Pop music

Last updated

Pop music is a type of popular music that originated in its modern form during the mid-1950s in the United States and the United Kingdom. [4] During the 1950s and 1960s, pop music encompassed rock and roll and the youth-oriented styles it influenced. Rock and pop music remained roughly synonymous until the late 1960s, after which pop became associated with music that was more commercial, ephemeral, and accessible.


Identifying factors of pop music usually include repeated choruses and hooks, short to medium-length songs written in a basic format (often the verse–chorus structure), and rhythms or tempos that can be easily danced to. Much of pop music also borrows elements from other styles such as rock, urban, dance, Latin, and country.

The terms popular music and pop music are often used interchangeably, although the former more accurately describes all music that is popular and includes many disparate styles. Although much of the music that appears on record charts is considered to be pop music, the genre is distinguished from chart music.

Definitions and etymology

David Hatch and Stephen Millward describe pop music as "a body of music which is distinguishable from popular, jazz, and folk music". [9] According to Pete Seeger, pop music is "professional music which draws upon both folk music and fine arts music". [3] David Boyle, a music researcher, states pop music as any type of music that a person has been exposed to by the mass media. [10] Most individuals think that pop music is just the singles charts and not the sum of all chart music. The music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz, rock, and novelty songs. As a genre, pop music is seen to exist and develop separately. [11] Therefore, the term "pop music" may be used to describe a distinct genre, designed to appeal to all, often characterized as "instant singles-based music aimed at teenagers" in contrast to rock music as "album-based music for adults". [4] [13]

Pop music continuously evolves along with the term's definition. According to music writer Bill Lamb, popular music is defined as "the music since industrialization in the 1800s that is most in line with the tastes and interests of the urban middle class." [14] The term "pop song" was first used in 1926, in the sense of a piece of music "having popular appeal". [15] Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country, blues, and hillbilly music. [16]

The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that the term "pop" refers to music performed by such artists as the Rolling Stones (pictured here in a 2006 performance). Rolling stones - 11 luglio 2006 - san siro.jpg
The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that the term "pop" refers to music performed by such artists as the Rolling Stones (pictured here in a 2006 performance).

According to the website of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians , the term "pop music" "originated in Britain in the mid-1950s as a description for rock and roll and the new youth music styles that it influenced". [2] The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that while pop's "earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience [...] since the late 1950s, however, pop has had the special meaning of non-classical mus[ic], usually in the form of songs, performed by such artists as The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, ABBA, etc." [17] Grove Music Online also states that "[...] in the early 1960s, [the term] 'pop music' competed terminologically with beat music [in England], while in the US its coverage overlapped (as it still does) with that of 'rock and roll'". [2]

From about 1967, the term "pop music" was increasingly used in opposition to the term rock music, a division that gave generic significance to both terms. [18] While rock aspired to authenticity and an expansion of the possibilities of popular music, [18] pop was more commercial, ephemeral, and accessible. [19] According to British musicologist Simon Frith, pop music is produced "as a matter of enterprise not art", and is "designed to appeal to everyone" but "doesn't come from any particular place or mark off any particular taste". Frith adds that it is "not driven by any significant ambition except profit and commercial reward [...] and, in musical terms, it is essentially conservative". It is, "provided from on high (by record companies, radio programmers, and concert promoters) rather than being made from below (...) Pop is not a do-it-yourself music but is professionally produced and packaged". [4]


According to Frith, characteristics of pop music include an aim of appealing to a general audience, rather than to a particular sub-culture or ideology, and an emphasis on craftsmanship rather than formal "artistic" qualities. [4] Besides, Frith also offers three identifying characteristics of pop music: light entertainment, commercial imperatives, and personal identification. Pop music grew out of a light entertainment and easy listening tradition. [22] Pop music is more conservative than other music genres such as folk, blues, country, and tradition. Many pop songs do not contain themes of resistance, opposition, or political themes, rather focusing more on love and relationships. Therefore, pop music does not challenge its audiences socially, and does not cause political activism. Frith also said the main purpose of pop music is to create revenue. It is not a medium of free articulation of the people. Instead, pop music seeks to supply the nature of personal desire and achieve the instant empathy with cliche personalities, stereotypes, and melodrama that appeals to listeners. It is mostly about how much revenue pop music makes for record companies. [23] Music scholar Timothy Warner said pop music typically has an emphasis on recording, production, and technology, rather than live performance; a tendency to reflect existing trends rather than progressive developments; and seeks to encourage dancing or uses dance-oriented rhythms. [19]

