Talk box

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Peter Frampton's talk box Peter Frampton's Talk Box-3-2.jpg
Peter Frampton's talk box

A talk box is an effects unit that allows musicians to modify the sound of a musical instrument by shaping the frequency content of the sound and to apply speech sounds (in the same way as singing) onto the sounds of the instrument. Typically, a talk box directs sound from the instrument into the musician's mouth by means of a plastic tube adjacent to their vocal microphone. The musician controls the modification of the instrument's sound by changing the shape of the mouth, "vocalizing" the instrument's output into a microphone.

Effects unit electronic or digital device that alters how a musical instrument or other audio source sounds

An effects unit or effectspedal is an electronic or digital device that alters the sound of a musical instrument or other audio source. Common effects include distortion/overdrive, often used with electric guitar in electric blues and rock music; dynamic effects such as volume pedals and compressors, which affect loudness; filters such as wah-wah pedals and graphic equalizers, which modify frequency ranges; modulation effects, such as chorus, flangers and phasers; pitch effects such as pitch shifters; and time effects, such as reverb and delay, which create echoing sounds and emulate the sound of different spaces.

Musical instrument History and classification

A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument. The history of musical instruments dates to the beginnings of human culture. Early musical instruments may have been used for ritual, such as a trumpet to signal success on the hunt, or a drum in a religious ceremony. Cultures eventually developed composition and performance of melodies for entertainment. Musical instruments evolved in step with changing applications.

Contents

Overview

A musician using a talk box Thaddeus talk boxing.jpg
A musician using a talk box

A talk box is usually an effects pedal that sits on the floor and contains a speaker attached with an airtight connection to a plastic tube; however, it can come in other forms, including homemade, usually crude, versions, and higher quality custom-made versions. The speaker is generally in the form of a compression driver, the sound-generating part of a horn loudspeaker with the horn replaced by the tube connection.

Compression driver type of loudspeaker

A compression driver is a small specialized diaphragm loudspeaker which generates the sound in a horn loudspeaker. It is attached to an acoustic horn, a widening duct which serves to radiate the sound efficiently into the air. It works in a "compression" mode; the area of the loudspeaker diaphragm is significantly larger than the throat aperture of the horn so that it provides high sound pressures. Horn-loaded compression drivers can achieve very high efficiencies, around 10 times the efficiency of direct-radiating cone loudspeakers. They are used as midrange and tweeter drivers in high power sound reinforcement loudspeakers, and in reflex or folded-horn loudspeakers in megaphones and public address systems.

Horn loudspeaker

A horn loudspeaker is a loudspeaker or loudspeaker element which uses an acoustic horn to increase the overall efficiency of the driving element(s). A common form (right) consists of a compression driver which produces sound waves with a small metal diaphragm vibrated by an electromagnet, attached to a horn, a flaring duct to conduct the sound waves to the open air. Another type is a woofer driver mounted in a loudspeaker enclosure which is divided by internal partitions to form a zigzag flaring duct which functions as a horn; this type is called a folded horn speaker. The horn serves to improve the coupling efficiency between the speaker driver and the air. The horn can be thought of as an "acoustic transformer" that provides impedance matching between the relatively dense diaphragm material and the less-dense air. The result is greater acoustic output power from a given driver.

The box has connectors for the connection to the speaker output of an instrument amplifier and a connection to a normal instrument speaker. A foot-operated switch on the box directs the sound either to the talk box speaker or to the normal speaker. The switch is usually a push-on/push-off type. The other end of the tube is taped to the side of a microphone, extending enough to direct the reproduced sound in or near the performer's mouth.

Instrument amplifier

An instrument amplifier is an electronic device that converts the often barely audible or purely electronic signal of a musical instrument into a larger electronic signal to feed to a loudspeaker. An instrument amplifier is used with musical instruments such as an electric guitar, an electric bass, electric organ, synthesizers and drum machine to convert the signal from the pickup or other sound source into an electronic signal that has enough power, due to being routed through a power amplifier, capable of driving one or more loudspeaker that can be heard by the performers and audience.

