Augmented triad

Last updated
augmented triad
Component intervals from root
augmented fifth
major third
root
Tuning
16:20:25
Forte no.  / Complement
3-12 / 9-12

An augmented triad is a chord, made up of two major thirds (an augmented fifth). The term augmented triad arises from an augmented triad being considered a major chord whose top note (fifth) is raised. When using popular-music symbols, it is indicated by the symbol "+" or "aug". For example, the augmented triad built on C, written as C+, has pitches C–E–G:

Contents

Augmented triad

The chord can be represented by the integer notation {0, 4, 8}.

Analysis

Whereas a major triad, such as C–E–G, contains a major third (C–E) and a minor third (E–G), with the interval of the fifth (C–G) being perfect, the augmented triad has an augmented fifth, becoming C–E–G. In other words, the top note is raised a semitone. H.R. Palmer notes:

The augmented chord, (which appears upon three of the minor key,) is commonly found upon one, four, or five of a major key. In its resolution the fundamental may either remain stationary, descend five degrees, or ascend four degrees; the third may either ascend a minor second [I+, IV ( Loudspeaker.svg Play  ) and I+, IV6
4
( Loudspeaker.svg Play  )], or remain stationary [I+, vi6
3
( Loudspeaker.svg Play  )]; and the fifth ascends a minor second. The inversions of the augmented chord may also be used [I+6, IV ( Loudspeaker.svg Play  ) and I+6
4
, IV6 ( Loudspeaker.svg Play  )]. [1]

The augmented chord on I may contain the major seventh (I7
5
( Loudspeaker.svg Play  ) or I6
5
( Loudspeaker.svg Play  )), while the augmented chord on V may contain the minor seventh (V7
5
( Loudspeaker.svg Play  ), V6
5
( Loudspeaker.svg Play  ), or V4
3
( Loudspeaker.svg Play  )). [1] In C: C–E–G–B and G–B–D–F.

The augmented triad on the V may be used as a substitute dominant, and may also be considered as III+. [2] The example below shows III+ as a substitute dominant in a ii-V-I turnaround in C major.

Augmented triad


Examples of popular music songs featuring the augmented chord include its introductory use in Chuck Berry's "School Days", Aaron Neville's "Tell It Like It Is", The Beatles' "Oh! Darling", after intros in Gene Pitney's "Town Without Pity", The Beach Boys' "The Warmth of the Sun", Joe Cocker's "Delta Lady", at the end of the bridge in Patience and Prudence's "Tonight You Belong to Me", The Caravelles' "You Don't Have to Be a Baby to Cry", The Beatles' "From Me to You", The Dave Clark Five's "Glad All Over", and Martha and the Vandellas' "Dancing in the Street". [3] One of the few examples of an augmented chord on the opening downbeat is in the Carmen Lombardo song "Seems Like Old Times": in Barber Shop Memories, Book 2 [4] the 4-part vocal score for the song (in the key of F) uses B–D–F to harmonize the downbeat as IV+ (the enharmonic equivalent of VI+). An augmented chord also harmonizes the opening downbeat of the chorus of the 1908 song "Shine On, Harvest Moon", heard at the beginning of the 1931 recording by Ruth Etting. [5]

Augmented triad
Augmented triad
Augmented chords from chromatic passing motion, ascending ("(Just Like) Starting Over") and descending ("All My Loving"). [6]

Other examples of the augmented chord include its use as a chromatic passing function over the first degree, the Scale deg 5.svg rising to Scale deg 5.svg then Scale deg 6.svg harmonized as IV, as in Jay and the Americans' "Some Enchanted Evening", Lesley Gore's "It's My Party" (I – I+ – IV – iv) (see also minor major seventh chord), Herman's Hermits' "There's a Kind of Hush" (continues to 7 harmonized by Im7), by ii Roy Orbison's "Crying", followed by 6 – 6 – 5 motion in "Crying", The Guess Who's "Laughing", Dave Clark Five's "Because" (verse: I – I+ – vi – Im7... ii and cadence on V+), The Monkees' "Tapioca Tundra" (I – I+ – vi, and V+ after bridge). [3]

Though rare, the augmented chord occurs in rock music, "almost always as a linear embellishment linking an opening tonic chord with the next chord," for example John Lennon's "(Just Like) Starting Over" and The Beatles' "All My Loving". [6] Thus, with an opening tonic chord, an augmented chord results from ascending or descending movement between the fifth and sixth degrees, such as in the chord progression I – I+ – vi. [6] This progression forms the verse for Oasis's 2005 single "Let There Be Love" (I – I+ – vi – IV)

In classical music

The augmented triad differs from the other kinds of triad (the major triad, the minor triad, and the diminished triad) in that it does not naturally arise in a diatonic scale. Although it could be conceptualized as a triad built on the third degree of a harmonic minor scale or melodic minor scale, it virtually never occurs in this way (since any chord on the third degree is itself rare, usually being a new tonic).