Amr Diab, Egyptian pop star, named "El-Hadaba", for achieving high records sales in the Middle East and Africa for the last three decades Amr Diab at World Music Awards 2007.jpg
Amr Diab, Egyptian pop star, named "El-Hadaba", for achieving high records sales in the Middle East and Africa for the last three decades

The main medium of pop music is the song, often between two and a half and three and a half minutes in length, generally marked by a consistent and noticeable rhythmic element, a mainstream style and a simple traditional structure. [26] The structure of many popular songs is that of a verse and a chorus, the chorus serving as the portion of the track that is designed to stick in the ear through simple repetition both musically and lyrically. The chorus is often where the music builds towards and is often preceded by "the drop" where the bass and drum parts "drop out". [27] Common variants include the verse-chorus form and the thirty-two-bar form, with a focus on melodies and catchy hooks, and a chorus that contrasts melodically, rhythmically and harmonically with the verse. [28] The beat and the melodies tend to be simple, with limited harmonic accompaniment. [29] The lyrics of modern pop songs typically focus on simple themes – often love and romantic relationships – although there are notable exceptions. [4]

Harmony and chord progressions in pop music are often "that of classical European tonality, only more simple-minded." [30] Clichés include the barbershop quartet-style harmony (i.e. ii – V – I) and blues scale-influenced harmony. [31] There was a lessening of the influence of traditional views of the circle of fifths between the mid-1950s and the late 1970s, including less predominance for the dominant function. [32]

In October 2023, Billboard compiled a list of "the 500 best pop songs". In doing so, they noted the difficulty of defining "pop songs":

One of the reasons pop can be hard to summarize is because there’s no real sonic or musical definition to it. There are common elements to a lot of the biggest pop songs, but at the end of the day, "pop" means "popular" first and foremost, and just about any song that becomes popular enough...can be considered a pop song. [33]

Development and influence

Technology and media

Bing Crosby was one of the first artists to be nicknamed "King of Pop" or "King of Popular Music". Bing Crosby 1930s.jpg
Bing Crosby was one of the first artists to be nicknamed "King of Pop" or "King of Popular Music".

In the 1940s, improved microphone design allowed a more intimate singing style and, ten or twenty years later, inexpensive and more durable 45 rpm records for singles "revolutionized the manner in which pop has been disseminated", which helped to move pop music to "a record/radio/film star system". [35] Another technological change was the widespread availability of television in the 1950s with televised performances, which meant that "pop stars had to have a visual presence". [35] In the 1960s, the introduction of inexpensive, portable transistor radios meant that teenagers in the developed world could listen to music outside of the home. [35] By the early 1980s, the promotion of pop music had been greatly affected by the rise of music television channels like MTV, which "favoured those artists such as Michael Jackson and Madonna who had a strong visual appeal". [35]

Multi-track recording (from the 1960s) and digital sampling (from the 1980s) have also been used as methods for the creation and elaboration of pop music. [4] During the mid-1960s, pop music made repeated forays into new sounds, styles, and techniques that inspired public discourse among its listeners. The word "progressive" was frequently used, and it was thought that every song and single was to be a "progression" from the last. [36] Music critic Simon Reynolds writes that beginning with 1967, a divide would exist between "progressive" pop and "mass/chart" pop, a separation which was "also, broadly, one between boys and girls, middle-class and working-class." [37]

The latter half of the 20th century included a large-scale trend in American culture in which the boundaries between art and pop music were increasingly blurred. [38] Between 1950 and 1970, there was a debate of pop versus art. [39] Since then, certain music publications have embraced the music's legitimacy, a trend referred to as "poptimism". [39]

Stylistic evolution

The 1960s British Invasion marked a period when the US charts were inundated with British acts such as the Beatles (pictured 1964). The Beatles in America.JPG
The 1960s British Invasion marked a period when the US charts were inundated with British acts such as the Beatles (pictured 1964).