When activated, the sound from the amplifier is reproduced by the speaker in the talk box and directed through the tube into the performer's mouth. The shape of the mouth filters the sound, with the modified sound being picked up by the microphone. The shape of the mouth changes the harmonic content of the sound in the same way it affects the harmonic content generated by the vocal folds when speaking.

Sound mechanical wave that is an oscillation of pressure transmitted through a solid, liquid, or gas, composed of frequencies within the range of hearing; pressure wave, generated by vibrating structure

In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.

Harmonic component of a wave whose frequency is a multiple of the fundamental frequency

A harmonic is any member of the harmonic series. The term is employed in various disciplines, including music, physics, acoustics, electronic power transmission, radio technology, and other fields. It is typically applied to repeating signals, such as sinusoidal waves. A harmonic of such a wave is a wave with a frequency that is a positive integer multiple of the frequency of the original wave, known as the fundamental frequency. The original wave is also called the 1st harmonic, the following harmonics are known as higher harmonics. As all harmonics are periodic at the fundamental frequency, the sum of harmonics is also periodic at that frequency. For example, if the fundamental frequency is 50 Hz, a common AC power supply frequency, the frequencies of the first three higher harmonics are 100 Hz, 150 Hz, 200 Hz and any addition of waves with these frequencies is periodic at 50 Hz.

An nth characteristic mode, for n > 1, will have nodes that are not vibrating. For example, the 3rd characteristic mode will have nodes at L and L, where L is the length of the string. In fact, each nth characteristic mode, for n not a multiple of 3, will not have nodes at these points. These other characteristic modes will be vibrating at the positions L and L. If the player gently touches one of these positions, then these other characteristic modes will be suppressed. The tonal harmonics from these other characteristic modes will then also be suppressed. Consequently, the tonal harmonics from the nth characteristic modes, where n is a multiple of 3, will be made relatively more prominent.

The performer can vary the shape of the mouth and position of the tongue, changing the sound of the instrument being reproduced by the talk box speaker. The performer can mouth words, with the resulting effect sounding as though the instrument is speaking. This "shaped" sound exits the performer's mouth, and when it enters a microphone, an instrument/voice hybrid is heard.

The sound can be that of any musical instrument, but the effect is most commonly associated with the guitar. The rich harmonics of an electric guitar are shaped by the mouth, producing a sound very similar to voice, effectively allowing the guitar to appear to "speak".

Electric guitar electrified guitar; fretted stringed instrument with a neck and body that uses a pickup to convert the vibration of its strings into electrical signals

An electric guitar is a guitar that uses one or more pickups to convert the vibration of its strings into electrical signals. The vibration occurs when a guitar player strums, plucks, fingerpicks, slaps or taps the strings. The pickup generally uses electromagnetic induction to create this signal, which being relatively weak is fed into a guitar amplifier before being sent to the speaker(s), which converts it into audible sound.

The effect produced by talk boxes and vocoders are often conflated by listeners. [1] [2] However, they have radically different mechanisms for achieving the effect. Talk boxes send the carrier signal into the singer's mouth, where it is then modulated by the singer themselves. On the other hand, vocoders process both the carrier and the modulator signal integrally, producing the output as a separate electric signal. In addition, they are also more common in different genres: a talk box is often found in rock music due to its typical pairing with a guitar, whereas vocoders are almost always paired with synthesizers, and as such, are ubiquitous in electronic music.

Vocoder electronic device

A vocoder is a category of voice codec that analyzes and synthesizes the human voice signal for audio data compression, multiplexing, voice encryption, voice transformation, etc.

In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted. Most radio systems in the 20th century used frequency modulation (FM) or amplitude modulation (AM) for radio broadcast.

A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated.

History

Singing guitar

In 1939, Alvino Rey, amateur radio operator W6UK, used a carbon throat microphone wired in such a way as to modulate his electric steel guitar sound. The mic, originally developed for military pilot communications, was placed on the throat of Rey's wife Luise King (one of The King Sisters), who stood behind a curtain and mouthed the words, along with the guitar lines. The novel-sounding combination was called "Singing Guitar", and employed on stage and in the movie Jam Session, as a "novelty" attraction, but was not developed further.

