Business

Last updated

Fish for sale in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with a price tag of 395 Bangladeshi taka per kilogram. Fishes for Sale in Dhaka 02.jpg
Fish for sale in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with a price tag of 395 Bangladeshi taka per kilogram.

Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). [1] [2] [ need quotation to verify ] [3] [4] It is also "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit." [5]

Contents

Having a business name does not separate the business entity from the owner, which means that the owner of the business is responsible and liable for debts incurred by the business. If the business acquires debts, the creditors can go after the owner's personal possessions. A business structure does not allow for corporate tax rates. The proprietor is personally taxed on all income from the business.

The term is also often used colloquially (but not by lawyers or by public officials) to refer to a company. A company, on the other hand, is a separate legal entity and provides for limited liability, as well as corporate tax rates. A company structure is more complicated and expensive to set up, but offers more protection and benefits for the owner.

Forms

Forms of business ownership vary by jurisdiction, but several common entities exist:

Less common types of companies are:

Note that "Ltd after the company's name signifies limited company, and PLC (public limited company) indicates that its shares are widely held." [14]

In legal parlance, the owners of a company are normally referred to as the "members". In a company limited or unlimited by shares (formed or incorporated with a share capital), this will be the shareholders. In a company limited by guarantee, this will be the guarantors. Some offshore jurisdictions have created special forms of offshore company in a bid to attract business for their jurisdictions. Examples include "segregated portfolio companies" and restricted purpose companies.

There are, however, many, many sub-categories of types of company that can be formed in various jurisdictions in the world.

Companies are also sometimes distinguished into public companies and private companies for legal and regulatory purposes. Public companies are companies whose shares can be publicly traded, often (although not always) on a stock exchange which imposes listing requirements/Listing Rules as to the issued shares, the trading of shares and a future issue of shares to help bolster the reputation of the exchange or particular market of exchange. Private companies do not have publicly traded shares, and often contain restrictions on transfers of shares. In some jurisdictions, private companies have maximum numbers of shareholders.

A parent company is a company that owns enough voting stock in another firm to control management and operations by influencing or electing its board of directors; the second company being deemed as a subsidiary of the parent company. The definition of a parent company differs by jurisdiction, with the definition normally being defined by way of laws dealing with companies in that jurisdiction.

Classifications

Activities

Accounting

Accounting is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial information about economic entities [15] [16] such as businesses and corporations. The modern field was established by the Italian mathematician Luca Pacioli in 1494. [17] Accounting, which has been called the "language of business", [18] measures the results of an organization's economic activities and conveys this information to a variety of users, including investors, creditors, management, and regulators. [19] Practitioners of accounting are known as accountants. The terms "accounting" and "financial reporting" are often used as synonyms.

Finance

Finance is a field that deals with the study of money and investments. It includes the dynamics of assets and liabilities over time under conditions of different degrees of uncertainty and risk. [20] In the context of business and management, finance deals with the problems of ensuring that the firm can safely and profitably carry out its operational and financial objectives; i.e. that it: (1) has sufficient cash flow for ongoing and upcoming operational expenses, and (2) can service both maturing short-term debt repayments, and scheduled long-term debt payments. Finance also deals with the long term objective of maximizing the value of the business, while also balancing risk and profitability; this includes the interrelated questions of (1) capital investment, which businesses and projects to invest in; (2) capital structure, deciding on the mix of funding to be used; and (3) dividend policy, what to do with "excess" capital.

Manufacturing

Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale.

Marketing

Marketing is defined by the American Marketing Association as "the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large." [21] The term developed from the original meaning which referred literally to going to a market to buy or sell goods or services. Marketing tactics include advertising as well as determining product pricing.

With the rise in technology, marketing is further divided into a class called digital marketing. It is marketing products and services using digital technologies.

