Consonance and dissonance

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Perfect octave on C.png
Perfect octave, a consonant interval
Minor second on C.png
Minor second, a dissonance

In music, consonance and dissonance are categorizations of simultaneous or successive sounds. Within the Western tradition, some listeners associate consonance with sweetness, pleasantness, and acceptability, and dissonance with harshness, unpleasantness, or unacceptability, although there is broad acknowledgement that this depends also on familiarity and musical expertise. [1] The terms form a structural dichotomy in which they define each other by mutual exclusion: a consonance is what is not dissonant, and a dissonance is what is not consonant. However, a finer consideration shows that the distinction forms a gradation, from the most consonant to the most dissonant. [2] In casual discourse, as German composer and music theorist Paul Hindemith stressed, "The two concepts have never been completely explained, and for a thousand years the definitions have varied". [3] The term sonance has been proposed to encompass or refer indistinctly to the terms consonance and dissonance. [4]



The opposition between consonance and dissonance can be made in different contexts:

In both cases, the distinction mainly concerns simultaneous sounds; if successive sounds are considered, their consonance or dissonance depends on the memorial retention of the first sound while the second sound (or pitch) is heard. For this reason, consonance and dissonance have been considered particularly in the case of Western polyphonic music, and the present article is concerned mainly with this case. Most historical definitions of consonance and dissonance since about the 16th century have stressed their pleasant/unpleasant, or agreeable/disagreeable character. This may be justifiable in a psychophysiological context, but much less in a musical context properly speaking: dissonances often play a decisive role in making music pleasant, even in a generally consonant context—which is one of the reasons why the musical definition of consonance/dissonance cannot match the psychophysiologic definition. In addition, the oppositions pleasant/unpleasant or agreeable/disagreeable evidence a confusion between the concepts of "dissonance" and of "noise". (See also Noise in music and Noise music.)

While consonance and dissonance exist only between sounds and therefore necessarily describe intervals (or chords), such as the perfect intervals, which are often viewed as consonant (e.g., the unison and octave), Occidental music theory often considers that, in a dissonant chord, one of the tones alone is in itself deemed to be the dissonance: it is this tone in particular that needs "resolution" through a specific voice leading procedure. For example, in the key of C Major, if F is produced as part of the dominant seventh chord (G7, which consists of the pitches G, B, D and F), it is deemed to be "dissonant" and it normally resolves to E during a cadence, with the G7 chord changing to a C Major chord.

Acoustics and psychoacoustics

Scientific definitions have been variously based on experience, frequency, and both physical and psychological considerations. [5] These include:

Music theory

Consonances may include:

A stable tone combination is a consonance; consonances are points of arrival, rest, and resolution.

Dissonances may include:

Ernst Krenek's classification, from Studies in Counterpoint (1940), of a triad's overall consonance or dissonance through the consonance or dissonance of the three intervals contained within.
For example, C-E-G consists of three consonances (C-E, E-G, C-G) and is ranked 1 while C-D-B consists of one mild dissonance (B-D) and two sharp dissonances (C-D, C-B) and is ranked 6. Krenek's chord classification from Studies in Counterpoint.png
Ernst Krenek's classification, from Studies in Counterpoint (1940), of a triad's overall consonance or dissonance through the consonance or dissonance of the three intervals contained within.For example, C–E–G consists of three consonances (C–E, E–G, C–G) and is ranked 1 while C–D–B consists of one mild dissonance (B–D) and two sharp dissonances (C–D, C–B) and is ranked 6.

An unstable tone combination is a dissonance; its tension demands an onward motion to a stable chord. Thus dissonant chords are "active"; traditionally they have been considered harsh and have expressed pain, grief, and conflict.