Throughout its development, pop music has absorbed influences from other genres of popular music. Early pop music drew on traditional pop, an American counterpart to German Schlager and French Chanson, however compared to the pop of European countries, traditional pop originally emphasized influences ranging from Tin Pan Alley songwriting, Broadway theatre, and show tunes. As the genre evolved more influences ranging from classical, folk, rock, country, electronic music, and other popular genres became more prominent. In 2016, a Scientific Reports study that examined over 464,000 recordings of popular music recorded between 1955 and 2010 found that, compared to 1960s pop music, contemporary pop music uses a smaller variety of pitch progressions, greater average volume, [40] less diverse instrumentation and recording techniques, and less timbral variety. [41] Scientific American 's John Matson reported that this "seems to support the popular anecdotal observation that pop music of yore was "better", or at least more varied, than today's top-40 stuff". However, he also noted that the study may not have been entirely representative of pop in each generation. [41]

In the 1960s, the majority of mainstream pop music fell in two categories: guitar, drum and bass groups or singers backed by a traditional orchestra. [42] Since early in the decade, it was common for pop producers, songwriters, and engineers to freely experiment with musical form, orchestration, unnatural reverb, and other sound effects. Some of the best known examples are Phil Spector's Wall of Sound and Joe Meek's use of homemade electronic sound effects for acts like the Tornados. [43] At the same time, pop music on radio and in both American and British film moved away from refined Tin Pan Alley to more eccentric songwriting and incorporated reverb-drenched electric guitar, symphonic strings, and horns played by groups of properly arranged and rehearsed studio musicians. [44] A 2019 study held by New York University in which 643 participants had to rank how familiar a pop song is to them, songs from the 1960s turned out to be the most memorable, significantly more than songs from recent years 2000 to 2015. [45]

Before the progressive pop of the late 1960s, performers were typically unable to decide on the artistic content of their music. [46] Assisted by the mid-1960s economic boom, record labels began investing in artists, giving them the freedom to experiment, and offering them limited control over their content and marketing. [47] This situation declined after the late 1970s and would not reemerge until the rise of Internet stars. [47] Indie pop, which developed in the late 1970s, marked another departure from the glamour of contemporary pop music, with guitar bands formed on the then-novel premise that one could record and release their own music without having to procure a record contract from a major label. [48]

The 1980s are commonly remembered for an increase in the use of digital recording, associated with the usage of synthesizers, with synth-pop music and other electronic genres featuring non-traditional instruments increasing in popularity. [49] By 2014, pop music worldwide had been permeated by electronic dance music. [50] In 2018, researchers at the University of California, Irvine, concluded that pop music has become 'sadder' since the 1980s. The elements of happiness and brightness have eventually been replaced with electronic beats making pop music more 'sad yet danceable'. [51]

International spread and crosspollination

Michael Jackson in 1988.jpg
Rebel Heart 3 (cropped).jpg
Michael Jackson (left) and Madonna (right) have been dubbed respectively as the "King and Queen of Pop" since the 1980s. [52]

Pop music has been dominated by the American and (from the mid-1960s) British music industries, whose influence has made pop music something of an international monoculture, but most regions and countries have their own form of pop music, sometimes producing local versions of wider trends, and lending them local characteristics. [53] Some of these trends (for example Europop) have had a significant impact on the development of the genre. [54]

The story of pop music is largely the story of the intertwining pop culture of the United States and the United Kingdom in the postwar era.

 Bob Stanley [50]

Vocally, Whitney Houston is one of the world's most influential pop vocalists since the 1980s and has been referred to as ''The Voice'' for her vocal talent. Whitney Houston Welcome Home Heroes 1 cropped.jpg
Vocally, Whitney Houston is one of the world's most influential pop vocalists since the 1980s and has been referred to as '' The Voice '' for her vocal talent.

