Guitar solo

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Guitarist Brian Ray soloing. Brain Ray rocking Viniyl - Guitar Clinic at Redbone Guitar Boutique, 2009-06-13.jpg
Guitarist Brian Ray soloing.

A guitar solo is a melodic passage, instrumental section, or entire piece of music written for a classical guitar, electric guitar or an acoustic guitar. In 20th and 21st century traditional music and popular music such as blues, swing, jazz, jazz fusion, rock and metal, guitar solos often contain virtuoso techniques and varying degrees of improvisation. Guitar solos on classical guitar, which are typically written in musical notation, are also used in classical music forms such as chamber music and concertos.


Guitar solos range from unaccompanied works for a single guitar to compositions with accompaniment from a few other instruments or a large ensemble. The accompaniment musicians for a guitar solo can range from a small ensemble such as a jazz quartet or a rock band, to a large ensemble such as an orchestra or big band. Unaccompanied acoustic guitar music is found in folk and classical music dating as far back as the instrument's first use in western music, the use of an acoustic guitar as a solo voice within an ensemble dates back at least to the Baroque concerto.

Classical guitar

Classical guitar soloist Andres Segovia (1962) Andres Segovia (1962).jpg
Classical guitar soloist Andrés Segovia (1962)

The classical guitar is an acoustical wooden guitar with six strings, usually nylon, as opposed to the metal strings used in metal stringed acoustic guitars used in other genres. [1] Classical guitar is typically played by plucking individual strings with the fingernails or the fingertips. [2] A classical guitar solo concert is typically called a recital; it may include a variety of works, e.g. works written originally for the lute or vihuela by composers such as John Dowland (b. Ireland 1563) and Luis de Narváez (b. Spain c. 1500), and also music written for the harpsichord by Domenico Scarlatti (b. Italy 1685), for the baroque lute by Sylvius Leopold Weiss (b. Germany 1687), for the baroque guitar by Robert de Visée (b. France c. 1650) or even Spanish-inspired music written for the piano by Isaac Albéniz (b. Spain 1860) and Enrique Granados (b. Spain 1867). Johann Sebastian Bach (b. Germany 1685) is another composer who did not write for the guitar specifically, but whose music is often played on it as his baroque lute works have proved highly adaptable to the instrument. [3]

Of music written originally for guitar, the earliest influential composers stem from the classical period. [4] They include Fernando Sor (b. Spain 1778) and Mauro Giuliani (b. Italy 1781), [5] it is noted that their music can be seen to be potentially influenced by Viennese classicism. In the 19th century guitar composers such as Johann Kaspar Mertz (b. Slovakia, Austria 1806) were influenced by music written for the piano. [6] I Francisco Tárrega (b. Spain 1852) wrote more uniquely guitar music, incorporating stylized aspects of flamenco's Moorish influences into his romantic miniatures. This was part of late 19th century European trend towards musical nationalism. [7] Albéniz and Granados contributed to this movement as they wrote within the same time period. [8]

Some classical guitarists play concertos, which are solos written for performance with the accompaniment of an orchestra. Less classical guitar concertos have been written compared to concertos for multi-instrumental orchestras. [9] Some potentially notable ones could include Joaquín Rodrigo's Concierto de Aranjuez and Fantasía para un gentilhombre . In the 2000s, it has been noted that classical guitar is appearing more in classical music, as contemporary composers are increasingly writing guitar concertos. [10]


Composers of the Renaissance period who wrote for four course guitar include Alonso Mudarra, Miguel de Fuenllana, Adrian Le Roy and Guillaume de Morlaye. [11] Composers of the baroque guitar include Gaspar Sanz, Robert de Visée and Francesco Corbetta. [12] From approximately 1780 to 1850, the guitar had composers and performers including: Filippo Gragnani (1767–1820), Antoine de Lhoyer (1768–1852), Ferdinando Carulli (1770–1841), Francesco Molino (1774–1847), Fernando Sor (1778–1839), Mauro Giuliani (1781–1829), Niccolò Paganini (1782–1840), Dionisio Aguado (1784 – 1849), Luigi Legnani (1790–1877), Matteo Carcassi (1792–1853), Napoléon Coste (1805–1883) and Johann Kaspar Mertz (1806–1856). Guitar soloist Andrés Segovia popularized the guitar with tours and early phonograph recordings in the1920s. Modern classical guitar solo performers who are known for playing modern repertoire include Kazuhito Yamashita, Agustín Barrios, Paul Galbraith, and John Williams. [13]

Blues, R&B and rock and roll

American blues guitarist and singer B.B. King in 2009. B.B. King in 2009.jpg
American blues guitarist and singer B.B. King in 2009.