Roger Kamien [16]

Physiological basis

Line up of harmonics for PU with P5 and with M2.png
Consonance may be explained as caused by a larger number of aligning harmonics (blue) between two notes. Dissonance is caused by the beating between close but non-aligned harmonics.
Interval wavelength minor second.png
Dissonance may be the difficulty in determining the relationship between two frequencies, determined by their relative wavelengths. Consonant intervals (low whole number ratios) take less, while dissonant intervals take more time to be determined.
Dyadic harmonic entropy graph (optimized for low resolution).png
One component of dissonance—the uncertainty or confusion as to the virtual pitch evoked by an interval or chord, or the difficulty of fitting its pitches to a harmonic series (as discussed by Goldstein and Terhardt, see main text)—is modelled by harmonic entropy theory. Dips in this graph show consonant intervals such as 4:5 and 2:3. Other components not modeled by this theory include critical band roughness, and tonal context (e.g., an augmented second is more dissonant than a minor third although in equal temperament the interval, 300 cents, is the same for both).

Two notes played simultaneously but with slightly different frequencies produce a beating "wah-wah-wah" sound. This phenomenon is used to create the Voix céleste stop in organs. Other musical styles such as Bosnian ganga singing, pieces exploring the buzzing sound of the Indian tambura drone, stylized improvisations on the Middle Eastern mijwiz, or Indonesian gamelan consider this sound an attractive part of the musical timbre and go to great lengths to create instruments that produce this slight "roughness". [18]

Sensory dissonance and its two perceptual manifestations (beating and roughness) are both closely related to a sound signal's amplitude fluctuations. Amplitude fluctuations describe variations in the maximum value (amplitude) of sound signals relative to a reference point and are the result of wave interference. The interference principle states that the combined amplitude of two or more vibrations (waves) at any given time may be larger (constructive interference) or smaller (destructive interference) than the amplitude of the individual vibrations (waves), depending on their phase relationship. In the case of two or more waves with different frequencies, their periodically changing phase relationship results in periodic alterations between constructive and destructive interference, giving rise to the phenomenon of amplitude fluctuations. [19]

"Amplitude fluctuations can be placed in three overlapping perceptual categories related to the rate of fluctuation. Slow amplitude fluctuations (≈≤20 per second) are perceived as loudness fluctuations referred to as beating. As the rate of fluctuation is increased, the loudness appears constant, and the fluctuations are perceived as "fluttering" or roughness. As the amplitude fluctuation rate is increased further, the roughness reaches a maximum strength and then gradually diminishes until it disappears (≈≥75–150 fluctuations per second, depending on the frequency of the interfering tones).

Assuming the ear performs a frequency analysis on incoming signals, as indicated by Ohm's acoustic law, [20] [21] the above perceptual categories can be related directly to the bandwidth of the hypothetical analysis filters, [22] [23] For example, in the simplest case of amplitude fluctuations resulting from the addition of two sine signals with frequencies f1 and f2, the fluctuation rate is equal to the frequency difference between the two sines |f1-f2|, and the following statements represent the general consensus:

  1. If the fluctuation rate is smaller than the filter bandwidth, then a single tone is perceived either with fluctuating loudness (beating) or with roughness.
  2. If the fluctuation rate is larger than the filter bandwidth, then a complex tone is perceived, to which one or more pitches can be assigned but which, in general, exhibits no beating or roughness.

Along with amplitude fluctuation rate, the second most important signal parameter related to the perceptions of beating and roughness is the degree of a signal's amplitude fluctuation, that is, the level difference between peaks and valleys in a signal. [24] [25] The degree of amplitude fluctuation depends on the relative amplitudes of the components in the signal's spectrum, with interfering tones of equal amplitudes resulting in the highest fluctuation degree and therefore in the highest beating or roughness degree.

For fluctuation rates comparable to the auditory filter bandwidth, the degree, rate, and shape of a complex signal's amplitude fluctuations are variables that are manipulated by musicians of various cultures to exploit the beating and roughness sensations, making amplitude fluctuation a significant expressive tool in the production of musical sound. Otherwise, when there is no pronounced beating or roughness, the degree, rate, and shape of a complex signal's amplitude fluctuations remain important, through their interaction with the signal's spectral components. This interaction is manifested perceptually in terms of pitch or timbre variations, linked to the introduction of combination tones. [26] [27] [28]