This rarity makes the augmented triad a special chord that touches on the atonal. Its uses to 'suspend' tonality are famous; for example, in Franz Liszt's Faust Symphony , in Richard Wagner's Siegfried Idyll , and in Arnold Schoenberg's "Walzer" (Fünf Klavierstücke Op. 23 No. 5). However, the augmented triad occurs in tonal music, with a perfectly tonal meaning, since at least J.S. Bach (see the first chord in the opening chorus to his cantata Ach Gott, vom Himmel sieh darein, BWV 2 ) and Joseph Haydn (see, for example, the Trio from Haydn's String Quartet Op. 54 No. 2). [7] It results diatonically in minor mode from a dominant chord where the fifth (the second degree) is replaced by the third degree, as an anticipation of the resolution chord. Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. 9 features such a chord at key moments in the slow movement. Johannes Brahms's Tragic Overture also features the chord prominently (A–C–E), in alternation with the regular dominant (A–C–E). In this example one can also see other aspect of the appeal of the chord to composers: it is a 'conflation' of the fifth degree and the third degree, the usual contrasting keys of a piece in the minor mode.

With the lead of Franz Schubert (in his Wanderer Fantasy ), Romantic composers started organizing many pieces by descending major thirds, which can be seen as a large-scale application of the augmented triad (although it probably arose from other lines of development not necessarily connected to the augmented triad). This kind of organization is common; in addition to Schubert, it is found in music of Franz Liszt, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Louis Vierne and Richard Wagner, among others.

Tuning

Comparison, in cents, of augmented triad tunings Comparison of augmented triads (0,4,8).png
Comparison, in cents, of augmented triad tunings

In just intonation, the interval between two major thirds and an octave, 2:(5:4)2, is 32:25, which is flatter by a septimal kleisma of size 225:224 than the septimal major third with ratio 9:7. While septimal meantone temperament tempers out the septimal kleisma, some other temperaments, for example miracle temperament, do so also, and in all of these temperaments the augmented triad may be identified with a circle of two major and one septimal major thirds, making up an octave.

Augmented chord table

ChordRootMajor thirdAugmented fifth
CaugCEG
CaugCEG
CaugCE (F)G DoubleSharp.svg (A)
DaugDFA
DaugDFA
DaugDF DoubleSharp.svg (G)A DoubleSharp.svg (B)
EaugEGB
EaugEGB (C)
EaugEG DoubleSharp.svg (A)B DoubleSharp.svg (C)
FaugFAC
FaugFAC
FaugFAC DoubleSharp.svg (D)
GaugGBD
GaugGBD
GaugGB (C)D DoubleSharp.svg (E)
AaugACE
AaugACE (F)
AaugAC DoubleSharp.svg (D)E DoubleSharp.svg (F)
BaugBDF
BaugBDF DoubleSharp.svg (G)

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 Palmer, H. R. (1876). Palmer's Theory of Music. J. Church. pp.  91–92. augmented chord.[ISBN unspecified]
  2. Cho, Gene (1992). Theories and Practice of Harmonic Analysis. p. 35. ISBN   0-7734-9917-2.
  3. 1 2 Everett, Walter (2009). "The Foundations of Rock": 196–197. ISBN   978-0-19-531023-8.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  4. Barber Shop Memories, Book 2. p. 20. ISBN   0-7692-4389-4.
  5. "Shine On, Harvest Moon" (1931 recording), Etting, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dxoNi8mJ2Yk
  6. 1 2 3 Stephenson, Ken (2002). What to Listen for in Rock: A Stylistic Analysis. p.  87. ISBN   978-0-300-09239-4.
  7. For further discussion, see Ellis, Mark (2010). "A Chord in Time: The Evolution of the Augmented Sixth from Monteverdi to Mahler". Farnham: Ashgate: 23, 30–31.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)

Further reading

Related Research Articles

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A seventh chord is a chord consisting of a triad plus a note forming an interval of a seventh above the chord's root. When not otherwise specified, a "seventh chord" usually means a dominant seventh chord: a major triad together with a minor seventh. However, a variety of sevenths may be added to a variety of triads, resulting in many different types of seventh chords.