The term "guitar solo" often refers to electric guitar solos played in blues and in rock. The electric guitar is played through a guitar amplifier to make the instrument loud enough. Guitar amplifiers also have preamplifier and tone controls, and in some cases, overdrive controls that modify the tone. The use of a guitar solo as an instrumental interlude was developed by blues musicians such as John Lee Hooker, Muddy Waters, and T-Bone Walker, and jazz like Charlie Christian. Ernest Tubb's 1940 honky tonk classic, Walking the Floor over You was the first "hit" recording to feature and highlight a solo by a standard electric guitar–though earlier hits featured electric lap steel guitars. Blues master Lonnie Johnson had also recorded at least one electric guitar solo, but his innovation was neither much noted nor influential.

Howlin' Wolf, Muddy Waters, Willie Dixon, and Jimmy Reed played in Chicago in a style characterized by the use of electric guitar, sometimes slide guitar, harmonica, and a rhythm section of bass and drums. [14] In the late 1950s, a new blues style emerged on Chicago's West Side pioneered by Magic Sam, Buddy Guy and Otis Rush on Cobra Records. [15] The 'West Side Sound' had strong rhythmic support from a rhythm guitar, bass guitar and drums and as perfected by Guy, Freddie King, Magic Slim and Luther Allison was dominated by amplified electric lead guitar. [16] [17] Other blues artists, such as John Lee Hooker had influences not directly related to the Chicago style. John Lee Hooker's blues is more "personal," based on Hooker's deep rough voice accompanied by a single electric guitar.

These and other blues guitarists inspired the appearance of many virtuoso blues rock fusion soloists, beginning in 1963 with Lonnie Mack's first major recordings. [18] One such soloist, Jimi Hendrix, was a rarity in his field at the time: a black man who played psychedelic rock. Hendrix was a skilled guitarist, and a pioneer in the innovative use of distortion and audio feedback in his music. [19] Through these artists and others, blues music influenced the development of rock music. [20] Another important blues rock guitar soloist in the 1960s and 1970s was Eric Clapton. In the early 1970s, the Texas rock-blues style emerged, which used guitars in both solo and rhythm roles (e.g., Stevie Ray Vaughan).


The earliest rock guitar solos, as exemplified by popular recordings of Duane Eddy and Link Wray in the late 1950s, were relatively simple instrumental melodies. [21] In the early 1960s, instrumental surf music represented a step forward in the sonic complexity of rock guitar melodies. In 1963, the dramatic, technically advanced electric guitar solo rose to the fore with Lonnie Mack's hit records, "Memphis" and "Wham!" (later covered by The Ventures, Stevie Ray Vaughan and others), and soon, with the advent of blues rock and psychedelic rock in the mid-late 1960s, became a characteristic part of rock music. Later still, guitar solos became a defining feature of the rock genre of heavy metal, in which most songs feature a solo. Metal solos often showcase the virtuosity of the guitarists, especially in metal styles that use shred guitar techniques for rapid playing of scales and arpeggios. Since the 1960s, electric guitarists have often altered the timbre of their guitar adding electronic guitar effects such as reverb, distortion, delay, and chorus to make the sound fuller and add harmonic overtones. Other effects used in solos include the wah pedal and the talk box.

Rock bands often have two guitarists, designated "lead" and "rhythm", with the lead player performing the solos and instrumental melody lines while the rhythm player accompanies with chords or riffs. In some cases, two guitarists share the lead role. Most rock music is based around songs in traditional forms. The main formal features are verses, choruses, and bridges. The guitar solo is usually the most significant instrumental section of a mainstream rock song. In other rock-related genres, such as pop and dance music, the synthesizer usually plays this role.