"The beating and roughness sensations associated with certain complex signals are therefore usually understood in terms of sine-component interaction within the same frequency band of the hypothesized auditory filter, called critical band." [29]

In human hearing, the varying effect of simple ratios may be perceived by one of these mechanisms:

Generally, the sonance (i.e., a continuum with pure consonance at one end and pure dissonance at the other) of any given interval can be controlled by adjusting the timbre in which it is played, thereby aligning its partials with the current tuning's notes (or vice versa). [37] The sonance of the interval between two notes can be maximized (producing consonance) by maximizing the alignment of the two notes' partials, whereas it can be minimized (producing dissonance) by mis-aligning each otherwise nearly aligned pair of partials by an amount equal to the width of the critical band at the average of the two partials' frequencies.( [37] [38]

Controlling the sonance of pseudo-harmonic timbres played in pseudo-just tunings in real time is an aspect of dynamic tonality. For example, in William Sethares' piece C to Shining C] (discussed at Dynamic tonality § Example: C2ShiningC), the sonance of intervals is affected both by tuning progressions and timbre progressions, introducing tension and release into the playing of a single chord.

The strongest homophonic (harmonic) cadence, the authentic cadence, dominant to tonic (D-T, V-I or V7-I), is in part created by the dissonant tritone [39] created by the seventh, also dissonant, in the dominant seventh chord, which precedes the tonic.

Tritone resolution inwards and outwards
Outwards Dominant seventh tritone resolution.png
Tritone resolution inwards and outwards
Perfect authentic cadence (V-I with roots in the bass and tonic in the highest voice of the final chord): ii-V-I progression in C Ii-V-I turnaround in C.png
Perfect authentic cadence (V–I with roots in the bass and tonic in the highest voice of the final chord): ii–V–I progression in C

Instruments producing non-harmonic overtone series

Musical instruments like bells and xylophones, called Idiophones, are played such that their relatively stiff mass is excited to vibration by means of a striking the intstrument. This contrasts with violins, flutes, or drums, where the vibrating medium is a light, supple string, column of air, or membrane. The overtones of the inharmonic series produced by such instruments may differ greatly from that of the rest of the orchestra, and the consonance or dissonance of the harmonic intervals as well. [40]

According to John Gouwens, [40] the carillon's harmony profile is summarized:

In history of Western music

When we consider musical works we find that the triad is ever-present and that the interpolated dissonances have no other purpose than to effect the continuous variation of the triad.

Lorenz Mizler 1739 [41]

Dissonance has been understood and heard differently in different musical traditions, cultures, styles, and time periods. Relaxation and tension have been used as analogy since the time of Aristotle till the present. [42]

The terms dissonance and consonance are often considered equivalent to tension and relaxation. A cadence is (among other things) a place where tension is resolved; hence the long tradition of thinking of a musical phrase as consisting of a cadence and a passage of gradually accumulating tension leading up to it. [43]

Various psychological principles constructed through the audience's general conception of tonal fluidity determine how a listener will distinguish an instance of dissonance within a musical composition. Based on one's developed conception of the general tonal fusion within the piece, an unexpected tone played sightly variant to the overall schema will generate a psychological need for resolve. When the consonant is followed thereafter, the listener will encounter a sense of resolution. Within Western music, these particular instances and psychological effects within a composition have come to possess an ornate connotation. [43]

The application of consonance and dissonance "is sometimes regarded as a property of isolated sonorities that is independent of what precedes or follows them. In most Western music, however, dissonances are held to resolve onto following consonances, and the principle of resolution is tacitly considered integral to consonance and dissonance". [43]

Antiquity and the middle ages

In Ancient Greece, armonia denoted the production of a unified complex, particularly one expressible in numerical ratios. Applied to music, the concept concerned how sounds in a scale or a melody fit together (in this sense, it could also concern the tuning of a scale). [44] The term symphonos was used by Aristoxenus and others to describe the intervals of the fourth, the fifth, the octave and their doublings; other intervals were said diaphonos. This terminology probably referred to the Pythagorean tuning, where fourths, fifths and octaves (ratios 4:3, 3:2 and 2:1) were directly tunable, while the other scale degrees (other 3-prime ratios) could only be tuned by combinations of the preceding. [45] [46] Until the advent of polyphony and even later, this remained the basis of the concept of consonance versus dissonance (symphonia versus diaphonia) in Western music theory.

