Sampling (music)

Last updated

DJ Premier selecting records to sample DJ Premier Digging33.jpg
DJ Premier selecting records to sample

In music, sampling is the reuse of a portion (or sample) of a sound recording in another recording. Samples may comprise rhythm, melody, speech, sounds, or entire bars of music, especially from soul records, and may be layered, equalized, sped up or slowed down, repitched, looped, or otherwise manipulated. They are usually integrated using hardware (samplers) or software such as digital audio workstations.

Contents

A process similar to sampling originated in the 1940s with musique concrète , experimental music created by splicing and looping tape. The mid-20th century saw the introduction of keyboard instruments that played back sounds recorded on tape, such as the Mellotron. The term sampling was coined in the late 1970s by the creators of the Fairlight CMI, an influential sampling synthesizer used in 1980s pop music. Initially, samplers were unaffordable for most musicians and could only play back short sounds; as technology improved, cheaper samplers with more memory emerged, such as the E-mu Emulator, Akai S950, and Akai MPC.

Sampling is a foundation of hip hop music, which emerged in the 1980s with producers sampling funk and soul records, particularly drum breaks, to be rapped over. Sampling has since influenced all genres of music, particularly electronic music and pop. Musicians have created albums assembled entirely from samples, such as DJ Shadow's 1996 album Endtroducing. Samples such as the Amen break and orchestra hit have been used in thousands of recordings.

Sampling without permission can infringe copyright. The process of acquiring permission for a sample is known as clearance, a potentially complex and costly process. Landmark legal cases, such as Grand Upright Music, Ltd. v. Warner Bros. Records Inc (1991), changed how samples are used; as the court ruled that unlicensed sampling constitutes copyright infringement, samples from well known sources are now often prohibitively expensive.

Precursors

The Phonogene, a 1940s instrument which plays back sounds from tape loops Phonogene.jpg
The Phonogene, a 1940s instrument which plays back sounds from tape loops

In the 1940s, French composer Pierre Schaeffer developed musique concrète , an experimental form of music created by recording sounds to tape, splicing them, and manipulating them to create sound collages. He used sounds from sources such as the human body, locomotives, and kitchen utensils. [1] The method also involved tape loops, splicing lengths of tape end to end so a sound could be played indefinitely. [1] Schaeffer developed the Phonogene, which played loops at twelve different pitches triggered by a keyboard. [1]

Composers including John Cage, Edgar Varèse, Karheinz Stockhausen and Iannis Xenakis experimented with musique concrète, [1] and Bebe and Louis Barron used it to create the first totally electronic film soundtrack, for the 1956 science fiction film Forbidden Planet . Musique concrète was brought to a mainstream audience by the BBC Radiophonic Workshop, which used these early sampling techniques to produce soundtracks for shows including Doctor Who . [1]

In the 1960s, Jamaican dub reggae producers such as King Tubby and Lee "Scratch" Perry began using pre-recorded samples of reggae rhythms to produce riddim tracks, which were then deejayed over. [2] [3] Jamaican immigrants introduced dub sampling techniques to American hip hop music in the 1970s. [3] British producer Brian Eno cited German musician Holger Czukay's experiments with Dictaphones and shortwave radios as examples of early sampling. [4]

Samplers

The Guardian described the Chamberlin as the first sampler, developed by the English engineer Harry Chamberlin in the 1940s. The Chamberlin used a keyboard to trigger a series of tape decks, each containing eight seconds of recorded sound. Similar technology was popularised in the 60s with the Mellotron. [5] In 1969, the English engineer Peter Zinovieff developed the first digital sampler, the EMS Musys. [5]

The Fairlight CMI, an influential early sampler released in 1979 Fairlight CMI-IIx.jpg
The Fairlight CMI, an influential early sampler released in 1979

The term sample was coined by in the late 1970s by Kim Ryrie and Peter Vogel to describe a feature of their Fairlight CMI synthesizer, launched in 1979. [1] While developing the Fairlight, Vogel recorded around a second of a piano piece from a radio broadcast, and discovered that he could imitate a piano by playing the recording back at different pitches. He recalled in 2005:

It sounded remarkably like a piano, a real piano. This had never been done before ... By today's standards it was a pretty awful piano sound, but at the time it was a million times more like a piano than anything any synthesiser had churned out. So I rapidly realised that we didn't have to bother with all the synthesis stuff. Just take the sounds, whack them in the memory and away you go. [6]

The Fairlight developers used the term sampler to describe the technical process of the instrument, rather than how users would use the feature. [7] Compared to later samplers, the Fairlight offered limited control over samples; it allowed control over pitch and envelope, and could only record a few seconds of sound. However, the sampling function became its most popular feature. [1] Though the concept of reusing recordings in larger recordings was not new, the Fairlight's built-in sequencer and design made the process simple. [1]

An Akai MPC, an influential sampler produced from 1988 Akai MPC60.jpg
An Akai MPC, an influential sampler produced from 1988

The Fairlight inspired competition, improving sampling technology and driving down prices. [1] Early competitors included the E-mu Emulator [1] and the Akai S950. [8] Drum machines such as the Oberheim DMX and Linn LM-1 incorporated samples of drum kits and percussion rather than generating sounds from circuits. [9] Early samplers could store samples of only a few seconds in length, but increased with improved memory. [7]

In 1988, Akai released the first MPC sampler, [10] which allowed users to assign samples to pads and trigger them independently, similarly to playing a keyboard or drum kit. [11] It was followed by competing samplers by companies including Korg, Roland and Casio. [12] Samples were also incorporated into synthesizers and music workstations, such as in the bestselling Korg M1, released in 1988. [12] Today, most samples are recorded and edited using digital audio workstations such as Pro Tools and Ableton Live. [13] [7]

Impact

Sampling has influenced all genres of music. [5] It is a particularly important part of pop, hip hop, and electronic music, [14] equivalent to the importance of the guitar in rock. [5] It is a fundamental element of remix culture. [15] Commonly sampled elements include strings, basslines, drum loops, vocal hooks, or entire bars of music, especially from soul records. [16] Samples may be layered, [17] equalized, [17] sped up or slowed down, repitched, looped, or otherwise manipulated. [14] As sampling technology has improved, the possibilities for manipulation have grown. [14]

Using the Fairlight, producer Trevor Horn became the "key architect" in incorporating sampling into pop music. [5] Early users of the Fairlight included Kate Bush, Peter Gabriel, Thomas Dolby, Duran Duran, Herbie Hancock, Todd Rundgren, Icehouse and Ebn Ozn. [8] According to the Guardian, the Fairlight was the "first truly world-changing sampler". [5]

The Akai MPC, released in 1988, had a major influence on the development of electronic and hip hop music, [18] [11] allowing artists to create elaborate tracks without other instruments, a studio, or formal music knowledge. [19] Its designers anticipated that users would sample short sounds, such as individual notes or drum hits, to use as building blocks for compositions. However, users began sampling longer passages of music. [7] In the words of Greg Milner, author of Perfecting Sound Forever, musicians "didn't just want the sound of John Bonham's kick drum, they wanted to loop and repeat the whole of 'When the Levee Breaks'." [7] Roger Linn, designer of the MPC, said: "It was a very pleasant surprise. After 60 years of recording, there are so many prerecorded examples to sample from. Why reinvent the wheel?" [7]

DJ Shadow's 1996 album Endtroducing is cited as the first created entirely from samples. DJ Shadow tim festival.jpg
DJ Shadow's 1996 album Endtroducing is cited as the first created entirely from samples.

Stevie Wonder's 1979 album Journey Through the Secret Life of Plants may have been the first album to make extensive use of samples. [5] The Japanese electronic band Yellow Magic Orchestra were pioneers in sampling, [20] [21] [22] constructing music by cutting fragments of sounds and looping them; [22] their album Technodelic (1981) is an early example of an album consisting mostly of samples. [21] [23] My Life in the Bush of Ghosts (1981) by David Byrne and Brian Eno is another important early work of sampling, incorporating samples of sources including Arabic singers, radio DJs and an exorcist. [24] Though Eno acknowledged earlier examples of sampling, he felt the album's innovation was to make samples "the lead vocal". [4] Big Audio Dynamite pioneered sampling in rock and pop with their 1985 album This Is Big Audio Dynamite . [25] Guinness World Records cited DJ Shadow's 1996 album Endtroducing as the first created entirely from samples. [26] [27]