In classic verse–chorus form, it often falls between the second chorus and third verse. Extended guitar solos are sometimes used as a song’s outro, such as Christopher Cross' "Ride Like the Wind", Radiohead’s "Paranoid Android", Lynyrd Skynyrd’s "Free Bird", The Stooges' "I Wanna Be Your Dog", Pink Floyd’s "Comfortably Numb", Guns N' Roses’ "November Rain", Metallica’s "Fade to Black", Led Zeppelin’s "Black Dog", Journey's "Who's Crying Now", The Cult's "Love Removal Machine", The Beatles’ "While My Guitar Gently Weeps", .38 Special's "Hold On Loosely", The Rolling Stones’ "Sway", Pearl Jam’s "Alive", Red Hot Chili Peppers’ "Dani California", Cream’s "White Room", AC/DC’s "Let There Be Rock", Outlaws’ "Green Grass and High Tides", The Alan Parsons Project’s "Eye in the Sky" and Eagles’ "Hotel California".

Solos can take place in the intro, such as "Voodoo Child (Slight Return)" by Jimi Hendrix, "Since I've Been Loving You" by Led Zeppelin, "One" by Metallica, "Lazy" by Deep Purple, "I Want It All" by Queen, "Johnny B. Goode" by Chuck Berry, "Don't Take Me Alive" by Steely Dan, "Sails of Charon" by Scorpions and "Wish You Were Here" by Pink Floyd. In rarer cases, the guitar solo may come after the first chorus as opposed to the second, such as "Beast and the Harlot" by Avenged Sevenfold and "The Importance of Being Idle" by Oasis.

Eddie Van Halen in 1977 Eddie Van Halan - 77 in New Haven.jpg
Eddie Van Halen in 1977

The use of guitar solos in hard rock and heavy metal was notable during the 1980s, when rapid-fire "shredding" solos were common; a virtuoso lead guitarist of a band might be more well-known than the singer (although in a few cases one artist held both roles). During this time, players began to use advanced harmonics techniques more widely. Later, guitarists who had developed considerable technical facility began to release albums with instrumental-only guitar compositions. Guitar solos in popular music waned in fashion in the middle 1990s, coinciding with the rise in popularity of nu metal and grunge. Nu metal differed significantly from previous sub-genres of metal and abandoned guitar solos altogether, except for a few rare lead fills here and there, whilst grunge did not wholly abandon solos and included them from time to time. Guitar solos likewise became less prominent in many pop and popular rock music styles; either being trimmed down to a short four-bar transition or omitted entirely, in a vast departure from the heavy usage of solos in classic rock music from the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, and early 1990s. Classic rock revival music heavily features soloing, along with classic rock bands that are still active as of 2018.

Occasionally, a song contains a two-part guitar solo with both rhythm and lead guitar taking solos (e.g., "Master of Puppets" by Metallica), or dual solos with both lead and rhythm playing complementary solos—such as with Twisted Sister’s "30", Iron Maiden's "Hallowed Be Thy Name", "The Trooper" or Megadeth's "Mechanix". Some rock bands use harmonized dual lead guitar solos as part of their signature sound, such as Wishbone Ash. This was first popularized by the Allman Brothers Band in their album At Fillmore East .

Bass guitar solos

The bass guitar is played through a specialized amplifier to make the instrument louder and provided control over tone. The bass guitar came into use in popular music in the 1950s. [22] While bass guitar solos are not common in popular music, some bands include bass solos in some songs, particularly heavy metal, funk, and progressive rock bands. Some genres use bass guitar solos in most songs, such as jazz bands or jazz fusion groups. Bass solos are also common in certain styles of punk music. In a rock context, bass guitar solos are structured and performed in a similar fashion as rock guitar solos, often with the musical accompaniment from the verse or chorus sections. While bass guitar solos appear on few studio albums from rock or pop bands, genres such as progressive rock, fusion-influenced rock, and some types of heavy metal are more likely to include bass solos, both in studio albums and in live performances.

Players perform bass solos with a range of techniques, such as plucking or finger picking. In the 1960s, The Who's bassist, John Entwistle, performed a bass break on the song "My Generation" using a plectrum, though he intended to use his fingers—he simply couldn't drop the plectrum quickly enough. Many consider this one of the first bass solos in rock music, and one of the most recognizable. John Paul Jones of Led Zeppelin, on "Good Times Bad Times", the first song on their first album, uses two bass solos in an influentially dynamic way, as a bridge (when the band drops out after the choruses) to the next verse (after the first chorus) and the guitar solo-driven coda (after the third chorus). Queen's bassist, John Deacon, occasionally played bass solos, notably in "Under Pressure" and "Liar". In the 1970s, Aerosmith's bassist, Tom Hamilton, played a bass intro on the song "Sweet Emotion" from their album Toys in the Attic . Thrash metal group Metallica's 1983 debut album Kill 'Em All features a solo by bassist Cliff Burton on "(Anesthesia) Pulling Teeth", which some consider his greatest work.[ who? ] John McVie of Fleetwood Mac performed a notable bass solo on "The Chain" from the record-setting 1977 album Rumours .