Chord (music) Harmonic set of three or more notes

A chord, in music, is any harmonic set of pitches/frequencies consisting of multiple notes that are heard as if sounding simultaneously. For many practical and theoretical purposes, arpeggios and broken chords, or sequences of chord tones, may also be considered as chords in the right musical context.

Modulation (music) Change from one tonality (tonic, or tonal center) to another

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Major seventh musical interval

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The intervals from the tonic (keynote) in an upward direction to the second, to the third, to the sixth, and to the seventh scale degrees (of a major scale are called major.

Major sixth musical interval

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Chord substitution Technique of using a chord in place of another in a progression of chords

In music theory, chord substitution is the technique of using a chord in place of another in a progression of chords, or a chord progression. Much of the European classical repertoire and the vast majority of blues, jazz and rock music songs are based on chord progressions. "A chord substitution occurs when a chord is replaced by another that is made to function like the original. Usually substituted chords possess two pitches in common with the triad that they are replacing."

Augmented second musical interval

In classical music from Western culture, an augmented second is an interval that, in equal temperament, is sonically equivalent to a minor third, spanning three semitones, and is created by widening a major second by a chromatic semitone. For instance, the interval from C to D is a major second, two semitones wide, and the interval from C to D is an augmented second, spanning three semitones.

Guitar chord

In music, a guitar chord is a set of notes played on a guitar. A chord's notes are often played simultaneously, but they can be played sequentially in an arpeggio. The implementation of guitar chords depends on the guitar tuning. Most guitars used in popular music have six strings with the "standard" tuning of the Spanish classical guitar, namely E-A-D-G-B-E' ; in standard tuning, the intervals present among adjacent strings are perfect fourths except for the major third (G,B). Standard tuning requires four chord-shapes for the major triads.

53 equal temperament

In music, 53 equal temperament, called 53 TET, 53 EDO, or 53 ET, is the tempered scale derived by dividing the octave into 53 equal steps. Play  Each step represents a frequency ratio of 2153, or 22.6415 cents, an interval sometimes called the Holdrian comma.

In music, septimal meantone temperament, also called standard septimal meantone or simply septimal meantone, refers to the tempering of 7-limit musical intervals by a meantone temperament tuning in the range from fifths flattened by the amount of fifths for 12 equal temperament to those as flat as 19 equal temperament, with 31 equal temperament being a more or less optimal tuning for both the 5- and 7-limits. Meantone temperament represents a frequency ratio of approximately 5 by means of four fifths, so that the major third, for instance C–E, is obtained from two tones in succession. Septimal meantone represents the frequency ratio of 56 (7 × 23) by ten fifths, so that the interval 7:4 is reached by five successive tones. Hence C–A, not C–B, represents a 7:4 interval in septimal meantone.

Septimal kleisma

In music, the ratio 225/224 is called the septimal kleisma (play ). It is a minute comma type interval of approximately 7.7 cents. Factoring it into primes gives 2−5 32 52 7−1, which can be rewritten 2−1 (5/4)2 (9/7). That says that it is the amount that two major thirds of 5/4 and a septimal major third, or supermajor third, of 9/7 exceeds the octave. If the septimal kleisma is tempered out, as it is for instance in miracle temperament, septimal meantone temperament, septimal magic temperament and in many equal temperaments, for example 12, 19, 22, 31, 41, 53, 72 or 84 equal, then an augmented triad consisting of two major thirds and a supermajor third making up an octave becomes possible. The existence of such a chord, which might be termed the septimal kleisma augmented triad, is a significant feature of a tuning system.

In music, harmonization is the chordal accompaniment to a line or melody: "Using chords and melodies together, making harmony by stacking scale tones as triads".

Harmonic seventh chord

The harmonic seventh chord is a major triad plus the harmonic seventh interval. This interval is somewhat narrower and is "sweeter in quality" than an "ordinary" minor seventh, which has a just intonation ratio of 9:5, or an equal-temperament ratio of 1000 cents.