Hip hop

Sampling is the foundation of hip hop, which emerged in the 1980s. [28] The sampling culture of hip hop has been likened to the origins of blues and rock, which were created by repurposing existing music. [15] Guardian journalist David McNamee wrote that, in the 1980s, sampling in hip hop had been a political act: "Two record decks and your dad's old funk collection was once the working-class black answer to punk." [13]

Before the rise of sampling, DJs had used turntables to loop breaks from records, which could then be rapped over. [29] Compilation albums such as Ultimate Breaks and Beats comprised tracks with drum breaks and solos intended for sampling, and were aimed at DJs and hip hop producers. [29] In 1986, the tracks "South Bronx", "Erik B is President" and "It's a Demo" sampled the funk and soul tracks of James Brown, particularly a drum break from "Funky Drummer", helping popularize the technique. [14] The advent of affordable samplers such as the Akai MPC (1988) made looping easier. [29] With a ten-second sample length and a distinctive "gritty" sound, the E-mu SP-1200, released in 1987, was used extensively by East Coast producers during the golden age of hip hop of the late 1980s and early 90s. [30]

Common samples

According to the BBC, the most sampled track of all time is "Change the Beat" by Fab Five Freddy, which appears on over 1,150 tracks. [31] Another common sample, the orchestra hit, originated as a sound on the Fairlight sampled from Stravinsky's 1910 orchestral work Firebird Suite [32] and became a hip hop cliche. [33]

A seven-second drum break in the 1969 track "Amen, Brother", known as the Amen break, became popular with American hip hop producers and then British jungle producers in the early 1990s. [29] It has since been used in thousands of recordings, used by rock bands such as Oasis and in theme tunes for television shows such as Futurama . [29]

According to the Independent , the American diva Loleatta Holloway had "undoubtedly the most sampled female voice in popular music", used in house and dance tracks such as "Ride on Time", the bestselling single of 1989. [34] MusicRadar cited the Zero-G Datafiles sample libraries as a major influence on dance music in the early 90s, becoming the "de facto source of breakbeats, bass and vocal samples". [35]

To legally use a sample, an artist must acquire legal permission from the copyright holder, a potentially lengthy and complex process known as clearance. [16] Sampling without permission breaches the copyright of the original sound recording, of the composition and lyrics, and of the performances, such as a rhythm or guitar riff. The moral rights of the original artist may also be breached if they are not credited or object to the sampling. [16] In some cases, sampling is protected under American fair use laws. [16]

Richard Lewis Spencer, who owns the copyright for the widely sampled Amen break, has never received royalties for its use and condemned its sampling as plagiarism. [29] Journalist Simon Reynolds likened the situation to "the man who goes to the sperm bank and unknowingly sires hundreds of children". [29] In 1989, the Turtles sued De La Soul for using an uncleared sample on their album 3 Feet High and Rising. Turtles singer Mark Volman told the Los Angeles Times : "Sampling is just a longer term for theft. Anybody who can honestly say sampling is some sort of creativity has never done anything creative." [36] The case was settled out of court and set a legal precedent that had a chilling effect on sampling in hip hop. [36]

Biz Markie in 2016 Biz Markie 2016.jpg
Biz Markie in 2016

In 1991, songwriter Gilbert O'Sullivan sued rapper Biz Markie after he sampled O'Sullivan's "Alone Again (Naturally)" on the album I Need a Haircut . The court ruled that sampling without permission constituted copyright infringement. Instead of asking for royalties, O'Sullivan forced Biz Markie's label Warner Bros to recall the album until the song was removed. [37] Nelson George described it as the "most damaging example of anti-hip hop vindictiveness", which "sent a chill through the industry that is still felt". [37] According to the Washington Post, "no court decision has changed the sound of pop music as much as this, before or since", likening it to banning a musical instrument. [38]

Ever since, samples on commercial recordings have typically been taken either from obscure recordings or cleared, an often expensive option only available to successful acts. [38] According to the Guardian, "Sampling became risky business and a rich man's game, with record labels regularly checking if their musical property had been tea-leafed." [13] For less successful artists, the legal implications of using samples pose obstacles; according to Fact, "For a bedroom producer, clearing a sample can be nearly impossible, both financially and in terms of administration." [14] The 1989 Beastie Boys album Paul's Boutique is composed almost entirely of samples, most of which were cleared "easily and affordably"; the clearance process would be much more expensive today. [39]