Manowar's bassist Joey DeMaio uses special piccolo bass for his extremely fast bass solos like "Sting of the Bumblebee" and "William's Tale". Green Day bassist Mike Dirnt played a bass solo on the song "No One Knows" from the 1992 album Kerplunk! and on the song "Makeout Party" from the 2012 album ¡Dos! . U2 includes a bass solo most notably on "Gloria", in which Adam Clayton utilizes several techniques. Bassist Matt Freeman of Rancid has a very speedy, guitar-like bass solo in the song '"Maxwell Murder". Blink-182's "Voyeur" has a bass solo on both their studio album Dude Ranch and their live album The Mark, Tom and Travis Show (The Enema Strikes Back!) , in which they must "prepare for the bass solo."

Heavy metal bass players such as Geezer Butler (Black Sabbath), Alex Webster (Cannibal Corpse), Cliff Burton (Metallica), jazz fusion bassist Jaco Pastorius (Weather Report), and Les Claypool (Primus, Blind Illusion) used chime-like harmonics and rapid plucking techniques in their bass solos. Geddy Lee of Rush performed a number of solos, most notably in "YYZ". Also, in both published Van Halen concert videos, Michael Anthony performs unique maneuvers and actions during his solos. Funk bassists, such as Larry Graham, began using slapping and popping techniques for their bass solos, which coupled a percussive thumb-slapping technique of the lower strings with an aggressive finger-snap of the higher strings, often in rhythmic alternation. The slapping and popping technique incorporates a large number of muted (or 'ghost' tones) to normal notes to add to the rhythmic effect. Slapping and popping solos were prominent in 1980s pop and R&B, and they are still used by some 2000s-era funk and Latin bands.

Bass effects such as fuzz bass or wah-wah pedals to produce a more pronounced sound can be used when playing bass solos, hard rock and heavy metal bassists. Notably, Cliff Burton of Metallica used both distortion and wah-wah. [23] Bass guitar solos have a much lighter accompaniment than solos for other instruments due to the lower range of the bass. The bass guitar solo can also be unaccompanied or accompanied only by the drums.

See also


Related Research Articles

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Musical ensemble Group of people who perform instrumental and/or vocal music, with the ensemble typically known by a distinct name

A musical ensemble, also known as a music group or musical group, is a group of people who perform instrumental or vocal music, with the ensemble typically known by a distinct name. Some music ensembles consist solely of instruments, such as the jazz quartet or the orchestra. Some music ensembles consist solely of singers, such as choirs and doo wop groups. In both popular music and classical music, there are ensembles in which both instrumentalists and singers perform, such as the rock band or the Baroque chamber group for basso continuo and one or more singers. In classical music, trios or quartets either blend the sounds of musical instrument families or group together instruments from the same instrument family, such as string ensembles or wind ensembles. Some ensembles blend the sounds of a variety of instrument families, such as the orchestra, which uses a string section, brass instruments, woodwinds and percussion instruments, or the concert band, which uses brass, woodwinds and percussion.

Rhythm guitar Guitar used to provide rhythm

In music performances, rhythm guitar is a technique and role that performs a combination of two functions: to provide all or part of the rhythmic pulse in conjunction with other instruments from the rhythm section ; and to provide all or part of the harmony, i.e. the chords from a song's chord progression, where a chord is a group of notes played together. Therefore, the basic technique of rhythm guitar is to hold down a series of chords with the fretting hand while strumming or fingerpicking rhythmically with the other hand. More developed rhythm techniques include arpeggios, damping, riffs, chord solos, and complex strums.

Instrumental rock is rock music that emphasizes musical instruments and features very little or no singing. Examples of instrumental rock can be found in practically every subgenre of rock, often from musicians who specialize in the style. Instrumental rock was most popular from the mid-1950s to mid-1960s, with artists such as Bill Doggett Combo, The Fireballs, The Shadows, The Ventures, Johnny and the Hurricanes and The Spotnicks. Surf music had many instrumental songs. Many instrumental hits came from the R&B world. Funk and disco produced several instrumental hit singles during the 1970s. The Allman Brothers Band feature several instrumentals. Jeff Beck also recorded two instrumental albums in the 1970s. Progressive rock and art rock performers of the 1960s and 1970s did many virtuosic instrumental performances.

