Added tone chord

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Suspended chord (sus2) and added tone chord (add9) both with D (ninth=second), distinguished by the absence or presence of the third (E). Sus chord.png
Suspended chord (sus2) and added tone chord (add9) both with D (ninth=second), distinguished by the absence or presence of the third (E).
Ninth (C ) vs added-ninth chord (C ), distinguished, in academic textbooks and jazz & rock sheet music, by the presence or absence of a seventh.
Play (help*info) Ninth vs added-ninth chord.png
Ninth (C ) vs added-ninth chord (C ), distinguished, in academic textbooks and jazz & rock sheet music, by the presence or absence of a seventh. Loudspeaker.svg Play  

An added tone chord, or added note chord, is a non-tertian chord composed of a tertian triad and an extra "added" note. The added note is not a seventh (three thirds from the chord root), but typically a non-tertian note, which cannot be defined by a sequence of thirds from the root, such as the added sixth ( Loudspeaker.svg Play  ) or fourth. This includes chords with an added thirteenth (a tertian note, six thirds from the root) and farther "extensions", but that do not include the intervening tertian notes as in an extended chord. The concept of added tones is further convenient in that all notes may be related to familiar chords. [3]

C major chord with added sixth
Play (help*info) Add6 chord on C.png
C major chord with added sixth Loudspeaker.svg Play  

An added sixth chord ends songs including Hank Williams' "Hey Good Lookin'", [4] Chuck Berry's "Rock and Roll Music", [4] Sam Cooke's "You Send Me", [4] and The Beatles' "She Loves You" (McCartney on 8, Harrison on 6, Lennon on 5). [4] Though the added sixth chord is rarely found inverted, examples include The 5th Dimension's recorded version of "Stoned Soul Picnic" (on 5). [4]

Dominant seventh raised ninth vs dominant seventh split third chord.
Play (help*info) Dominant seventh raised ninth vs dominant seventh split third chord.png
Dominant seventh raised ninth vs dominant seventh split third chord. Loudspeaker.svg Play  

The thirds in a mixed third chord, also split-third chord, [6] a chord that includes as its third both the major and minor third (for a chord on C: C–E–E–G), are usually separated by an octave or more. [7] While a minor chord placed over a major chord of the same root (creating a tension of 9) is somewhat common, a major chord placed over a minor chord of the same root (creating a tension of 11) is not as commonplace. Examples of use of the split-third chord include "Rock And Roll Music", Paul McCartney's "Maybe I'm Amazed", and Jimi Hendrix Experience's "Purple Haze" (dominant seventh sharp ninth chord). [5] Tonic dominant seventh chord with split third include Heatwave's "Boogie Nights". [5] It is "suggested" by the final note and chord of "A Hard Day's Night". [5]

Two added chords with mixed thirds, thirds separated by octave.

Play chord on left (help*info)
Play chord on right (help*info) Added or mixed third chord.png
Two added chords with mixed thirds, thirds separated by octave.
Loudspeaker.svg Play chord on left   Loudspeaker.svg Play chord on right  

Mixed-third chords are frequently encountered as the result of blue notes in blues, country music and rock music; a mixed-third seventh chord (in the form of the minor over the major) is sometimes known among rock guitarists as the "Hendrix chord" (due to its extensive use by rock guitarist Jimi Hendrix).

An example of an added tone chord may be found in Igor Stravinsky's Symphony of Psalms [7] while an added tone (G) chord with mixed thirds, a major third and minor third, by William Schuman. [7]

An added tone, such as that added a perfect fifth below the root, may suggest polytonality [7] and the practice of adding tones may have led to superimposing chords and tonalities though added tone chords have most often been used as more intense substitutes for traditional chords. [3] For instance a minor chord that includes a major second interval while still retaining its minor third holds a great deal more dramatic tension due to the very close intervals of the major second and minor third.[ citation needed ] A major chord with an added major second sounds very distinct from its basic triad counterpart.[ citation needed ]

Examples of the added-second chord (notated "add2" or "2" and sometimes "add9") include The Rolling Stones' "You Can't Always Get What You Want", Mr. Mister's "Broken Wings", Don Henley's "The End of the Innocence", The Police's "Every Breath You Take", Cheap Trick's "The Flame", Lionel Richie's "All Night Long (All Night)", Men at Work's "It's a Mistake", DeBarge's "Rhythm of the Night", Starship's "We Built This City", and Deniece Williams' "Let's Hear It for the Boy". [2] Another example is in the verse of The Beatles' "A Hard Day's Night". [5] The jazz rock group Steely Dan popularized a particular voicing of the add2 chord they dubbed the mu chord.