Research and development

Research and development refer to activities in connection with corporate or government innovation. [22] Research and development constitute the first stage of development of a potential new service or product. [23] Research and development are very difficult to manage since the defining feature of the research is that the researchers do not know in advance exactly how to accomplish the desired result. [24]

Safety

Injuries cost businesses billions of dollars annually. [25] Studies have shown how company acceptance and implementation of comprehensive safety and health management systems reduce incidents, insurance costs, and workers' compensation claims. [26] New technologies, like wearable safety devices [27] and available online safety training, continue to be developed to encourage employers to invest in protection beyond the "canary in the coal mine" and reduce the cost to businesses of protecting their employees.

Sales

Sales are activity related to selling or the number of goods or services sold in a given time period. Sales are often integrated with all lines of business and are key to a companies' success. [28]

Management

The efficient and effective operation of a business, and study of this subject, is called management. The major branches of management are financial management, marketing management, human resource management, strategic management, production management, operations management, service management, and information technology management. [ citation needed ]

Owners may manage their businesses themselves, or employ managers to do so for them. Whether they are owners or employees, managers administer three primary components of the business' value: financial resources, capital (tangible resources), and human resources. These resources are administered in at least six functional areas: legal contracting, manufacturing or service production, marketing, accounting, financing, and human resources.[ citation needed ]

Restructuring state enterprises

In recent decades, states modeled some of their assets and enterprises after business enterprises. In 2003, for example, the People's Republic of China modeled 80% of its state-owned enterprises on a company-type management system. [29] Many state institutions and enterprises in China and Russia have transformed into joint-stock companies, with part of their shares being listed on public stock markets.

Business process management (BPM) is a holistic management approach focused on aligning all aspects of an organization with the wants and needs of clients. BPM attempts to improve processes continuously. It can, therefore, be described as a "process optimization process". It is argued that BPM enables organizations to be more efficient, effective and capable of change than a functionally focused, traditional hierarchical management approach.[ who? ]

Organization and regulation

Time required to start a business in 2017 Time required to start a business, OWID.svg
Time required to start a business in 2017

Most legal jurisdictions specify the forms of ownership that a business can take, creating a body of commercial law for each type.

The major factors affecting how a business is organized are usually:

Many businesses are operated through a separate entity such as a corporation or a partnership (either formed with or without limited liability). Most legal jurisdictions allow people to organize such an entity by filing certain charter documents with the relevant Secretary of State or equivalent and complying with certain other ongoing obligations. The relationships and legal rights of shareholders, limited partners, or members are governed partly by the charter documents and partly by the law of the jurisdiction where the entity is organized. Generally speaking, shareholders in a corporation, limited partners in a limited partnership, and members in a limited liability company are shielded from personal liability for the debts and obligations of the entity, which is legally treated as a separate "person". This means that unless there is misconduct, the owner's own possessions are strongly protected in law if the business does not succeed.

Where two or more individuals own a business together but have failed to organize a more specialized form of vehicle, they will be treated as a general partnership. The terms of a partnership are partly governed by a partnership agreement if one is created, and partly by the law of the jurisdiction where the partnership is located. No paperwork or filing is necessary to create a partnership, and without an agreement, the relationships and legal rights of the partners will be entirely governed by the law of the jurisdiction where the partnership is located. A single person who owns and runs a business is commonly known as a sole proprietor, whether that person owns it directly or through a formally organized entity. Depending on the business needs, an adviser can decide what kind is proprietorship will be most suitable.

A few relevant factors to consider in deciding how to operate a business include:

  1. General partners in a partnership (other than a limited liability partnership), plus anyone who personally owns and operates a business without creating a separate legal entity, are personally liable for the debts and obligations of the business.
  2. Generally, corporations are required to pay tax just like "real" people. In some tax systems, this can give rise to so-called double taxation, because first the corporation pays tax on the profit, and then when the corporation distributes its profits to its owners, individuals have to include dividends in their income when they complete their personal tax returns, at which point a second layer of income tax is imposed.
  3. In most countries, there are laws that treat small corporations differently from large ones. They may be exempt from certain legal filing requirements or labor laws, have simplified procedures in specialized areas, and have simplified, advantageous, or slightly different tax treatment.
  4. "Going public" through a process known as an initial public offering (IPO) means that part of the business will be owned by members of the public. This requires the organization as a distinct entity, to disclose information to the public, and adhering to a tighter set of laws and procedures. Most public entities are corporations that have sold shares, but increasingly there are also public LLC's that sell units (sometimes also called shares), and other more exotic entities as well, such as, for example, real estate investment trusts in the US, and unit trusts in the UK. A general partnership cannot "go public".