According to Grove Music Online, "Western-derived pop styles, whether coexisting with or marginalizing distinctively local genres, have spread throughout the world and have come to constitute stylistic common denominators in global commercial music cultures". [57] Some non-Western countries, such as Japan, have developed a thriving pop music industry, most of which is devoted to Western-style pop. Japan has for several years produced a greater quantity of music than everywhere except the US.[ clarification needed ] [57] The spread of Western-style pop music has been interpreted variously as representing processes of Americanization, homogenization, modernization, creative appropriation, cultural imperialism, or a more general process of globalization. [57]

One of the pop music styles that developed alongside other music styles is Latin pop, which rose in popularity in the US during the 1950s with early rock and roll success Ritchie Valens. [58] Later, Los Lobos and Chicano rock gained in popularity during the 1970s and 1980s, and musician Selena saw large-scale popularity in the 1980s and 1990s, along with crossover appeal with fans of Tejano musicians Lydia Mendoza and Little Joe.[ citation needed ] With later Hispanic and Latino Americans seeing success within pop music charts, 1990s pop successes stayed popular in both their original genres and in broader pop music. [59] Latin pop hit singles, such as "Macarena" by Los del Río and "Despacito" by Luis Fonsi, have seen record-breaking success on worldwide pop music charts. [60]

Notable pop artists of the late 20th century that became global superstars include Whitney Houston, Michael Jackson, Madonna, George Michael, and Prince.

21st century

Britney Spears.jpg
Britney Spears has been named "Princess of Pop" for revitalizing teen pop in the 2000s. [61]

At the beginning of the 2000s, the trends that dominated during the late 1990s still continued, but the music industry started to change as people began to download music from the internet. People were able to discover genres and artists that were outside of the mainstream and propel them to fame, but at the same time smaller artists had a harder time making a living because their music was being pirated. [62] Popular artists were Avril Lavigne, Justin Timberlake, NSYNC, Christina Aguilera, Destiny's Child, and Britney Spears. Pop music often came from many different genres, with each genre in turn influencing the next one, blurring the lines between them and making them less distinct. This change was epitomized in Spears' highly influential 2007 album Blackout , which under the influence of producer Danja, mixed the sounds of EDM, avant-funk, R&B, dance music, and hip hop. [63]

By 2010, pop music impacted by dance music came to be dominant on the charts. Instead of radio setting the trends, it was now the club. At the beginning of the 2010s, Will.i.am stated, "The new bubble is all the collective clubs around the world. Radio is just doing its best to keep up." [64] Songs that talked of escapism through partying became the most popular, influenced by the impulse to forget the economic troubles that had taken over the world after the 2008 crash. [65]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Progressive music</span> Type of music that emphasizes expansion of form and stylistic variety

Progressive music is music that attempts to expand existing stylistic boundaries associated with specific genres of music. The word comes from the basic concept of "progress", which refers to advancements through accumulation, and is often deployed in the context of distinct genres, with progressive rock being the most notable example. Music that is deemed "progressive" usually synthesizes influences from various cultural domains, such as European art music, Celtic folk, West Indian, or African. It is rooted in the idea of a cultural alternative, and may also be associated with auteur-stars and concept albums, considered traditional structures of the music industry.

Rock and roll is a genre of popular music that evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s. It originated from African American music such as jazz, rhythm and blues, boogie-woogie, electric blues, gospel, jump blues, as well as country music. While rock and roll's formative elements can be heard in blues records from the 1920s and in country records of the 1930s, the genre did not acquire its name until 1954.

Rock is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s, developing into a range of different styles from the mid-1960s, particularly in the United States and the United Kingdom. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style that drew directly from the blues and rhythm and blues genres of African-American music and from country music. Rock also drew strongly from genres such as electric blues and folk, and incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. For instrumentation, rock has centered on the electric guitar, usually as part of a rock group with electric bass guitar, drums, and one or more singers. Usually, rock is song-based music with a 4
time signature
using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become extremely diverse. Like pop music, lyrics often stress romantic love but also address a wide variety of other themes that are frequently social or political. Rock was the most popular genre of music in the U.S. and much of the Western world from the 1950s to the 2010s.

Glam rock is a style of rock music that developed in the United Kingdom in the early 1970s and was performed by male musicians who wore flamboyant and feminine clothing, makeup, and hairstyles, particularly platform shoes and glitter, and female musicians who wore masculine clothing. Glam artists drew on diverse sources across music and throwaway pop culture, ranging from bubblegum pop and 1950s rock and roll to cabaret, science fiction, and complex art rock. The flamboyant clothing and visual styles of performers were often camp or androgynous, and have been described as playing with other gender roles. Glitter rock was a more extreme version of glam rock.