Rey also created a somewhat similar "talking" effect by manipulating the tone controls of his Fender electric guitar, but the vocal effect was less pronounced. [3]

Sonovox

Another early voice effect using the same principle of the throat as a filter was the Sonovox, invented by Gilbert Wright in 1939. [4] Instead of a throat microphone modulating a guitar signal, it used small transducers attached to the performer's throat to pick up voice sounds. [5] The Sonovox was marketed and promoted by the Wright-Sonovox company, an affiliate of the Free & Peters advertising agency.

The Sonovox was used in many radio station IDs and jingles produced by JAM Creative Productions and the PAMS advertising agency of Dallas, Texas. Lucille Ball made one of her earliest film appearances during the 1930s in a Pathé Newsreel demonstrating the Sonovox. [6]

The first use in music was a score by Ernst Toch in the Paramount Picture "The Ghost Breakers", in June 1940. [7] The Sonovox also appeared in the 1940 film You'll Find Out starring Kay Kyser and his orchestra, Bela Lugosi, Boris Karloff, and Peter Lorre. Lugosi uses the Sonovox to portray the voice of a dead person during a seance.

The Sonovox was used in films such as A Letter to Three Wives (1949), Possessed (1947), The Secret Life of Walter Mitty (1947), The Good Humor Man (1950), the voice of Casey Junior the train in Dumbo (1941) and The Reluctant Dragon (1941).

It was heard on the piano in Sparky's Magic Piano , and the airplane in Whizzer The Talking Airplane (1947). The Sonovox was also used to give the impression instruments "talking" in the children's album Rusty in Orchestraville (1949).

British rock band The Who included a piece on their 1967 album, The Who Sell Out , that consisted of the days of the week "spoken" by electric guitar chords using the Sonovox. This recording was in fact a radio jingle created by PAMS.

Talking steel guitar

Pete Drake, a Nashville-based player of the pedal steel guitar, used a talk box on his 1964 album Forever, in what came to be called his "talking steel guitar". The following year Gallant released three albums with the box, Pete Drake & His Talking Guitar, Talking Steel and Singing Strings, and Talking Steel Guitar. [8] Drake's device consisted of an 8-inch paper cone speaker driver attached to a funnel from which a clear tube brought the sound to the performer's mouth. It was only loud enough to be useful in the recording studio. [3]

Another prominent use of the talking steel guitar appears in The Ventures' Christmas Album , released in 1965. In the song "Silver Bells", Red Rhodes spoke through a talk box, distorting the phrase silver bells. [9] [10]

Kustom Electronics Talk Box (The Bag)

The Kustom Electronics device, "The Bag", [11] was the first mass market talk box and was housed in a decorative bag slung over the shoulder like a wine bottle. It used a 30-watt driver and was released to the mass music market in early 1969, two years before Bob Heil's Talk Box became widely available. The Bag is claimed to have been designed by Doug Forbes, [12] [13] who states that exactly the same concept (speaker attached to a plastic tube and inserted into the mouth) had previously been patented as an artificial larynx. [14]

John Kay of Steppenwolf used the Kustom Electronics Talk Box (The Bag) in studio recordings and live performances beginning in 1969. On the album Steppenwolf Live recorded in January 1970, the Kustom Bag talk box can clearly be heard on the tracks "From Here To There Eventually", "Hey Lawdy Mama" and "Twisted". John Kay was observed using a Kustom Electronics talk box on stage in Charlotte, North Carolina in June 1970 and at two shows in New Jersey (Wildwood and Cherry Hill) in 1971. Steppenwolf appeared on the live music TV shows The Midnight Special and Don Kirshner's Rock Concert and lead guitarist Bobby Cochran as well as John Kay used the Kustom Bag. Two other early examples of a Kustom Electronics talk box being used on studio recordings are Sly and the Family Stone's "Sex Machine" from their album Stand! and Al Kooper with Shuggie Otis' "One Room Country Shack" from their album Kooper Session, both released in 1969.