Commercial law

Offices in the Los Angeles Downtown Financial District Downtownplazala.jpg
Offices in the Los Angeles Downtown Financial District

A very detailed and well-established body of rules that evolved over a very long period of time applies to commercial transactions. The need to regulate trade and commerce and resolve business disputes helped shape the creation of law and courts. The Code of Hammurabi dates back to about 1772 BC for example and contains provisions that relate, among other matters, to shipping costs and dealings between merchants and brokers. [33] The word "corporation" derives from the Latin corpus, meaning body, and the Maurya Empire in Iron-Age India accorded legal rights to business entities. [34]

In many countries, it is difficult to compile all the laws that can affect a business into a single reference source. Laws can govern the treatment of labour and employee relations, worker protection and safety, discrimination on the basis of age, gender, disability, race, and in some jurisdictions, sexual orientation, and the minimum wage, as well as unions, worker compensation, and working hours and leave.

Some specialized businesses may also require licenses, either due to laws governing entry into certain trades, occupations or professions, that require special education or to raise revenue for local governments. Professions that require special licenses include law, medicine, piloting aircraft, selling liquor, radio broadcasting, selling investment securities, selling used cars, and roofing. Local jurisdictions may also require special licenses and taxes just to operate a business.

Some businesses are subject to ongoing special regulation, for example, public utilities, investment securities, banking, insurance, broadcasting, aviation, and health care providers. Environmental regulations are also very complex and can affect many businesses.

Capital

Mexican Stock Exchange in Paseo de la Reforma, Mexico City Bolsa Mexicana de Valores.png
Mexican Stock Exchange in Paseo de la Reforma, Mexico City

When businesses need to raise money (called capital), they sometimes offer securities for sale. [35]

Capital may be raised through private means, by an initial public offering or IPO on a stock exchange, [36] or in other ways. [37]

Major stock exchanges include the Shanghai Stock Exchange, Singapore Exchange, Hong Kong Stock Exchange, New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ (the USA), the London Stock Exchange (UK), the Tokyo Stock Exchange (Japan), and Bombay Stock Exchange (India). Most countries with capital markets have at least one.

Businesses that have gone public are subject to regulations concerning their internal governance, such as how executive officers' compensation is determined, and when and how information is disclosed to shareholders and to the public. In the United States, these regulations are primarily implemented and enforced by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Other western nations have comparable regulatory bodies. The regulations are implemented and enforced by the China Securities Regulation Commission (CSRC) in China. In Singapore, the regulatory authority is the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), and in Hong Kong, it is the Securities and Futures Commission (SFC).

The proliferation and increasing complexity of the laws governing business have forced increasing specialization in corporate law. It is not unheard of for certain kinds of corporate transactions to require a team of five to ten attorneys due to sprawling regulation. Commercial law spans general corporate law, employment and labor law, health-care law, securities law, mergers and acquisitions, tax law, employee benefit plans, food and drug regulation, intellectual property law on copyrights, patents, trademarks, telecommunications law, and financing.

Other types of capital sourcing include crowdsourcing on the Internet, venture capital, bank loans, and debentures.

Intellectual property

Businesses often have important "intellectual property" that needs protection from competitors for the company to stay profitable. This could require patents, copyrights, trademarks, or preservation of trade secrets. [38] Most businesses have names, logos, and similar branding techniques that could benefit from trademarking. Patents and copyrights in the United States are largely governed by federal law, while trade secrets and trademarking are mostly a matter of state law. Because of the nature of intellectual property, a business needs protection in every jurisdiction in which they are concerned about competitors. Many countries are signatories to international treaties concerning intellectual property, and thus companies registered in these countries are subject to national laws bound by these treaties. In order to protect trade secrets, companies may require employees to sign noncompete clauses which will impose limitations on an employee's interactions with stakeholders, and competitors.