Art rock is a subgenre of rock music that generally reflects a challenging or avant-garde approach to rock, or which makes use of modernist, experimental, or unconventional elements. Art rock aspires to elevate rock from entertainment to an artistic statement, opting for a more experimental and conceptual outlook on music. Influences may be drawn from genres such as experimental music, avant-garde music, classical music, and jazz.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Soul music</span> Genre of music

Soul music is a popular music genre that originated in the African American community throughout the United States in the late 1950s and early 1960s. It has its roots in African-American gospel music and rhythm and blues. Soul music became popular for dancing and listening, where U.S. record labels such as Motown, Atlantic and Stax were influential during the Civil Rights Movement. Soul also became popular around the world, directly influencing rock music and the music of Africa. It also had a resurgence in the mid-to late 1990s with the subgenre neo-soul, which added modern production elements and influence from hip-hop.

Folk rock is a genre of rock music with heavy influences from English folk and American folk music. Combining the elements of folk and rock music, it arose in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom in the mid-1960s. In the U.S., folk rock emerged from the folk music revival. Performers such as Bob Dylan and the Byrds—several of whose members had earlier played in folk ensembles—attempted to blend the sounds of rock with their pre-existing folk repertoire, adopting the use of electric instrumentation and drums in a way previously discouraged in the U.S. folk community. The term "folk rock" was initially used in the U.S. music press in June 1965 to describe the Byrds' music.

Popular music of the United Kingdom in the 1970s built upon the new forms of music developed from blues rock towards the end of the 1960s, including folk rock and psychedelic rock movements. Several important and influential subgenres were created in Britain in this period, by pursuing the limitations of rock music, including British folk rock and glam rock, a process that reached its apogee in the development of progressive rock and one of the most enduring subgenres in heavy metal music. Britain also began to be increasingly influenced by third world music, including Jamaican and Indian music, resulting in new music scenes and subgenres. In the middle years of the decade the influence of the pub rock and American punk rock movements led to the British intensification of punk, which swept away much of the existing landscape of popular music, replacing it with much more diverse new wave and post punk bands who mixed different forms of music and influences to dominate rock and pop music into the 1980s.

Beat music, British beat, or Merseybeat is a British popular music genre that developed, particularly in and around Liverpool, in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The genre melded influences from British and American rock and roll, rhythm and blues, skiffle, traditional pop and music hall. It rose to mainstream popularity in the UK and Europe by 1963 before spreading to North America in 1964 with the British Invasion. The beat style had a significant impact on popular music and youth culture, from 1960s movements such as garage rock, folk rock and psychedelic music.

Simon Webster Frith is a British sociomusicologist and former rock critic who specializes in popular music culture. He is Professor Emeritus of Music at University of Edinburgh.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">American rock</span> Overview of rock music in the United States

American rock has its roots from 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, rhythm and blues, and country music, and also draws from folk music, jazz, blues, and classical music. American rock music was further influenced by the British Invasion of the American pop charts from 1964 and resulted in the development of psychedelic rock.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">British rock music</span> Rock music from the United Kingdom

British rock describes a wide variety of forms of music made in the United Kingdom. Since around 1964, with the "British Invasion" of the United States spearheaded by the Beatles, British rock music has had a considerable impact on the development of American music and rock music across the world.

Pop rock is a fusion genre characterized by a strong commercial appeal, with more emphasis on professional songwriting and recording craft, and less emphasis on attitude than standard rock music. Originating in the late 1950s as an alternative to normal rock and roll, early pop rock was influenced by the beat, arrangements, and original style of rock and roll. It may be viewed as a distinct genre field rather than music that overlaps with pop and rock. The detractors of pop rock often deride it as a slick, commercial product and less authentic than rock music.