In the early Middle Ages, the Latin term consonantia translated either armonia or symphonia. Boethius (6th century) characterizes consonance by its sweetness, dissonance by its harshness: "Consonance (consonantia) is the blending (mixtura) of a high sound with a low one, sweetly and uniformly (suauiter uniformiterque) arriving to the ears. Dissonance is the harsh and unhappy percussion (aspera atque iniocunda percussio) of two sounds mixed together (sibimet permixtorum)". [47] It remains unclear, however, whether this could refer to simultaneous sounds. The case becomes clear, however, with Hucbald of Saint Amand (c. 900), who writes: "Consonance (consonantia) is the measured and concordant blending (rata et concordabilis permixtio) of two sounds, which will come about only when two simultaneous sounds from different sources combine into a single musical whole (in unam simul modulationem conveniant) ... There are six of these consonances, three simple and three composite, ... octave, fifth, fourth, and octave-plus-fifth, octave-plus-fourth and double octave". [48]

According to Johannes de Garlandia: [49]

One example of imperfect consonances previously considered dissonances[ clarification needed ] in Guillaume de Machaut's "Je ne cuit pas qu'onques": [50]

Machaut "Je ne cuit pas qu'onques"
Xs mark thirds and sixths Imperfect consonance in Machaut.PNG
Xs mark thirds and sixths

According to Margo Schulter: [51]



"Perfect" and "imperfect" and the notion of being (esse) must be taken in their contemporaneous Latin meanings (perfectum[ la ], imperfectum[ la ]) to understand these terms, such that imperfect is "unfinished" or "incomplete" and thus an imperfect dissonance is "not quite manifestly dissonant" and perfect consonance is "done almost to the point of excess".[ citation needed ] Also, inversion of intervals (major second in some sense equivalent to minor seventh) and octave reduction (minor ninth in some sense equivalent to minor second) were yet unknown during the Middle Ages.[ citation needed ]

Due to the different tuning systems compared to modern times, the minor seventh and major ninth were "harmonic consonances", meaning that they correctly reproduced the interval ratios of the harmonic series which softened a bad effect. [52] [ clarification needed ] They were also often filled in by pairs of perfect fourths and perfect fifths respectively, forming resonant (blending) units characteristic of the musics of the time, [53] where "resonance" forms a complementary trine with the categories of consonance and dissonance.[ clarification needed ] Conversely, the thirds and sixths were tempered severely from pure ratios [ clarification needed ], and in practice usually treated as dissonances in the sense that they had to resolve to form complete perfect cadences and stable sonorities. [54]

The salient differences from modern conception:[ citation needed ][ clarification needed ]


In Renaissance music, the perfect fourth above the bass was considered a dissonance needing immediate resolution. The regola delle terze e seste ("rule of thirds and sixths") required that imperfect consonances should resolve to a perfect one by a half-step progression in one voice and a whole-step progression in another. [55] The viewpoint concerning successions of imperfect consonances—perhaps more concerned by a desire to avoid monotony than by their dissonant or consonant character—has been variable. Anonymous XIII (13th century) allowed two or three, Johannes de Garlandia's Optima introductio (13th–14th century) three, four or more, and Anonymous XI (15th century) four or five successive imperfect consonances. Adam von Fulda [56] wrote "Although the ancients formerly would forbid all sequences of more than three or four imperfect consonances, we more modern do not prohibit them."

