlefield, 2017), ISBN   978-1442256910
  2. Matthew P. Unger, Sound, Symbol, Sociality: The Aesthetic Experience of Extreme Metal Music (London: Palgrave, 2015), ISBN   978-1137478344
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wiederhorn, Jon (2 February 2017). "Doom Metal: A Brief Timeline". Bandcamp daily. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  4. Wiederhorn, Jon (4 August 2016). "A Brief History of Post-Metal". Bandcamp. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  5. K. Kahn-Harris, Extreme Metal: Music and Culture on the Edge (Berg Publishers, 2007), ISBN   1-84520-399-2, p. 31.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "Doom metal". AllMusic . Retrieved 17 January 2016.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Piper, Jonathan (2013). Locating experiential richness in doom metal (PhD). UC San Diego Electronic Theses and Dissertations. University of California, San Diego . Retrieved 14 September 2019.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 Irwin, William (September 2012). Black Sabbath and Philosophy: Mastering Reality. John Wiley & Sons.
  11. Classic Rock Magazine, September 2014
  12. Hart, Josh; Fanelli, Damian (11 October 2015). "The 50 Heaviest Songs Before Black Sabbath: #40-31". Guitar World . Archived from the original on 24 April 2018.
  13. Wiederhorn, Jon & Turman, Katherine (2013). Louder Than Hell: The Definitive Oral History of Metal (loan required). New York: itbooks. p. 103. ISBN   978-0-06-195828-1 via the Internet Archive.
  14. "Music News, Videos, Photos, Artists, Playlists and More". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 8 May 2009. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
  15. "Budgie". AllMusic . Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  16. Ezell, Brice (18 February 2015). "The Album Remains the Same: Led Zeppelin - "No Quarter"". PopMatters . Retrieved 19 January 2016.
  17. "Review: Flower Travellin Band – Satori". Sputnikmusic. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
  18. "Bang". AllMusic . Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  19. "U.S. '70s Proto-Metal Power Trio Bang Returns". . 6 January 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  20. "Sir Lord Baltimore". AllMusic . Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  21. "Heavy Planet Stoner Rock Blog: Album Of The Day-Buffalo-Volcanic Rock (1973)" . Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  22. 1 2 Christe (2003), pg. 345, "Beginning with the overlooked Lucifer's Friend and Necromandus in the early 1970s, doom crawled through the 1980s with Trouble, Witchfinder General, the Obsessed, Candlemass, Pentagram, and Saint Vitus, then into the 1990s with Cathedral, Sleep, and Burning Witch."
  23. ^ Sleazegrinder (March 2007). "The Lost Pioneers of Heavy Metal". Classic Rock.
  24. Kaufman, Spencer (March 2019). "Northwest Terror Fest 2019 lineup: Pig Destroyer, Wolfbrigade, Cirith Ungol, and more to crush Seattle". Consequence of Sound. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  25. Lackey Shaffer, Nancy D. (4 October 2018). "OUT WITH A BANG | Robert Garven and Jarvis Leatherby talk Frost and Fire IV before the metalfest takes its final bow". Ventura County Reporter. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  26. 1 2 3 4 5 6 DerRozzengarten. "Swallow The Sun interview (10/2005)". Metal Storm . Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  27. Vladimir Kozlov. "Russian doom, Finnish-style". The Moscow News. Archived from the original on 10 January 2014. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  28. DerRozzengarten. "SPIRITUS MORTIS". MusicMight. Archived from the original on 10 January 2014. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  29. 1 2 "Spiritus Mortis interview". Fémforgács. 6 October 2009. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  30. Marsicano, Dan. "Best Finnish Heavy Metal Bands". Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  31. "The Second Ring of Power – CD&DVD edition coming in October". Peaceville Records's Official site. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  32. Fensterstock, Alison. "Axe to Grind: Heavy Metal in New Orleans". Archived from the original on 25 July 2010. Retrieved 19 May 2010.
  33. 1 2 3 4 5 Huey, Steve. "Eyehategod biography". AllMusic . Retrieved 28 June 2009.
  34. 1 2 3 Torreano, Bradley. "Exhorder". AllMusic . Retrieved 28 June 2009.
  35. 1 2 York, William. "Eyehategod – In the Name of Suffering". AllMusic . Retrieved 28 June 2009.
  36. York, William. "Eyehategod – Take as Needed for Pain". AllMusic . Retrieved 28 June 2009.
  37. 1 2 3 4 5 Huey, Steve. "Crowbar". AllMusic . Retrieved 21 July 2008.
  38. 1 2 Prato, Greg. "Down biography". AllMusic . Retrieved 28 June 2009.