Trade union

A trade union (or labor union) is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve common goals such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, achieving higher pay and benefits such as health care and retirement, increasing the number of employees an employer assigns to complete the work, and better working conditions. [39] The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members (rank and file members) and negotiates labor contracts (collective bargaining) with employers. [40] The most common purpose of these associations or unions is "maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment". [41] This may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring, firing, and promotion of workers, benefits, workplace safety and policies.

See also

Related Research Articles

Corporation Legal entity incorporated through a legislative or registration process

A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the state to act as a single entity and recognized as such in law for certain purposes. Early incorporated entities were established by charter. Most jurisdictions now allow the creation of new corporations through registration. Corporations come in many different types but are usually divided by the law of the jurisdiction where they are chartered based on two aspects: by whether they can issue stock, or by whether they are formed to make a profit. Depending on the number of owners, a corporation can be classified as aggregate or sole.

Dividend Payment made by a corporation to its shareholders, usually as a distribution of profits

A dividend is a distribution of profits by a corporation to its shareholders. When a corporation earns a profit or surplus, it is able to pay a proportion of the profit as a dividend to shareholders. Any amount not distributed is taken to be re-invested in the business. The current year profit as well as the retained earnings of previous years are available for distribution; a corporation is usually prohibited from paying a dividend out of its capital. Distribution to shareholders may be in cash or, if the corporation has a dividend reinvestment plan, the amount can be paid by the issue of further shares or by share repurchase. In some cases, the distribution may be of assets.

A shareholder of a corporation is an individual or legal entity that is registered by the corporation as the legal owner of shares of the share capital of a public or private corporation. Shareholders may be referred to as members of a corporation. A person or legal entity becomes a shareholder in a corporation when their name and other details are entered in the corporation's register of shareholders or members, and unless required by law the corporation is not required or permitted to enquire as to the beneficial ownership of the shares. A corporation generally cannot own shares of itself.

Public company Company that offers its securities for sale to the general public

A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public limited company is a company whose ownership is organized via shares of stock which are intended to be freely traded on a stock exchange or in over-the-counter markets. A public company can be listed on a stock exchange, which facilitates the trade of shares, or not. In some jurisdictions, public companies over a certain size must be listed on an exchange. In most cases, public companies are private enterprises in the private sector, and "public" emphasizes their reporting and trading on the public markets.

Limited liability company US form of a private limited company

A limited liability company (LLC) is the US-specific form of a private limited company. It is a business structure that can combine the pass-through taxation of a partnership or sole proprietorship with the limited liability of a corporation. An LLC is not a corporation under state law; it is a legal form of a company that provides limited liability to its owners in many jurisdictions. LLCs are well known for the flexibility that they provide to business owners; depending on the situation, an LLC may elect to use corporate tax rules instead of being treated as a partnership, and, under certain circumstances, LLCs may be organized as not-for-profit. In certain U.S. states, businesses that provide professional services requiring a state professional license, such as legal or medical services, may not be allowed to form an LLC but may be required to form a similar entity called a professional limited liability company (PLLC).

Joint-stock company Business entity which is owned by shareholders

A joint-stock company is a business entity in which shares of the company's stock can be bought and sold by shareholders. Each shareholder owns company stock in proportion, evidenced by their shares. Shareholders are able to transfer their shares to others without any effects to the continued existence of the company.

Incorporation (business) Legal process to create a new corporation

Incorporation is the formation of a new corporation. The corporation may be a business, a nonprofit organization, sports club, or a local government of a new city or town.

Limited liability partnership Partnership in which some or all partners (depending on the jurisdiction) have limited liabilities

A limited liability partnership (LLP) is a partnership in which some or all partners have limited liabilities. It therefore can exhibit elements of partnerships and corporations. In an LLP, each partner is not responsible or liable for another partner's misconduct or negligence. This is an important difference from the traditional partnership under the UK Partnership Act 1890, in which each partner has joint liability. In an LLP, some or all partners have a form of limited liability similar to that of the shareholders of a corporation. Unlike corporate shareholders, the partners have the power to manage the business directly. In contrast, corporate shareholders must elect a board of directors under the laws of various state charters. The board organizes itself and hires corporate officers who then have as "corporate" individuals the legal responsibility to manage the corporation in the corporation's best interest. An LLP also contains a different level of tax liability from that of a corporation.