Common practice period

In the common practice period, musical style required preparation for all dissonances,[ citation needed ] followed by a resolution to a consonance. There was also a distinction between melodic and harmonic dissonance. Dissonant melodic intervals included the tritone and all augmented and diminished intervals. Dissonant harmonic intervals included:

Early in history, only intervals low in the overtone series were considered consonant. As time progressed, intervals ever higher on the overtone series were considered as such. The final result of this was the so-called "emancipation of the dissonance" [57] by some 20th-century composers. Early-20th-century American composer Henry Cowell viewed tone clusters as the use of higher and higher overtones. [58]

Composers in the Baroque era were well aware of the expressive potential of dissonance:

Bach Preludio XXI from Well-tempered Clavier, Vol 1
A sharply dissonant chord in Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier, vol. I (Preludio XXI) Dissonance in Bach.PNG
A sharply dissonant chord in Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier , vol. I (Preludio XXI)

Bach uses dissonance to communicate religious ideas in his sacred cantatas and Passion settings. At the end of the St Matthew Passion , where the agony of Christ's betrayal and crucifixion is portrayed, John Eliot Gardiner [59] hears that "a final reminder of this comes in the unexpected and almost excruciating dissonance Bach inserts over the very last chord: the melody instruments insist on B natural—the jarring leading tone—before eventually melting in a C minor cadence."

Bach St Matthew Passion closing bars
Closing bars of the final chorus of Bach's St Matthew Passion Bach St Matthew Passion closing bars.png
Closing bars of the final chorus of Bach's St Matthew Passion

In the opening aria of Cantata BWV 54, Widerstehe doch der Sünde ("upon sin oppose resistance"), nearly every strong beat carries a dissonance:

Bach BWV 54 opening bars
Bach BWV 54, opening bars Bach BWV 54, opening bars.png
Bach BWV 54, opening bars

Albert Schweitzer says that this aria "begins with an alarming chord of the seventh... It is meant to depict the horror of the curse upon sin that is threatened in the text". [60] Gillies Whittaker [61] points out that "The thirty-two continuo quavers of the initial four bars support four consonances only, all the rest are dissonances, twelve of them being chords containing five different notes. It is a remarkable picture of desperate and unflinching resistance to the Christian to the fell powers of evil."

According to H. C. Robbins Landon, the opening movement of Haydn's Symphony No. 82, "a brilliant C major work in the best tradition" contains "dissonances of barbaric strength that are succeeded by delicate passages of Mozartean grace": [62]

Haydn Symphony 82 1st movement bars 51–63
Haydn Symphony 82 1st movement bars 51-64 Haydn Symphony 82 1st movement bars 51-64.png
Haydn Symphony 82 1st movement bars 51–64

The Benedictus from Michael Haydn's Missa Quadragesimalis contains a passage of contrapuntal treatment consisting of various dissonances such as a ninth chord without its fifth, an augmented triad, a half-diminished seventh chord, and a minor seventh chord.

Benedictus on YouTube from Michael Haydn's Missa Quadragesimalis, MH 552 performed by Purcell Choir and Orfeo Orchestra conducted by György Vashegyi

Benedictus from Michael Haydn's Missa Quadragesimalis Michael Haydn Missa Quadragesimalis Benedictus.jpg
Benedictus from Michael Haydn's Missa Quadragesimalis

Mozart's music contains a number of quite radical experiments in dissonance. The following comes from his Adagio and Fugue in C minor, K. 546:

Dissonance in Mozart's Adagio and Fugue in C minor, K. 546
Dissonance in Mozart's Adagio and Fugue in C minor, K. 546 Dissonance in Mozart counterpoint.png
Dissonance in Mozart's Adagio and Fugue in C minor, K. 546

Mozart's Quartet in C major, K465 opens with an adagio introduction that gave the work its nickname, the "Dissonance Quartet":

Mozart Dissonance Quartet opening bars
Mozart Dissonance Quartet opening bars. Mozart Dissonance Quartet opening bars.png
Mozart Dissonance Quartet opening bars.

There are several passing dissonances in this adagio passage, for example on the first beat of bar 3. However the most striking effect here is implied, rather than sounded explicitly. The A flat in the first bar is contradicted by the high A natural in the second bar, but these notes do not sound together as a discord. (See also False relation.)