The Washington Post described the modern use of well known samples, such as on records by Kanye West, as an act of conspicuous consumption similar to flaunting cars or jewellery. [38] West has been sued several times over his use of samples. [14] Some have accused the law of restricting creativity, while others argue it forces producers to innovate. [38] Sampling can help popularize the sampled work; for example, the Desiigner track "Panda" topped the Billboard Hot 100 after West sampled it on "Father Stretch My Hands, Pt. 2". [14]

According to Fact, early hip hop sampling was governed by "unspoken" rules forbidding the sampling of recent records, reissues, other hip hop records, or from non-vinyl sources, among other restrictions. [28] These rules were relaxed as younger producers took over: "For many producers today it is no longer a case of 'should I sample this?' but of 'can I get away with sampling this?'. Thus the ethics of sampling unravelled as the practice became ever more ubiquitous." [28]

To circumvent legal problems, producers may recreate a recording rather than sample it. This requires only the publisher's permission, and gives the artist more freedom to alter constituent components such as separate guitar and drum tracks. [40]

See also

Related Research Articles

Breakbeat is a broad style of electronic or dance-oriented music which utilizes breaks, often sampled from earlier recordings in funk, jazz and R&B, for the main rhythm. Breakbeats have been used in styles such as hip hop, jungle, drum and bass, big beat, hardcore, and UK garage styles.

Music technology (electronic and digital) Music technology

Digital music technology encompasses digital instruments, computers, electronic effects units, software, or digital audio equipment by a performer, composer, sound engineer, DJ, or record producer to produce, perform or record music. The term refers to electronic devices, instruments, computer hardware, and software used in performance, playback, recording, composition, mixing, analysis, and editing of music.

In electroacoustic music, a loop is a repeating section of sound material. Short sections of material can be repeated to create ostinato patterns. A loop can be created using a wide range of music technologies including turntables, digital samplers, synthesizers, sequencers, drum machines, tape machines, delay units, or they can be programmed using computer music software.

Riddim is the Jamaican Patois pronunciation of the English word "rhythm". In reggae, dancehall, calypso, soca, and reggaeton parlance it refers to the instrumental accompaniment to a song. These genres consist of the riddim plus the "voicing" sung by the deejay. The resulting song structure is distinctive in many ways. A given riddim, if popular, may be used in dozens—or even hundreds—of songs, not only in recordings but also in live performances.

Fairlight CMI digital sampling synthesizer introduced in 1979

The Fairlight CMI is a digital synthesizer, sampler and digital audio workstation introduced in 1979 by Fairlight. It was based on a commercial licence of the Qasar M8 developed by Tony Furse of Creative Strategies in Sydney, Australia. It was one of the earliest music workstations with an embedded digital sampler, and is credited for coining the term sampling in music. It rose to prominence in the early 1980s and competed with the Synclavier from New England Digital.

Akai is a Japanese consumer electronics brand. The company, Akai Electric Company Ltd, was founded in 1946 in Tokyo, Japan, and defunct in 2002. Grande Holdings in Hong Kong took over Akai's Brand, now it is distributing various electronics products such as LED TV, washing machines, air conditioners and smart phones, collaborated with other electronics companies. On the other hand, inMusic Brands in United States also took over Akai's Brand. it began Akai Professional brand, and is distributing high-end audio electronics products.

A music workstation is an electronic musical instrument providing the facilities of:

Sampler (musical instrument) musical instrument

A sampler is an electronic or digital musical instrument which uses sound recordings of real instrument sounds, excerpts from recorded songs or found sounds. The samples are loaded or recorded by the user or by a manufacturer. These sounds are then played back by means of the sampler program itself, a MIDI keyboard, sequencer or another triggering device to perform or compose music. Because these samples are usually stored in digital memory, the information can be quickly accessed. A single sample may often be pitch-shifted to different pitches to produce musical scales and chords.

An orchestra hit, also known as an orchestral hit, orchestra stab, or orchestral stab, is a synthesized sound created through the layering of the sounds of a number of different orchestral instruments playing a single staccato note or chord. The orchestra hit sound was propagated by the use of early samplers, particularly the Fairlight CMI where it was known as the ORCH5 sample. The sound is used in pop, hip hop, jazz fusion, techno, and video game genres to accentuate passages of music.