The band Iron Butterfly used a talk box in the song "Butterfly Bleu" from the album Metamorphosis in 1970. Alvin Lee used a talk box for the Ten Years After song "I Say Yeah" from the album Watt in 1970. Young-Holt Unlimited featured a talk box on their song "Wah-Wah Man", also released in 1970, on the album Born Again. Stevie Wonder first used a talk box on his album Music of My Mind in early 1972. The Osmonds used a talk box on their 1972 track "Hold Her Tight". John Rebourn used a talk box on the song "Back on the Road Again" in 1972 on his "Faro Annie" album. The Crusaders featured a talk box on the album "Southern Comfort" in 1974 – notably on the song "Greasy Spoon". Jeff Beck used the Kustom Bag talk box on "She's A Woman" from his 1975 release Blow by Blow , and was seen using it for the song on BBC television program "Five Faces of the Guitar" in 1974 in which he also explains its use to the host of the show. [15]

Heil High Powered Talk Box

The first high-powered Talk Box was developed by Bob Heil. [16] Heil came up with the first high-powered Talk Box that could be reliable when used on high-level rock stages. His first Heil Talk Box was built for Joe Walsh's Barnstorm tour. Heil and Walsh, both avid ham radio operators (K9EID and WB6ACU, respectively), along with Walsh's guitar tech "Krinkle", combined a 250-watt JBL driver and suitable hi-pass filter which was used for Walsh's single "Rocky Mountain Way". Walsh gives credit to Bill West, an electrical engineer, Nashville steel guitarist and first husband of country music legend Dottie West, for inventing the talk box for him in the May 2012 issue of Guitar World magazine.

Pete Townshend, in his 2012 autobiography Who I Am , claimed to have invented a version of the Talk Box during a Who tour of the USA in 1976. "I built a speaker in a small box, attached a tube and put the tube in my mouth, allowing me to speak music."

In 1988, Heil sold the manufacturing rights to Dunlop Manufacturing, Inc., which currently builds the Heil Talk Box to the exact standards that Heil designed in 1973.

The 1974 hit single "Tell Me Something Good", performed by Rufus and Chaka Khan and written by Stevie Wonder, which peaked at number three on the Billboard Hot 100, was among the earliest hits to use the guitar talk box.

In an interview for the 1999 DVD Live in Detroit, Peter Frampton says he first heard the talk box in 1970 while sitting in on sessions for George Harrison's All Things Must Pass . While he sat next to Pete Drake in the album sessions at Abbey Road studio, he heard Pete using it with a pedal steel guitar. Frampton said in the same interview that the sound it produced reminded him of an audio effect he loved listening to on Radio Luxembourg in the later 1960s. Frampton acquired one as a Christmas present from Bob Heil in 1974. It was a hand-built Talk Box in a fiberglass box using a 100-watt high-powered driver. This was the Heil Talk Box used for the Frampton Comes Alive tour and album. [17] [18] [19] [20] He then promptly locked himself away in a practice space for two weeks, and came out with some mastery of it. Due to the success of the albums Frampton and Frampton Comes Alive!, and particularly the hit singles "Do You Feel Like We Do" and "Show Me the Way", Frampton has become somewhat synonymous with the talk box.

Peter Frampton also now sells his own line of custom-designed "Framptone" products, including a talk box. [21]

In 1972 Todd Rundgren used a Talk Box on the album Something/Anything? on the instrumental track, "Breathless". Over a synthesized background his VCS3 synthesizer repeatedly "sings" the words "I am so breathless", which can be taken as a reference to the Talk Box. In 1975, Nazareth lead singer Dan McCafferty used a talk box in the popular single "Hair of the Dog". Aerosmith guitarist Joe Perry used a talk box in the band's highly popular songs "Sweet Emotion" from the album Toys in the Attic and the live version of "Walk This Way" from the album Live! Bootleg . He also used it in the theme song from the Spider-Man 90's cartoon. In 1976, Steely Dan guitarist Walter Becker recorded the talk box effect atop an already-recorded Dean Parks solo in "Haitian Divorce", on the album The Royal Scam . [22] It was also used in a solo section of "East St. Louis Toodle-Oo", on Steely Dan's 1974 album Pretzel Logic . Ronnie Montrose used a talk box on the title track from his 1976 album Jump On It. Also in 1976, the band Ruby (featuring Tom Fogerty) used a talk box on the track "Running Back To Me". David Gilmour of Pink Floyd used the talk box on "Pigs (Three Different Ones)" from their 1977 Animals album, and on "Keep Talking" from 1994's The Division Bell . The band Stillwater used a talkbox on their song "Mind Bender" in 1977. Also from 1977, the Meters used one on their track "Funkify Your Life". Roger Troutman, lead singer of the R&B group Zapp, used the talk box (first with a Minimoog synthesizer, and later a Yamaha DX100) on the group's first hit single in 1980, "More Bounce to the Ounce", and in numerous other songs including Tupac Shakur's "California Love".