An even more famous example from Mozart comes in a magical passage from the slow movement of his popular "Elvira Madigan" Piano Concerto 21, K467, where the subtle, but quite explicit dissonances on the first beats of each bar are enhanced by exquisite orchestration:

Mozart, from Piano Concerto No. 21, 2nd movement bars 12–17
Mozart Piano Concerto 21, 2nd movement bars 12-17. Mozart Piano Concerto 21, 2nd movement bars 12-17.png
Mozart Piano Concerto 21, 2nd movement bars 12–17.

Philip Radcliffe [63] speaks of this as “a remarkably poignant passage with surprisingly sharp dissonances." Radcliffe says that the dissonances here "have a vivid foretaste of Schumann and the way they gently melt into the major key is equally prophetic of Schubert." Eric Blom [64] says that this movement must have "made Mozart's hearers sit up by its daring modernities... There is a suppressed feeling of discomfort about it."

The finale of Beethoven's Symphony No. 9 opens with a startling discord, consisting of a B flat inserted into a D minor chord:

Beethoven Symphony No. 9, finale opening bars
Beethoven Symphony No. 9, finale, opening bars Grove Schrekensfanfare 1.png
Beethoven Symphony No. 9, finale, opening bars

Roger Scruton [65] alludes to Wagner's description of this chord as introducing "a huge Schreckensfanfare—horror fanfare." When this passage returns later in the same movement (just before the voices enter) the sound is further complicated with the addition of a diminished seventh chord, creating, in Scruton's words "the most atrocious dissonance that Beethoven ever wrote, a first inversion D-minor triad containing all the notes of the D minor harmonic scale":

Beethoven Symphony No. 9, finale bars 208ff
Beethoven, Symphony No.9, finale, bars 208-210 Grove Schrekensfanfare 2.png
Beethoven, Symphony No.9, finale, bars 208-210

Robert Schumann's song "Auf einer Burg" from his cycle Liederkreis , Op. 39, climaxes on a striking dissonance in the fourteenth bar. As Nicholas Cook [66] points out, this is "the only chord in the whole song that Schumann marks with an accent". Cook goes on to stress that what makes this chord so effective is Schumann's placing of it in its musical context: "in what leads up to it and what comes of it". Cook explains further how the interweaving of lines in both piano and voice parts in the bars leading up to this chord (bars 9–14) "are set on a kind of collision course; hence the feeling of tension rising steadily to a breaking point".

Schumann Auf einer Burg. Listen Schumann Auf einer Burg.png
Schumann Auf einer Burg. Listen

Wagner made increasing use of dissonance for dramatic effect as his style developed, particularly in his later operas. In the scene known as "Hagen's Watch" from the first act of Götterdämmerung , according to Scruton [67] the music conveys a sense of "matchless brooding evil", and the excruciating dissonance in bars 9–10 below it constitute "a semitonal wail of desolation".

Wagner, Hagen's Watch from act 1 of Gotterdammerung. Listen Wagner, Hagen's Watch from Act 1 of Gotterdamerung.png
Wagner, Hagen's Watch from act 1 of Götterdämmerung. Listen

Another example of a cumulative build-up of dissonance from the early 20th century (1910) can be found in the Adagio that opens Gustav Mahler's unfinished 10th Symphony:

Mahler Symphony No. 10 Adagio bars 201–213
Mahler Symphony 10, opening Adagio, bars 201-213 Mahler 10 opening Adagio, bars 201-213.png
Mahler Symphony 10, opening Adagio, bars 201–213

Richard Taruskin [68] parsed this chord (in bars 206 and 208) as a "diminished nineteenth ... a searingly dissonant dominant harmony containing nine different pitches. Who knows what Guido Adler, for whom the second and Third Symphonies already contained 'unprecedented cacophonies', might have called it?"