  39. York, William. "Soilent Green biography". AllMusic . Retrieved 28 June 2009.
  40. "Modern hardcore music scene". Metalhammer magazine No.32.
  41. Mahoney, Steve (30 March 1995). "Acid Bath's not famous but it is one hot band"., Milwaukee Journal Sentinel.
  42. 1 2 3 Pamfilos, Themis (23 July 2004). "Review: V/A – Doom Capital Maryland / DC". Metal Invader. Archived from the original on 10 November 2006.
  43. 1 2 3 4 Henderson, Alex. "Doom Capital: Maryland DC Heavy Rock Underground". AllMusic . Retrieved 22 May 2013.
  44. 1 2 3 Tschetter, Michelle. "Pentagram". Farmageddon Records. Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  45. 1 2 Brandon, Wu (November 2010). "For Northern Virginia Metal Band Salome, Not All Hope Lies in Doom". Washington City Paper . Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  46. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Hellhound Records Archives – The Obelisk". The Obelisk. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  47. "New Jersey Doom Metal". Rock Show Magazine. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
  48. "Sludge Special - Part 2". Terrorizer . No. 188. September 2009. pp. 40–57. ISSN   1350-6978.
  49. 1 2 Levin, Hannah (10 August 2011). "The Mix: A Pacific Northwest Metal Goldmine". NPR.
  50. "Crushing Cascadia: Earworthy Metal of the Pacific Northwest -". 28 January 2013. Archived from the original on 15 June 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  51. Bukszpan, Daniel (2012). The Encyclopedia of Heavy Metal. Sterling, New York. pp. 192–193. ISBN   978-1402792304.
  52. "Reward in Purpose, by Astrakhan".
  53. 1 2 Vanhorn, Teri. "Queens Of The Stone Age At Home In Desert". MTV. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
  54. Prato, Greg. "Normadic Pursuits – Yawning Man". AllMusic . Retrieved 18 December 2014.
  55. Steve Appleford (22 October 2014). "Queens of the Stone Age's Josh Homme Is Our Last Real Rock Star". L.A. Weekly.
  56. "News: and MeteorCity Part Ways". 19 May 2004. Archived from the original on 9 October 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
  57. Morris, Chris (15 January 1994), "Kyuss lands on its feet and keeps climbing", Billboard , p. 1
  58. 1 2 Lynskey, Dorian (25 March 2011). "Kyuss: Kings of the stoner age". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
  59. Fessier, Bruce (30 June 2014). "Zach Huskey offering variety show of desert sound". The Desert Sun. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015.
  60. "Slo Burn". Retrieved on 5 October 2013.
  61. Dome, Malcolm (16 October 2016). "10 Essential Stoner Rock Albums". Metal Hammer. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
  62. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Ebner, Arne (25 July 2010). Ästhetik des Doom (PDF) (Bachelor) (in German). Macromedia University of Applied Sciences for Media and Communication – Cologne. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  63. 1 2 Newshound, Terrorizer. "ITALIAN BLACKENED DOOMSTERS FORGOTTEN TOMB PLAN RELEASE". Terrorizer Online. Archived from the original on 1 August 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2009.
  64. Marsicano, Dan. "Ordo Obsidium – Orbis Tertius Review". Archived from the original on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
  65. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Zahn, Thorsten; Schurer, Petra (1 June 2003). "Emotionen in Zeitlupe". Rolling Stone (in German). Archived from the original on 12 November 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  66. "Reviews". Archived from the original on 28 January 1999. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  67. Newshound, Terrorizer. "WOODS OF YPRES RELEASE DISCUSS THE GREEN ALBUM". Terrorizer Online. Archived from the original on 7 January 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2009.
  68. "DEINONYCHUS: 'You Will Get A Pure Black/Doom Metal Album'". Blabbermouth . Retrieved 8 January 2018.
  69. Patterson, Dayal (2013). Black Metal: Evolution of the Cult. Feral House. ISBN   978-1936239757 . Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  70. Obstkrieg, Dan (12 January 2018). "Nortt – Endeligt Review". Last Rites. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  72. "Katatonia: 'Brave Murder Day'". Decibel Magazine . Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  73. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Yavuz, Mehmet Selim (September 2015). Dead is dead: Perspectives on the Meaning of Death in Depressive Suicidal Black Metal Music through Musical Representations (MMus). University of London. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  74. 1 2 3 Sil, Janet (2013). Ishmael, Amelia; Price, Zareen; Stephanou, Aspasia; Woodward, Ben (eds.). "Open a Vein: Suicidal Black Metal and Enlightenment". Helvete: A Journal of Black Metal Theory. Brooklyn: Punctum Books (1): 5–19. ISBN   9780615758282. ISSN   2326-683X.