Private limited company Type of company used in many jurisdictions

A private limited company is any type of business entity in "private" ownership used in many jurisdictions, in contrast to a publicly listed company, with some differences from country to country. Examples include the LLC in the United States, private company limited by shares in the United Kingdom, GmbH in Germany and Austria, société à responsabilité limitée in France, and sociedad de responsabilidad limitada in the Spanish-speaking world. The benefit of having a private limited company is that there is limited liability. However, shares can only be sold to shareholders in the business, which means that it can be difficult to liquidate such a company.

A corporate tax, also called corporation tax or company tax, is a direct tax imposed on the income or capital of corporations or analogous legal entities. Many countries impose such taxes at the national level, and a similar tax may be imposed at state or local levels. The taxes may also be referred to as income tax or capital tax. A country's corporate tax may apply to:

Corporate law Body of law that governs businesses

Corporate law is the body of law governing the rights, relations, and conduct of persons, companies, organizations and businesses. The term refers to the legal practice of law relating to corporations, or to the theory of corporations. Corporate law often describes the law relating to matters which derive directly from the life-cycle of a corporation. It thus encompasses the formation, funding, governance, and death of a corporation.

Privately held company Business with a small number of owners

A privately held company or private company is a company which does not offer or trade its company stock (shares) to the general public on the stock market exchanges, but rather the company's stock is offered, owned and traded or exchanged privately or over-the-counter. In the case of a close corporation, there are a relatively small number of shareholders or company members. Related terms are closely held corporation, unquoted company, and unlisted company.

Limited partnership Form of partnership

A limited partnership (LP) is a form of partnership similar to a general partnership except that while a general partnership must have at least two general partners (GPs), a limited partnership must have at least one GP and at least one limited partner. Limited partnerships are distinct from limited liability partnerships, in which all partners have limited liability.

Company Association or collection of individuals

A company, abbreviated as co., is a legal entity representing an association of people, whether natural, legal or a mixture of both, with a specific objective. Company members share a common purpose and unite to achieve specific, declared goals. Companies take various forms, such as:

There are many ways in which a business may be owned under the legal system of England and Wales.

A for-profit corporation is an organization which aims to earn profit through its operations and is concerned with its own interests, unlike those of the public.

In the context of stock markets, the public float or free float represents the portion of shares of a corporation that are in the hands of public investors as opposed to locked-in shares held by promoters, company officers, controlling-interest investors, or governments. This number is sometimes seen as a better way of calculating market capitalization, because it provides a more accurate reflection of what public investors consider the company to be worth. In this context, the float may refer to all the shares outstanding that can be publicly traded.

There are three types of business entity in Russia: private limited companies, joint-stock companies, which may either be public, open (OJSC) or private, closed (PJSC), and partnerships.

United Arab Emirates corporate law

United Arab Emirates corporate law regulates the governance, finance and power of corporations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) through UAE law. Every emirate has its own basic corporate code.