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Clifford Lee Burton was an American musician and songwriter who was the bassist for American heavy metal band Metallica from 1983 until his death in 1986. He performed on Kill 'Em All (1983), Ride the Lightning (1984), and Master of Puppets (1986), the band's first three studio albums. Burton also received a posthumous writing credit on ...And Justice for All (1988) for the song "To Live Is to Die".

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Jake E. Lee

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Accompaniment Musical parts which provide the rhythmic and/or harmonic support for the melody or main themes of a song or instrumental piece

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Lead guitar, also known as solo guitar, is a musical part for a guitar in which the guitarist plays melody lines, instrumental fill passages, guitar solos, and occasionally, some riffs within a song structure. The lead is the featured guitar, which usually plays single-note-based lines or double-stops. In rock, heavy metal, blues, jazz, punk, fusion, some pop, and other music styles, lead guitar lines are usually supported by a second guitarist who plays rhythm guitar, which consists of accompaniment chords and riffs.

Robert Trujillo American musician and songwriter

Robert Trujillo is an American musician and songwriter who is the bassist for American heavy metal band Metallica. Active since the late 1970s, he was also a member of crossover thrash band Suicidal Tendencies, funk metal supergroup Infectious Grooves, and heavy metal band Black Label Society, in addition to working with Jerry Cantrell and Ozzy Osbourne. Trujillo joined Metallica in 2003 and is the band's longest-serving bassist. He was inducted to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of Metallica in 2009.

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Rhythm section

A rhythm section is a group of musicians within a music ensemble or band that provides the underlying rhythm, harmony and pulse of the accompaniment, providing a rhythmic and harmonic reference and "beat" for the rest of the band. The rhythm section is often contrasted with the roles of other musicians in the band, such as the lead guitarist or lead vocals whose primary job is to carry the melody.

Shred guitar Virtuoso lead guitar solo playing style

Shred guitar or shredding is a virtuoso lead guitar solo playing style for the guitar, based on various advanced and complex playing techniques, particularly rapid passages and advanced performance effects. Shred guitar includes "fast alternate picking, sweep-picked arpeggios, diminished and harmonic scales, finger-tapping and whammy-bar abuse", It is commonly used in heavy metal guitar playing, where it is includes rapid tapping solos, fast scale and arpeggio runs and special effects such as whammy bar "dive bombs". Metal guitarists playing in a "shred" style use the electric guitar with a guitar amplifier and a range of electronic effects such as distortion, which create a more sustained guitar tone and facilitate guitar feedback effects.

Glossary of jazz and popular music List of definitions of terms and jargon used in jazz and popular music

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Heavy metal bass

Heavy metal bass is the use of the bass guitar in the rock music genres of heavy metal and hard rock. The bassist is part of the rhythm section in a heavy metal band, along with the drummer, rhythm guitarist and, in some bands, a keyboard player. The prominent role of the bass is key to the metal sound, and the interplay of bass and distorted electric guitar is a central element of metal. The bass guitar provides the low-end sound crucial to making the music "heavy". The bass plays a "... more important role in heavy metal than in any other genre of rock."

Heavy metal guitar

Heavy metal guitar is the use of highly-amplified electric guitar in heavy metal. Heavy metal guitar playing is rooted in the guitar playing styles developed in 1960s-era blues rock and psychedelic rock, and it uses a massive sound, characterized by highly amplified distortion, extended guitar solos and overall loudness. The electric guitar and the sonic power that it projects through amplification has historically been the key element in heavy metal. The heavy metal guitar sound comes from a combined use of high volumes and heavy distortion.

Band (rock and pop) Musical ensemble which performs rock music, pop music, or a related genre

A rock band or pop band is a small musical ensemble that performs rock music, pop music, or a related genre. A four-piece band is the most common configuration in rock and pop music. In the early years, the configuration was typically two guitarists, a bassist, and a drummer. Another common formation is a vocalist who does not play an instrument, electric guitarist, bass guitarist, and a drummer. Instrumentally, these bands can be considered as trios. Sometimes, in addition to electric guitars, electric bass, and drums, also a keyboardist plays.


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