One example of modernist dissonance comes from a work that received its first performance in 1913, three years after the Mahler:

Igor Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring, "Sacrificial Dance" excerpt Stravinsky, The Rite of Spring, Sacrificial Dance.PNG
Igor Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring, "Sacrificial Dance" excerpt

The West's progressive embrace of increasingly dissonant intervals occurred almost entirely within the context of harmonic timbres, as produced by vibrating strings and columns of air, on which the West's dominant musical instruments are based. By generalizing Helmholtz's notion of consonance (described above as the "coincidence of partials") to embrace non-harmonic timbres and their related tunings, consonance has recently been "emancipated" from harmonic timbres and their related tunings. [13] [14] [15] Using electronically controlled pseudo-harmonic timbres, rather than strictly harmonic acoustic timbres, provides tonality with new structural resources such as dynamic tonality. These new resources provide musicians with an alternative to pursuing the musical uses of ever-higher partials of harmonic timbres and, in some people's minds, may resolve what Arnold Schoenberg described as the "crisis of tonality".( [69]

Neo-classic harmonic consonance theory

Thirteenth chord constructed from notes of the Lydian mode Thirteenth chord CMA13(sharp11).png
Thirteenth chord constructed from notes of the Lydian mode

George Russell, in his 1953 Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization , presents a slightly different view from classical practice, one widely taken up in Jazz. He regards the tritone over the tonic as a rather consonant interval due to its derivation from the Lydian dominant thirteenth chord. [70]

In effect, he returns to a Medieval consideration of "harmonic consonance"[ clarification needed ]: that intervals when not subject to octave equivalence (at least not by contraction) and correctly reproducing the mathematical ratios of the harmonic series [ clarification needed ] are truly non-dissonant. Thus the harmonic minor seventh, natural major ninth, half-sharp (quarter tone) eleventh note (untempered tritone), half-flat thirteenth note, and half-flat fifteenth note must necessarily be consonant.

Most of these pitches exist only in a universe of microtones smaller than a halfstep; notice also that we already freely take the flat (minor) seventh note for the just seventh of the harmonic series in chords. Russell extends by approximation the virtual merits of harmonic consonance to the 12TET tuning system of Jazz and the 12-note octave of the piano, granting consonance to the sharp eleventh note (approximating the harmonic eleventh), that accidental being the sole pitch difference between the major scale and the Lydian mode.

(In another sense, that Lydian scale representing the provenance of the tonic chord (with major seventh and sharp fourth) replaces or supplements the Mixolydian scale of the dominant chord (with minor seventh and natural fourth) as the source from which to derive extended tertian harmony.)

Dan Haerle, in his 1980 The Jazz Language, [71] extends the same idea of harmonic consonance and intact octave displacement to alter Paul Hindemith's Series 2 gradation table from The Craft of Musical Composition. [72] In contradistinction to Hindemith, whose scale of consonance and dissonance is currently the de facto standard, Haerle places the minor ninth as the most dissonant interval of all, more dissonant than the minor second to which it was once considered by all as octave-equivalent. He also promotes the tritone from most-dissonant position to one just a little less consonant than the perfect fourth and perfect fifth.

For context: unstated in these theories is that musicians of the Romantic Era had effectively promoted the major ninth and minor seventh to a legitimacy of harmonic consonance as well, in their fabrics of 4-note chords. [73]

21st century

Dynamic tonality offers a new perspective on consonance and dissonance by enabling a pseudo-just tuning and a pseudo-harmonic timbre to remain related [74] despite real-time systematic changes to tuning, to timbre, or to both. This enables any musical interval in said tuning to be made more or less consonant in real time by aligning, more or less, the partials of said timbre with the notes of said tuning (or vice versa). [13] [14] [15]

See also

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In music theory, a perfect fifth is the musical interval corresponding to a pair of pitches with a frequency ratio of 3:2, or very nearly so.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wolf interval</span> Dissonant musical interval

In music theory, the wolf fifth is a particularly dissonant musical interval spanning seven semitones. Strictly, the term refers to an interval produced by a specific tuning system, widely used in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries: the quarter-comma meantone temperament. More broadly, it is also used to refer to similar intervals produced by other tuning systems, including Pythagorean and most meantone temperaments.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bohlen–Pierce scale</span>

The Bohlen–Pierce scale is a musical tuning and scale, first described in the 1970s, that offers an alternative to the octave-repeating scales typical in Western and other musics, specifically the equal-tempered diatonic scale.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Unison</span> Musical parts sounding at the same pitch

In music, unison is two or more musical parts that sound either the same pitch or pitches separated by intervals of one or more octaves, usually at the same time. Rhythmic unison is another term for homorhythm.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Major third</span> Musical interval

In classical music, a third is a musical interval encompassing three staff positions, and the major third is a third spanning four semitones. Along with the minor third, the major third is one of two commonly occurring thirds. It is qualified as major because it is the larger of the two: the major third spans four semitones, the minor third three. For example, the interval from C to E is a major third, as the note E lies four semitones above C, and there are three staff positions from C to E. Diminished and augmented thirds span the same number of staff positions, but consist of a different number of semitones.