Examples of use of the added-fourth chord, which almost always occurs on the fifth scale degree (notated "add4") thus adding, "the stable tonic pitch", include the second chord in the verse of "Runaway Train" and the introduction of The Who's "Baba O'Riley". [2]

Examples of use of the added-sixth chord (notated "6") include the third measure of The Beatles' "A Hard Day's Night", the second chord of "You Keep Me Hangin' On", the third of "The Eagle And The Hawk", and The Beatles' "She Loves You", being used only occasionally in rock and popular music. [2] When added at the suggestion of Harrison, producer George Martin described the chord as old-fashioned sounding. [2]

See also


  1. Hawkins, Stan (Oct 1992). "Prince – Harmonic Analysis of 'Anna Stesia '". Popular Music. 11 (3): 325–335. doi:10.1017/s0261143000005171.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Stephenson, Ken (2002). What to Listen for in Rock: A Stylistic Analysis. p.  85. ISBN   978-0-300-09239-4.
  3. 1 2 Jones, George (1994). HarperCollins College Outline Music Theory, p.50. ISBN   0-06-467168-2.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 Everett, Walter (2009). The Foundations of Rock . p.  195. ISBN   978-0-19-531023-8.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 Stephenson (2002), p.84.
  6. 1 2 Kostka & Payne (1995). Tonal Harmony, p.494. Third Edition. ISBN   0-07-035874-5.
  7. 1 2 3 4 Marquis, G. Welton (1964). Twentieth Century Music Idioms. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. ISBN   0-313-22624-5.

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A seventh chord is a chord consisting of a triad plus a note forming an interval of a seventh above the chord's root. When not otherwise specified, a "seventh chord" usually means a dominant seventh chord: a major triad together with a minor seventh. However, a variety of sevenths may be added to a variety of triads, resulting in many different types of seventh chords.

Chord (music) harmonic set of three or more notes

A chord, in music, is any harmonic set of pitches consisting of multiple notes that are heard as if sounding simultaneously. For many practical and theoretical purposes, arpeggios and broken chords, or sequences of chord tones, may also be considered as chords.

Modulation (music) in music

In music, modulation is the change from one tonality to another. This may or may not be accompanied by a change in key signature. Modulations articulate or create the structure or form of many pieces, as well as add interest. Treatment of a chord as the tonic for less than a phrase is considered tonicization.

Modulation is the essential part of the art. Without it there is little music, for a piece derives its true beauty not from the large number of fixed modes which it embraces but rather from the subtle fabric of its modulation.

Root (chord) note after which a chord is named

In music theory, the concept of root is the idea that a chord can be represented and named by one of its notes. It is linked to harmonic thinking— the idea that vertical aggregates of notes can form a single unit, a chord. It is in this sense that one speaks of a "C chord" or a "chord on C"—a chord built from C and of which the note C is the root. When a chord is referred to in Classical music or popular music without a reference to what type of chord it is, it is assumed a major triad, which for C contains the notes C, E and G. The root need not be the bass note, the lowest note of the chord: the concept of root is linked to that of the inversion of chords, which is derived from the notion of invertible counterpoint. In this concept, chords can be inverted while still retaining their root.

Extended chord

In music, extended chords are tertian chords or triads with notes extended, or added, beyond the seventh. Ninth, eleventh, and thirteenth chords are extended chords. The thirteenth is the farthest extension diatonically possible as, by that point, all seven tonal degrees are represented within the chord. In practice however, extended chords do not typically use all the chord members; when it is not altered, the fifth is often omitted, as are notes between the seventh and the highest note, unless they are altered to give a special texture. See chord alteration.

The term sixth chord refers to two different kinds of chord, the first in classical music and the second in modern popular music.