Tadao Kikumoto is Roland's senior managing director and head of its R&D center. He designed the TB-303 bass synthesizer and the TR-909 drum machine. He was also the chief engineer of the Roland TR-808 drum machine.

Akai MPC Electronic musical instrument

The Akai MPC is a series of music workstations produced by Akai from 1988 onwards. The MPC combines sampling and sequencing functions.

<i>Technodelic</i> 1981 studio album by Yellow Magic Orchestra

Technodelic is the fifth studio album by Yellow Magic Orchestra, released in 1981. The album is notable for its experimental and heavy use of digital samplers which were not commonly used until the mid-to-late 1980s, resulting in a more minimalist sound compared to their previous work.

Roger Linn American musical instrument maker

Roger Linn is an American designer of electronic musical instruments and equipment. He is the designer of the LM-1, the first drum machine to use samples, and the MPC sampler, which had a major influence on the development of hip hop. Roger Linn is also a member of the Dead Presidents Society, a group of innovators in the field of electronic music.

Hip hop production profession

Hip hop production is the creation of hip hop music in a recording studio. While the term encompasses all aspects of hip hop music creation, including recording the rapping of an MC, a turntablist or DJ providing a beat, playing samples and "scratching" using record players and the creation of a rhythmic backing track, using a drum machine or sequencer, it is most commonly used to refer to recording the instrumental, non-lyrical and non-vocal aspects of hip hop.

E-mu SP-1200

E-mu SP-1200 is a sampler that was released in August 1987 by E-mu Systems.

Hip hop music music genre consisting of a stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rapping

Hip hop music, also called hip-hop or rap music, is a genre of popular music developed in the United States by inner-city African Americans and Latino Americans in the Bronx borough of New York City in the 1970s. It consists of a stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech that is chanted. It developed as part of hip hop culture, a subculture defined by four key stylistic elements: MCing/rapping, DJing/scratching with turntables, break dancing, and graffiti writing. Other elements include sampling beats or bass lines from records, and rhythmic beatboxing. While often used to refer solely to rapping, "hip hop" more properly denotes the practice of the entire subculture. The term hip hop music is sometimes used synonymously with the term rap music, though rapping is not a required component of hip hop music; the genre may also incorporate other elements of hip hop culture, including DJing, turntablism, scratching, beatboxing, and instrumental tracks.

AraabMuzik American DJ and record producer

Abraham Orellana, better known as his stage name AraabMuzik, is an American record producer and DJ. Araabmuzik made a name for himself by performing beats and instrumentals live and in real time on a Music Production Center (MPC) drum machine. He uses MPC to produce rapid, rhythmic drum patterns and creates melodies with samples and other sounds.

Sampledelia is sample-based music which uses samplers or other technology to expand upon the recording methods of 1960s psychedelia. Sampledelia features "disorienting, perception-warping" manipulations of audio samples or found sounds via techniques such as chopping, looping or stretching. Sampladelic techniques have been applied prominently in styles of electronic music and hip hop, such as trip hop, jungle, post-rock, and plunderphonics.

Bruce Forat is an electronics engineer, computer programmer, music producer, songwriter and co-founder and president of Forat Music and Electronics Corporation, founded in 1986.