Matthias Jabs, lead guitarist for Scorpions, has used the talk box in many of their songs, most notably the 1980 song "The Zoo". Joe Walsh used a talk box in the song "Space Age Whiz Kids" on the 1983 album You Bought It You Name It , in "I Broke My Leg" on the 1985 album The Confessor , and also in "Half of the Time" on the 1987 album Got Any Gum? . Walsh, along with Don Felder, did a dual talk box guitar solo in the song "Those Shoes" from their 1979 album, The Long Run . The 1986 Daryl Hall hit " Foolish Pride" features the talk box played by English guitarist Richard Morcombe.

Bon Jovi guitarist Richie Sambora used the Heil Talk box in many of the band's songs, including 1986's "Livin' on a Prayer" from Slippery When Wet , 2000's "It's My Life" from Crush , 2002's "Everyday" from Bounce , 2007's "We Got it Goin' On" ( Lost Highway ) and 2009's "Bullet" ( The Circle ).


Lead guitarist Slash of the hard rock band Guns N' Roses used a talk box in "Anything Goes" off their album Appetite for Destruction , released in 1987, and in "Dust and Bones", from their following record, Use Your Illusion I . Mötley Crüe's Mick Mars used a talk box in "Kickstart My Heart" off their 1989 release, Dr. Feelgood .

Brian May was asked in an interview whether the song "Delilah" was recorded using a talk box on Queen's 1991 Innuendo record. May answered: "Yes, I finally succumbed and used one ... I suppose there’s no other way to make the meow sounds, meow, meow, meow." Tom Morello of Rage Against the Machine used a talk box on their song "Wake Up" in 1992. Bob Hartman, from Petra, used the talk box during the 1993 song "Underneath the Blood", from their Wake-Up Call album. Metallica used a talk box during the solo on "The House Jack Built", from the 1996 album Load . The Foo Fighters' Dave Grohl used a talk box during their song "Generator" off their 1999 release, There Is Nothing Left To Lose ; his use of the device was partly inspired by Grohl's admiration of Peter Frampton and Joe Walsh. Dream Theater guitarist John Petrucci used the talk box for live performances of the song "Home", from the band's 1999 album Metropolis Pt. 2: Scenes from a Memory . Avenged Sevenfold vocalist M. Shadows used a talk box in their song "Lost" off their 2007 self-titled album, Avenged Sevenfold . In Godsmack's cover of the Joe Walsh song "Rocky Mountain Way", frontman Sully Erna used a talk box.

Alice in Chains, Adam Jones of Tool, Slash, the Eagles, Chromeo, plus dozens of other groups continue to keep the Heil Talk Box in their song sets.

The talk box was used in Elton John's 1975 album Rock of the Westies , on the song "Dan Dare (Pilot of the Future)", as played by Davey Johnstone.

Notable uses

Non-musical uses

A talk box connected to an iPad running an effects program was used to create the voice of the character BB-8 in Star Wars: The Force Awakens . [24]

See also

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  22. "Steely Dan Interview – Against All Odds | Guitar.com". www.guitar.com. Archived from the original on 2017-03-02. Retrieved 2016-09-19.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
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  24. Berman, Eliza. "You'll Never Guess the Actor Behind Star Wars Droid BB-8's Voice". Time.