Heartland rock is a genre of rock music characterized by a straightforward, often roots musical style, often with a focus on blue-collar workers, and a conviction that rock music has a social or communal purpose beyond just entertainment.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">American popular music</span>

American popular music is popular music produced in the United States of America and is a part of American pop culture. Distinctive styles of American popular music emerged early in the 19th century, and in the 20th century the American music industry developed a series of new forms of music, using elements of blues and other genres. These popular styles included country, R&B, jazz and rock. The 1960s and 1970s saw a number of important changes in American popular music, including the development of a number of new styles, such as heavy metal, punk, soul, and hip hop.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1960s in music</span> Music-related events during the 1960s

This article includes an overview of the events and trends in popular music in the 1960s.

Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and styles can be enjoyed and performed by people with little or no musical training. It stands in contrast to both art music and traditional or "folk" music. Art music was historically disseminated through the performances of written music, although since the beginning of the recording industry, it is also disseminated through recordings. Traditional music forms such as early blues songs or hymns were passed along orally, or to smaller, local audiences.

Art pop is a loosely defined style of pop music influenced by art theories as well as ideas from other art mediums, such as fashion, fine art, cinema, and avant-garde literature. The genre draws on pop art's integration of high and low culture, and emphasizes signs, style, and gesture over personal expression. Art pop musicians may deviate from traditional pop audiences and rock music conventions, instead exploring postmodern approaches and ideas such as pop's status as commercial art, notions of artifice and the self, and questions of historical authenticity.

A sentimental ballad is an emotional style of music that often deals with romantic and intimate relationships, and to a lesser extent, loneliness, death, war, drug abuse, politics and religion, usually in a poignant but solemn manner. Ballads are generally melodic enough to get the listener's attention.

Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form during the mid-1950s in the United States and the United Kingdom. The terms popular music and pop music are often used interchangeably, although the former describes all music that is popular and includes many disparate styles. During the 1950s and 1960s, pop music encompassed rock and roll and the youth-oriented styles it influenced. Rock and pop music remained roughly synonymous until the late 1960s, after which pop became associated with music that was more commercial, ephemeral, and accessible.