  75. 1 2 3 Patterson, Dayal (2013). Black Metal: Evolution of the Cult. Port Townsend: Feral House. p. 351. ISBN   9781936239757.
  76. Luedtke, Christopher (2 February 2016). "Essential Black Metal Listening: XASTHUR Nocturnal Poisoning". Metal Injection. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  77. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Kelly, Kim (29 March 2017). "Morast Expertly Synthesize Black, Death, and Doom Metal on 'Ancestral Void'". Noisey Vice. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  78. Mattia, A. (7 February 2017). "DON'T LOOK BELOW: HARVEST GULGALTHA – 'ALTARS OF DEVOTION' REVIEW + STREAM". Cvlt Nation. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  79. Falzon, Denise (31 October 2012). "Dragged Into Sunlight 'Widowmaker' (album stream)". Exclaim! . Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  80. Moore, Doug (31 August 2016). "The Black Market: The Month In Metal – August 2016". Stereogum . Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  81. Whelan, Kez (11 June 2014). "Soulburn: Band Of The Day". Terrorizer . Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  82. 1 2 "Doom Metal Special: Doom/Death", Terrorizer #142.
  83. 1 2 3 4 Purcell, Nathalie J. (2003). Death Metal Music: The Passion and Politics of a Subculture. McFarland & Company. p. 23. ISBN   0-7864-1585-1.
  84. "Novembers Doom Biography, Songs, & Albums". AllMusic .
  85. Davis, Cody. "Funeral Doom Friday: FUNERAL MOURNING's Blackened, Deadly Inertia of Dissonance (A Sermon in Finality)". Metal Injection. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
  86. Bloodaxe, Mathias (27 July 2011). "Mournful Congregation – The Unspoken Hymns". VoltageMedia. Archived from the original on 26 November 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  87. Hinchcliffe, James (April 2006). "Funeral Doom / Dron Doom: Hearse Play", Terrorizer #143, pp.44–45.
  88. James Minton, Kim Kelly, and Jenn Selby, "Filth Parade", Terrorizer #188, September 2009, p. 56.
  89. 1 2 3 4 5 6 John Wray, "Heady Metal", New York Times, 28 May 2006. Access date: 18 August 2008.
  90. Jan Tumlir, "Primal dirge", Artforum, April 2006. Access date: 22 August 2008.
  91. Brandon Stosuy, "Heavy Metal: It's Alive and Flourishing", Slate, 19 August 2005. Access date: 22 August 2008.
  92. 1 2 3 4 Burke, David (2018). Political Expression in Doom Metal (MA). University of Southampton. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  93. Jason Jackowiak, "Earth: Hex: Or Printing in the Infernal Method" Archived 27 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine , Splendid, 14 September 2005. Access date: 23 August 2008.
  94. Hayes, Craig. "Witch Mountain – Cauldron Of The Wild Review". Archived from the original on 9 June 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  95. 1 2 Henderson, Alex. "Fear of Infinity". AllMusic . Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  96. Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Candlemass". AllMusic . Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  97. Santos, José Carlos (2012). "Epicus Doomicus Metallicus". In Terrorizer 's Secret History of Doom Metal, pp. 60–62, ISSN   2041-2142
  98. VIRTANEN, MIIKA (27 June 2011). "SOLSTICE ANNOUNCE NEW VOCALIST". Zero Tolerance . Retrieved 22 July 2018.
  99. "DOOMSWORD To Release New Album In June". Blabbermouth . 1 May 2007. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  100. 1 2 3 4 Sauciuc, Gabriela; Talpalariu, Dan-Radu. "Doom-gothic metal – its perception and interpretation by fans". Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  101. 1 2 3 Ramirez, Carlos (12 October 2012). "THE FORESHADOWING CRAFT GOTHIC DOOM MASTERPIECES". Noise Creep. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  102. "Singing In A Gothic-Doom Metal Band". Voice Council Magazine. 5 June 2016. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  103. Kelly, Kim (30 April 2018). "Grave Lines Blur the Boundary Between Doom Metal and Gothic Folk". Noisey Vice. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  104. Arancio, Dennis. "In the Flowers Shade Review". Archived from the original on 25 December 2008. Retrieved 6 May 2008.
  105. van der Wal, Kim. "The Silhouette Review". Retrieved 6 May 2008.