DJ Shadow American DJ and record producer from California

Joshua Paul Davis, better known by his stage name DJ Shadow, is an American record producer and DJ. He first gained notice with the release of his acclaimed debut studio album, Endtroducing...... He has a personal record collection of over 60,000 records.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Howell, Steve (August 2005). "The Lost Art Of Sampling: Part 1". Sound on Sound . Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  2. "Reggae Wisdom: Proverbs in Jamaican Music". Univ. Press of Mississippi via Google Books.
  3. 1 2 Bryan J. McCann, The Mark of Criminality: Rhetoric, Race, and Gangsta Rap in the War-On-Crime ERA, pages 41-42, University of Alabama Press
  4. 1 2 Sheppard, David (July 2001). "Cash for Questions". Q.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 McNamee, David (28 September 2009). "Hey, what's that sound: Sampler". the Guardian. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  6. Hamer, Mick (26 March 2015). "Interview: Electronic maestros". New Scientist . Reed Business Information. Archived from the original on 8 July 2008. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Milner, Greg (3 November 2011). Perfecting Sound Forever: The Story of Recorded Music. Granta Publications. ISBN   9781847086051.
  8. 1 2 "A brief history of sampling". MusicRadar. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  9. McNamee, David (22 June 2009). "Hey, what's that sound: Linn LM-1 Drum Computer and the Oberheim DMX". the Guardian. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  10. "The 10 most important hardware samplers in history". MusicRadar. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  11. 1 2 "Meet the unassuming drum machine that changed music forever". Vox. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  12. 1 2 Vail, Mark (February 2002). "Korg M1 (Retrozone)". Sound on Sound . Retrieved 6 November 2019.
  13. 1 2 3 McNamee, David (16 February 2008). "When did sampling become so non-threatening?". the Guardian. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  14. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Untangling the knotty world of hip-hop copyright". FACT Magazine: Music News, New Music. 25 June 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  15. 1 2 "Remixing Culture And Why The Art Of The Mash-Up Matters". TechCrunch. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
  16. 1 2 3 4 "Sample Clearance |". www.soundonsound.com. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  17. 1 2 "Just a sample". The Economist. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  18. "Hip-hop's most influential sampler gets a 2017 reboot". Engadget. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  19. "Meet the unassuming drum machine that changed music forever". Vox. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  20. Mayumi Yoshida Barakan & Judith Connor Greer (1996). Tokyo city guide. Tuttle Publishing. p. 144. ISBN   0-8048-1964-5 . Retrieved 6 June 2011.
  21. 1 2 Carter, Monica (30 June 2011). "It's Easy When You're Big In Japan: Yellow Magic Orchestra at The Hollywood Bowl". The Vinyl District. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
  22. 1 2 Condry, Ian (2006). Hip-hop Japan: rap and the paths of cultural globalization. Duke University Press. p. 60. ISBN   0-8223-3892-0.
  23. "The Essential... Yellow Magic Orchestra". FACT Magazine . 22 January 2015.
  24. Brian Eno and David Byrne, My Life in the Bush of Ghosts | | guardian.co.uk Arts
  25. Myers, Ben (20 January 2011). "Big Audio Dynamite: more pioneering than the Clash?". The Guardian. London.
  26. "First album made completely from samples". Guinness World Records . Archived from the original on 24 April 2013. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
  27. Sullivan, James (30 March 2012). "DJ Shadow's influence looms large". The Boston Globe . Archived from the original on 24 April 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
  28. 1 2 3 "Don't kick the ethics out of sampling: picking up the bullets from The Weeknd's clash with Portishead - Page 2 of 2 - FACT Magazine: Music News, New Music". FACT Magazine: Music News, New Music. 2 August 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  29. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Seven seconds of fire". The Economist . Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  30. "The Dirty Heartbeat of the Golden Age | Village Voice". www.villagevoice.com. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  31. Eveleth, Rose. "The World's Most Sampled Song Is "Change the Beat" by Fab 5 Freddy". Smithsonian. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  32. Fink (2005 , p. 1)
  33. Fink (2005 , p. 6)
  34. "Loleatta Holloway: Much-sampled disco diva who sued Black Box over". The Independent. 25 March 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  35. Tech, Tim Cant 2017-07-19T08:45:00 199Z. "10 classic sample libraries that changed music". MusicRadar. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  36. 1 2 Runtagh, Jordan (8 June 2016). "Songs on Trial: 12 Landmark Music Copyright Cases". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  37. 1 2 George, Nelson (26 April 2005). Hip Hop America. Penguin. ISBN   9781101007303.
  38. 1 2 3 4 Richards, Chris. "The court case that changed hip-hop — from Public Enemy to Kanye — forever". Washington Post. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  39. Tingen, Paul (May 2005). "The Dust Brothers: Sampling, Remixing & The Boat Studio". Sound on Sound . Cambridge, UK: SOS Publications Group. ISSN   1473-5326 . Retrieved 25 July 2011.
  40. "Steve Gibson & Dave Walters: Recreating Samples |". www.soundonsound.com. Retrieved 14 October 2018.

Further reading