References

  1. Compare: American Heritage Dictionary Archived 2019-03-31 at the Wayback Machine "business [:] 1. The activity of buying and selling commodities, products, or services".
  2. Longman Business English Dictionary
  3. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English "business [:] 1 [...] the activity of making money by producing or buying and selling goods, or providing services".
  4. Oxford Living Dictionaries "business [:] 2 The practice of making one's living by engaging in commerce."
  5. Burton, William (2007). Burton's Legal Thesaurus (4 ed.). McGraw-Hill Education. p. 68. ISBN   9780071472623.
  6. Holloway, S. S.; Parmigiani, A. (2014). "Friends and Profits Don't Mix: The Performance Implications of Repeated Partnerships". Academy of Management Journal. 59 (2): 460. doi:10.5465/amj.2013.0581. S2CID   168091169.
  7. "Choose a business structure". Choose a business structure. Retrieved 2021-05-13.
  8. Small Business Chamber of Commerce, Inc.
  9. Definition of a Franchise Business
  10. h Welsh, Dianne H. B.; Desplaces, David E.; Davis, fAmy E. (2011). "A Comparison of Retail Franchises, Independent Businesses, and Purchased Existing Independent Business Startups: Lessons from the Kauffman Firm Survey". Journal of Marketing Channels. 18: 3. doi:10.1080/1046669X.2011.533109. S2CID   154304180.
  11. 1 2 Black's Law and lee Dictionary. Second Pocket Edition. Bryan A. Garner, editor. West. 2001.
  12. Companies Act 2006
  13. root. "Limited Liability Company (LLC) Definition - Investopedia". Investopedia.
  14. "Investopedia - Public Limited Company".
  15. Needles, Belverd E.; Powers, Marian (2013). Principles of Financial Accounting. Financial Accounting Series (12 ed.). Cengage Learning.
  16. Accounting Research Bulletins No. 7 Reports of Committee on Terminology (Report). Committee on Accounting Procedure, American Institute of Accountants. November 1940. Archived from the original on 7 January 2014. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
  17. DIWAN, Jaswith. ACCOUNTING CONCEPTS & THEORIES. LONDON: MORRE. pp. 001–002. id# 94452.
  18. Peggy Bishop Lane on Why Accounting Is the Language of Business, Knowledge @ Wharton High School, September 23, 2013, retrieved 25 December 2013
  19. "Department of Accounting". Foster School of Business. Foster School of Business. 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
  20. CFI. "What is Finance?" . Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  21. Marketing definition approved in October 2007 by the American Marketing Association: Archived 2010-12-27 at the Wayback Machine .
  22. Kenton, Will. "Why Research and Development (R&D) Matters". Investopedia. Retrieved 2020-06-12.
  23. "Research and development". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-06-12.
  24. "Research and development". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-06-12.
  25. Leigh, J. (2011). Economic Burden of Occupational Injury and Illness in the United States. Milbank Quarterly, 89(4), 728-772. doi : 10.1111/j.1468-0009.2011.00648.x
  26. Rowe, Kelly P. (2007). OSHA and small businesses: A winning combination: When small businesses tap into OSHA's many resources, everyone benefits. Occupational Hazards, 69(3), 33.
  27. Goldberg, S. (2016). Business Technical: Wearable Devices at Work. Business Insurance, 50(2), 1.
  28. "How To Organize Your Marketing Department In The Digital Age" . Retrieved October 15, 2018.
  29. Major Industries. People.com
  30. "Time required to start a business". Our World in Data. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  31. Poppo, Laura; Zenger, Todd (2002). "Do formal contracts and relational governance function as substitutes or complements?". Strategic Management Journal. 23 (8): 707–725. doi:10.1002/smj.249. ISSN   1097-0266.
  32. 1 2 Long, Chris P.; Sitkin, Sim B. (2018). "Control–Trust Dynamics in Organizations: Identifying Shared Perspectives and Charting Conceptual Fault Lines". Academy of Management Annals. 12 (2): 725–751. doi:10.5465/annals.2016.0055. ISSN   1941-6520. S2CID   150017645.
  33. "Law Code of Hammurabi".
  34. Vikramaditya S. Khanna. "The Economic History of the Corporate Form in Ancient India" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-10-19.
  35. Hargrave, Marshall. "What Is Capital?". Investopedia. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
  36. "What is Ipo? Definition of Ipo, Ipo Meaning". The Economic Times. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
  37. Hargrave, Marshall. "What Is Capital?". Investopedia. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
  38. "What is Intellectual Property (IP)?". www.wipo.int. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
  39. "What is Trade Union? Definition of Trade Union, Trade Union Meaning". The Economic Times. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
  40. "What is Trade Union? Definition of Trade Union, Trade Union Meaning". The Economic Times. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
  41. Webb, Sidney; Webb, Beatrice (1920). History of Trade Unionism. Longmans and Co. London. ch. I