  1. Traditional Pop, AllMusic Archived 2017-10-19 at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved 25 August 2016
  2. 1 2 3 R. Middleton, et al., "Pop", Grove music online, retrieved 14 March 2010. (subscription required) Archived 13 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  3. 1 2 Gilliland, John (1969). "Show 1 – Play A Simple Melody: Pete Seeger on the origins of pop music" (audio). Pop Chronicles . University of North Texas Libraries.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 S. Frith, W. Straw, and J. Street, eds, The Cambridge Companion to Pop and Rock (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), ISBN   0-521-55660-0, pp. 95–105.
  5. "Pop/Rock » Punk/New Wave » New Wave". allmusic.com. Archived from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 9 December 2021.
  6. "The 50 Best New Wave Albums". Paste. 13 October 2020. Archived from the original on 1 October 2017. Retrieved 9 December 2021.
  7. "Q&A with Theo Cateforis, author of Are We Not New Wave? Modern Pop at the Turn of the 1980s" (PDF). University of Michigan. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 November 2021. Retrieved 9 December 2021.
  8. "Hyperpop or overhyped? The rise of 2020's most maximalist sound". Independent. 27 December 2020. Retrieved 21 July 2023.
  9. D. Hatch and S. Millward, From Blues to Rock: an Analytical History of Pop Music (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1987), ISBN   0-7190-1489-1, p. 1.
  10. Boyle, J. David; Hosterman, Glenn L.; Ramsey, Darhyl S. (1981-04-01). "Factors Influencing Pop Music Preferences of Young People". Journal of Research in Music Education. 29 (1): 47–55. doi:10.2307/3344679. ISSN   0022-4294. JSTOR   3344679. S2CID   145122624.
  11. R. Serge Denisoff and William L. Schurk, Tarnished Gold: the Record Industry Revisited (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 3rd edn., 1986), ISBN   0-88738-618-0, pp. 2–3.
  12. Moore, Allan F. (2016). Song Means: Analysing and Interpreting Recorded Popular Song. Routledge. ISBN   978-1-317-05265-4.
  13. Musicologist Allan Moore surmises that the term "pop music" itself may have been popularized by pop art. [12]
  14. Lamb, Bill (29 September 2018). "What Is Pop Music?". ThoughtCo. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  15. J. Simpson and E. Weiner, Oxford English Dictionary (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989). ISBN   0-19-861186-2, cf. pop.
  16. D. Hatch and S. Millward, From Blues to Rock: an Analytical History of Pop Music, ISBN   0-7190-1489-1, p. 49.
  17. "Pop", The Oxford Dictionary of Music, retrieved 9 March 2010.(subscription required) Archived 12 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  18. 1 2 Kenneth Gloag in The Oxford Companion to Music (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), ISBN   0-19-866212-2, p. 983.
  19. 1 2 T. Warner, Pop Music: Technology and Creativity: Trevor Horn and the Digital Revolution (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003), ISBN   0-7546-3132-X, pp. 3–4.
  20. "Van's Brown Eyed Girl hits the 10 million mark in US". BBC. 5 October 2011. Archived from the original on 27 October 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
  21. Sullivan, Steve (2013). Encyclopedia of Great Popular Song Recordings, Volume 2. Scarecrow Press. pp. 101–103. ISBN   978-0-8108-8296-6.
  22. Rojek, Chris (2011). Pop music, pop culture. Polity; 1st edition (June 13, 2011). pp. 2–3. ISBN   978-0745642642.
  23. Rojek, Chris (2011). Pop music, pop culture. Polity; 1st edition (June 13, 2011). pp. 2–3.
  24. Maisey, Sarah (2023-06-27). "Amr Diab to perform in Beirut for the first time in 12 years". The National. Retrieved 2023-11-26.
  25. "Egypt's megastar Amr Diab releases 'Katar Men Orbak' song". EgyptToday. 2021-12-27. Retrieved 2023-11-26.
  26. W. Everett, Expression in Pop-rock Music: A Collection of Critical and Analytical Essays (London: Taylor & Francis, 2000), p. 272.
  27. "Characteristics of Pop Music: An Introduction". Cmuse.org. 9 December 2019. Archived from the original on 2020-07-08. Retrieved 2020-07-07.
  28. J. Shepherd, Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World: Performance and production (Continuum, 2003), p. 508.
  29. V. Kramarz, The Pop Formulas: Harmonic Tools of the Hit Makers (Mel Bay Publications, 2007), p. 61.
  30. Winkler, Peter (1978). "Toward a theory of pop harmony", In Theory Only, 4, pp. 3–26.
  31. Sargeant, p. 198. cited in Winkler (1978), p. 4.
  32. Winkler (1978), p. 22.
  33. Billboard staff (October 19, 2023). "The 500 Best Pop Songs: Staff List". Billboard.
  34. Gilliland, John (1994). Pop Chronicles the 40s: The Lively Story of Pop Music in the 40s.
  35. 1 2 3 4 D. Buckley, "Pop" "II. Implications of technology", Grove Music Online, retrieved 15 March 2010.
  36. Hewitt, Paolo; Hellier, John (2015). Steve Marriott: All Too Beautiful. Dean Street Press. p. 162. ISBN   978-1-910570-69-2.