  106. Fox, Erin. "Interview with Anders Jacobsson of Draconian". Retrieved 6 May 2008.
  107. Pratt, Greg (15 April 2010). "Type O Negative's Peter Steele Dies at 48". Exclaim! . Retrieved 26 October 2013.
  108. 1 2 "The 9 albums that inspired King Goat's progressive doom sound". Metal Hammer .
  109. "Full Album Stream: Below The Sun". Decibel Magazine. 23 May 2017.
  110. "Canada's purveyors of progressive doom metal issue new video". AXS.
  111. "6 New Metal Albums That Set a Strong Mood". Pitchfork .
  112. Review
  113. 1 2 York, William. "Buzzov*en". AllMusic . Retrieved 21 July 2008.
  114. York, William. "Eyehategod – Dopesick". AllMusic . Retrieved 12 September 2008.
  115. York, William. "Acid Bath". AllMusic . Retrieved 21 June 2008.
  116. Henderson, Alex. "Grief". AllMusic . Retrieved 21 June 2008.
  117. Pearson, David (2020). "Ch3-The Dystopian Sublime of Extreme Hardcore Punk". Rebel Music in the Triumphant Empire: Punk Rock in the 1990s United States. Oxford University Press. p. 121. ISBN   978-0197534885.
  118. Rosenberg, Axl; Krovatin, Chris (2017). Hellraisers: A Complete Visual History of Heavy Metal Mayhem. Race Point Publishing. p. 239. ISBN   978-1-63106-430-2.
  119. Sharpe-Young, Garry (2005). New Wave of American Heavy Metal. Zonda. p. 137. ISBN   978-0958268400.
  120. Heilman, Max (3 March 2021). "Album Review: BLACK SHEEP WALL Songs for the Enamel Queen". Metal Injection. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  121. Sharpe-Young, Garry (2005). New Wave of American Heavy Metal. Zonda. p. 97. ISBN   978-0958268400.
  122. Kelly, Kim (19 April 2017). "10 Stoner Metal Albums Ranked by a Metalhead Who Doesn't Smoke Weed". Noisey Vice. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  123. "10 ESSENTIAL STONER-METAL ALBUMS". Revolver Magazine. 20 April 2018. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  124. Ellis, Iain (2008). Rebels Wit Attitude: Subversive Rock Humorists. Soft Skull Press. p. 258. ISBN   978-1-59376-206-3.
  125. "Stoner age: Priestess marries metal and melody". Buffalo News . Archived from the original on 13 February 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2010.
  126. Sharpe-Young, Garry. "MusicMight – Kyuss biography". MusicMight. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2007. [Kyuss] almost single handed invented the phrase 'Stoner Rock'. They achieved this by tuning way down and summoning up a subterranean, organic sound...
  127. "Stoner Metal". AllMusic . Retrieved 22 May 2009. Stoner metal could be campy and self-aware, messily evocative, or unabashedly retro.
  128. Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Kyuss biography". AllMusic . Retrieved 10 December 2007. ...they are widely acknowledged as pioneers of the booming stoner rock scene of the 1990s...
  129. Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Sleep biography". AllMusic . Retrieved 21 July 2008.
  130. 1 2 Terich, Jeff; Blyweiss, Adam (20 April 2017). "10 Essential Stoner Rock Albums". Treblezine. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
  131. Dare, Tom (18 April 2015). "Lori from Acid King on Desertfest, doom and David Bowie". Metal Hammer . Retrieved 2 February 2017. Stoner metal pioneers Acid King emerged when the subgenre didn't really exist yet.
  132. Kelly, Kim (20 April 2017). "10 Stoner Metal Albums Ranked by a Metalhead Who Doesn't Smoke Weed". Vice . Retrieved 21 May 2017.
  133. 1 2 Distefano, Alex (2 April 2014). "The Top 10 Stoner Metal Bands". OC Weekly . Retrieved 21 May 2017.
  134. Anderson, Jason. "Sons of Otis Biography". AllMusic . Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  135. 1 2 3 4 Mettler, Mike (28 March 2014). "A Desert Soundtrack". Palm Springs Life. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
  136. 1 2 Linn, Robin; Lalli, Mario (19 July 2013). "The strange births of Desert Rock". The Sun Runner, Journal of the Real Desert. Archived from the original on 19 September 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
  137. Voutiriadou, Maria. "Crowned In Earth". Metal Temple. Retrieved 19 May 2013.
  138. Nixon, Josh (4 November 2019). "Orodruin – Ruins of Eternity". BMA Magazine . Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  139. "ORODRUIN To Release Debut". . 10 January 2003. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  140. "Reverend Bizarre". Decibel Magazine . Retrieved 20 May 2013.