The intervals from the tonic (keynote) in an upward direction to the second, to the third, to the sixth, and to the seventh scale degrees of a major scale are called major.

Musical acoustics or music acoustics is a multidisciplinary field that combines knowledge from physics, psychophysics, organology, physiology, music theory, ethnomusicology, signal processing and instrument building, among other disciplines. As a branch of acoustics, it is concerned with researching and describing the physics of music – how sounds are employed to make music. Examples of areas of study are the function of musical instruments, the human voice, computer analysis of melody, and in the clinical use of music in music therapy.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Guitar chord</span> Set of notes played on a guitar

In music, a guitar chord is a set of notes played on a guitar. A chord's notes are often played simultaneously, but they can be played sequentially in an arpeggio. The implementation of guitar chords depends on the guitar tuning. Most guitars used in popular music have six strings with the "standard" tuning of the Spanish classical guitar, namely E–A–D–G–B–E' ; in standard tuning, the intervals present among adjacent strings are perfect fourths except for the major third (G,B). Standard tuning requires four chord-shapes for the major triads.

12 equal temperament (12-ET) is the musical system that divides the octave into 12 parts, all of which are equally tempered on a logarithmic scale, with a ratio equal to the 12th root of 2. That resulting smallest interval, 112 the width of an octave, is called a semitone or half step.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Interval vector</span>

In musical set theory, an interval vector is an array of natural numbers which summarize the intervals present in a set of pitch classes. Other names include: ic vector, PIC vector and APIC vector

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Musical temperament</span> Musical tuning system

In musical tuning, a temperament is a tuning system that slightly compromises the pure intervals of just intonation to meet other requirements. Most modern Western musical instruments are tuned in the equal temperament system. Tempering is the process of altering the size of an interval by making it narrower or wider than pure. "Any plan that describes the adjustments to the sizes of some or all of the twelve fifth intervals in the circle of fifths so that they accommodate pure octaves and produce certain sizes of major thirds is called a temperament." Temperament is especially important for keyboard instruments, which typically allow a player to play only the pitches assigned to the various keys, and lack any way to alter pitch of a note in performance. Historically, the use of just intonation, Pythagorean tuning and meantone temperament meant that such instruments could sound "in tune" in one key, or some keys, but would then have more dissonance in other keys.

Dynamic tonality is a paradigm for tuning and timbre which generalizes the special relationship between just intonation and the harmonic series to apply to a wider set of pseudo-just tunings and related pseudo-harmonic timbres.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Paul Erlich</span>

Paul Erlich is a guitarist and music theorist living near Boston, Massachusetts. He is known for his seminal role in developing the theory of regular temperaments, including being the first to define pajara temperament and its decatonic scales in 22-ET. He holds a Bachelor of Science degree in physics from Yale University.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Interval ratio</span> In music, ratio of pitch frequencies

In music, an interval ratio is a ratio of the frequencies of the pitches in a musical interval. For example, a just perfect fifth is 3:2, 1.5, and may be approximated by an equal tempered perfect fifth which is 27/12. If the A above middle C is 440 Hz, the perfect fifth above it would be E, at (440*1.5=) 660 Hz, while the equal tempered E5 is 659.255 Hz.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Overtones tuning</span>

Among alternative tunings for the guitar, an overtones tuning selects its open-string notes from the overtone sequence of a fundamental note. An example is the open tuning constituted by the first six overtones of the fundamental note C, namely C2-C3-G3-C4-E4-G4.


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Further reading