  37. Reynolds, Simon (2006). "New Pop and its Aftermath". On Record: Rock, Pop and the Written Word. Routledge. p. 398. ISBN   978-1-134-93951-0.
  38. Edmondson, Jacqueline, ed. (2013). Music in American Life: An Encyclopedia of the Songs, Styles, Stars, and Stories that Shaped our Culture. ABC-CLIO. pp. 317, 1233. ISBN   978-0-313-39348-8. Archived from the original on 2023-04-12. Retrieved 2016-10-25.
  39. 1 2 Loss, Robert (August 10, 2015). "No Apologies: A Critique of the Rockist v. Poptimist Paradigm". PopMatters . Archived from the original on April 16, 2022. Retrieved April 16, 2022.
  40. Serrà, Joan; Corral, Álvaro; Boguñá, Marián; Haro, Martín; Arcos, Josep Ll. (2012). "Measuring the Evolution of Contemporary Western Popular Music". Scientific Reports. 2: 521. arXiv: 1205.5651 . Bibcode:2012NatSR...2E.521S. doi:10.1038/srep00521. PMC   3405292 . PMID   22837813.
  41. 1 2 John Matson, "Is Pop Music Evolving, or Is It Just Getting Louder?", Scientific American, 26 July 2012 Archived 23 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved 30 March 2016
  42. "Making Arrangements—A Rough Guide To Song Construction & Arrangement, Part 1". Sound on Sound. October 1997. Archived from the original on 8 May 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
  43. Blake, Andrew (2009). "Recording practices and the role of the producer". In Cook, Nicholas; Clarke, Eric; Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel (eds.). The Cambridge Companion to Recorded Music. Cambridge University Press. p. 45. ISBN   978-1-139-82796-6.
  44. Pareles, Jon (October 31, 2008). "Orchestral Pop, the Way It Was (More or Less)". The New York Times . Archived from the original on July 4, 2022. Retrieved July 4, 2013.
  45. "The greatest decade for pop music has been revealed (according to science)". Smooth. Archived from the original on 2019-03-31. Retrieved 2019-03-31.
  46. Willis, Paul E. (2014). Profane Culture. Princeton University Press. p. 217. ISBN   978-1-4008-6514-7.
  47. 1 2 Moore 2016, p. 202.
  48. Abebe, Nitsuh (24 October 2005), "Twee as Fuck: The Story of Indie Pop", Pitchfork Media, archived from the original on 24 February 2011
  49. Collins, Glenn (1988-08-29). "Rap Music, Brash And Swaggering, Enters Mainstream". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2019-05-01. Retrieved 2019-07-10.
  50. 1 2 Christgau, Robert (2014). "Anti-Rockism's Hall of Fame". The Barnes & Noble Review . Archived from the original on December 20, 2019. Retrieved August 18, 2015.
  51. "New study finds pop music has gotten extremely depressing but also more fun to dance to". The Fader. Archived from the original on 2018-05-21. Retrieved 2018-05-21.
  52. McGee, Alan (August 20, 2008). "Madonna Pop Art". The Guardian . Archived from the original on June 26, 2015. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  53. J. Kun, Audiotopia: Music, Race, and America (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2005), ISBN   0-520-24424-9, p. 201.
  54. "Star profiles" in S. Frith, W. Stray and J. Street, The Cambridge Companion to Pop and Rock (Cambridge University Press, 2001), ISBN   0-521-55660-0, pp. 199–200.
  55. Caramanica, Jon (February 12, 2012). "A Voice of Triumph, the Queen of Pain". The New York Times. Retrieved Jan 2, 2024.
  56. Gill, Any (February 17, 2012). "Whitney Houston, the greatest voice of her generation". The Independent . Independent Print. Retrieved Jan 2, 2024.
  57. 1 2 3 P. Manuel, "Pop. Non-Western cultures 1. Global dissemination", Grove Music Online, retrieved 14 March 2010.
  58. "Los Lobos, Ritchie Valens, and the Day the Music Died". Strachwitz Frontera Collection. February 16, 2017. Archived from the original on November 30, 2020. Retrieved November 18, 2020.
  59. Aldama, A.J.; Sandoval, C.; García, P.J. (2012). Performing the US Latina and Latino Borderlands. Indiana University Press. p. 224. ISBN   978-0-253-00295-2 . Retrieved February 14, 2020.
  60. Villafañe, Veronica (August 14, 2017). "Still No.1, Record-Breaking 'Despacito' Ties 'Macarena' Streak On Hot 100, But Is Snubbed By MTV". Forbes. Archived from the original on May 22, 2020. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
  61. Often referred to in interviews, cover stories and promotional material as the new 'princess of pop'Hopkins, Susan (2002), Girl heroes: The New Force In Popular Culture, University of Michigan Press, p. 60
  62. Ghoshal, Abhimanyu (2018-12-28). "A nostalgic look back at digital music piracy in the 2000s". TNW | Insights. Archived from the original on 2022-07-27. Retrieved 2022-07-27.
  63. Hova, Tray (2011-02-07). "Studio Stories: Danja [Pg. 2]". VIBE.com. Archived from the original on 2022-07-27. Retrieved 2022-07-27.
  64. Herrera, Monica (2010-12-10). "2010 in Music: The Year That Went Pop". Billboard. Retrieved 2022-07-27.
  65. "Bopping Through the Bailouts: Why the Great Recession Led to Great Music". afterglow. 14 February 2019. Archived from the original on 2022-07-08. Retrieved 2022-07-27.

Further reading