Thirteenth musical interval

In music or music theory, a thirteenth is the interval between the sixth and first scale degrees when the sixth is transposed up an octave, creating a compound sixth, or thirteenth. The thirteenth is most commonly major Play  or minor Play .

A suspended chord is a musical chord in which the third is omitted, replaced usually with either a perfect fourth or a major second although the fourth is far more common. The lack of a minor or a major third in the chord creates an open sound, while the dissonance between the fourth and fifth or second and root creates tension. When using popular-music symbols, they are indicated by the symbols "sus4" and "sus2". For example, the suspended fourth and second chords built on C (C-E-G), written as Csus4 and Csus2, have pitches C–F–G and C–D–G, respectively.

Eleventh chord chord that contains the tertian extension of the eleventh, typically found in jazz

In music theory, an eleventh chord is a chord that contains the tertian extension of the eleventh. Typically found in jazz, an eleventh chord also usually includes the seventh and ninth, and elements of the basic triad structure. Variants include the dominant eleventh, minor eleventh, and the major eleventh chord. Symbols include: Caug11, C9aug11, C9+11, C9alt11, Cm9(11), C−9(11). The eleventh in an eleventh chord is, "almost always sharpened, especially in jazz," at least in reference to the third, with CM11 (major eleventh): C–E–G–B–D–F, Cm11 (minor eleventh): C–E–G–B–D–F, and C11 (dominant eleventh): C–E–G–B–D–F.

In music theory, a ninth chord is a chord that encompasses the interval of a ninth when arranged in close position with the root in the bass.

The ninth chord and its inversions exist today, or at least they can exist. The pupil will easily find examples in the literature [such as Schoenberg's Verklärte Nacht and Strauss's opera Salome]. It is not necessary to set up special laws for its treatment. If one wants to be careful, one will be able to use the laws that pertain to the seventh chords: that is, dissonances resolve by step downward, the root leaps a fourth upward.

In music theory, a dominant seventh chord, or major minor seventh chord, is a seventh chord, usually built on the fifth degree of the major scale, and composed of a root, major third, perfect fifth, and minor seventh. Thus it is a major triad together with a minor seventh, denoted by the letter name of the chord root and a superscript "7". An example is the dominant seventh chord built on G, written as G7, having pitches G–B–D–F:

In music theory, a Neapolitan chord is a major chord built on the lowered (flatted) second (supertonic) scale degree. In Schenkerian analysis, it is known as a Phrygian II, since in minor scales the chord is built on the notes of the corresponding Phrygian mode.

Guitar chord set of notes played on a guitar

In music, a guitar chord is a set of notes played on a guitar. A chord's notes are often played simultaneously, but they can be played sequentially in an arpeggio. The implementation of guitar chords depends on the guitar tuning. Most guitars used in popular music have six strings with the "standard" tuning of the Spanish classical guitar, namely E-A-D-G-B-E' ; in standard tuning, the intervals present among adjacent strings are perfect fourths except for the major third (G,B). Standard tuning requires four chord-shapes for the major triads.

Andalusian cadence chord progression

The Andalusian cadence is a term adopted from flamenco music for a chord progression comprising four chords descending stepwise—a vi–V–IV–III progression with respect to the major mode or i–VII–VI–V progression with respect to the minor mode. It is otherwise known as the minor descending tetrachord. Traceable back to the Renaissance, its effective sonorities made it one of the most popular progressions in classical music Play .

Dominant seventh sharp ninth chord

In music, the dominant 79 chord is a chord built by combining a dominant seventh, which includes a major third above the root, with an augmented second, which is the same note, albeit given a different note name, as the minor third degree above the root. This chord is used in many forms of contemporary popular music, including jazz, funk, R&B, rock and pop. As a dominant chord in diatonic harmony, it most commonly functions as a turnaround chord, returning to the tonic.

Musicians use various kinds of chord names and symbols in different contexts to represent musical chords. In most genres of popular music, including jazz, pop, and rock, a chord name and its corresponding symbol typically indicate one or more of the following:

  1. the root note,
  2. the chord quality,
  3. whether the chord is a triad, seventh chord, or an extended chord,
  4. any altered notes,
  5. any added tones, and
  6. the bass note if it is not the root.