List of legal entity types by country

Last updated

A business entity is an entity that is formed and administered as per corporate law in order to engage in business activities, charitable work, or other activities allowable. Most often, business entities are formed to sell a product or a service.[ citation needed ] There are many types of business entities defined in the legal systems of various countries. These include corporations, cooperatives, partnerships, sole traders, limited liability companies and other specifically permitted and labelled types of entities. The specific rules vary by country and by state or province. Some of these types are listed below, by country. For guidance, approximate equivalents in the company law of English-speaking countries are given in most cases, for example:

Contents

However, the regulations governing particular types of entities, even those described as roughly equivalent, differ from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. When creating or restructuring a business, the legal responsibilities will depend on the type of business entity chosen. [1]

Albania

Argentina

Australia

Austria

See also help.gv.at (Austrian government site, in German)

Belarus

Name in BelarusianName in RussianTypeNote
Адкрытае акцыянернае таварыства, ААТОткрытое акционерное общество, ОАОplc (UK), open
Закрытае ацыянернае таварыства, ЗАТЗакрытое акционерное общество, ЗАОplc (UK), closed
Індывідуальны прадпрымальнікИндивидуальный предприниматель sole proprietorship does not possess legal personality
Прыватнае унітарнае прадпрыемства, ПУПЧастное унитарное предприятие, ЧУП private unitary enterprise
Таварыства з абмежаванай адказнасцю, ТААОбщество с ограниченной ответственностью, ОООLtd. (UK)

Belgium

Dutch, French or German names may be used.

DutchFrenchApproximate explanation
private stichtingfondation privéePrivate foundation
stichting van openbaar nutfondation d'utilité publiquePublic foundation
economisch samenwerkingsverband (ESV)groupement d'intérêt économique (GIE)Economic interest grouping (joint venture)
stille handelsvennootschapsociété internecontractual joint venture (No JV company is created)
tijdelijke handelsvennootschapsociété momentanéeequity joint venture (JV company is created)
vereniging zonder winstoogmerk (VZW)association sans but lucratif (ASBL)German: Vereinigung ohne Gewinnerzielungsabsicht (VoG)
Nonprofit association
vereniging in deelnemingsociété en participation (SEP)Equity partnership
feitelijke verenigingsociété de faitDe facto partnership, partnership by estoppel
eenmanszaakentreprise individuelle Sole trader (UK), sole proprietorship (US)
vennootschap onder firma (VOF)société en nom collectif (SNC) General partnership
gewone commanditaire vennootschap (Comm. V.)société en commandite simple (SCS) Limited partnership
commanditaire vennootschap op aandelen (Comm. VA)société en commandite par actions (SCA)Publicly traded partnership
besloten vennootschap met beperkte aansprakelijkheid (BVBA)société privée à responsabilité limitée (SPRL)Private limited company
eenpersoons besloten vennootschap met beperkte aansprakelijkheid (EBVBA)société privée à responsabilité limitée unipersonnelle (SPRLU)single member limited company
Naamloze vennootschap (NV) societé anonyme (SA) Public limited company (UK)
coöperatieve vennootschap met beperkte aansprakelijkheid (CVBA)société coopérative à responsabilité limitée (SCRL)Limited liability cooperative
coöperatieve vennootschap met onbeperkte aansprakelijkheid (CVOA)société coopérative à responsabilité illimitée (SCRI)Unlimited liability cooperative

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Brazil

Brunei

There are three main types of business entity in Brunei, namely sole proprietorship, partnership and company. [6]

A private company contains the term "Sendirian Berhad" or "Sdn. Bhd." as part of its name; for a public company "Berhad" or "Bhd." is used. [7]

Bulgaria

Cambodian

Canada

In Canada entities can be incorporated under either federal or provincial (or territorial) law.

The word or expression "Limited", Limitée, "Incorporated", Incorporée, "Corporation" or Société par actions de régime fédéral or the corresponding abbreviation "Ltd.", Ltée, "Inc.", "Corp." or S.A.R.F. forms part of the name of every entity incorporated under the Canada Business Corporations Act (R.S., 1985, c. C-44). ≈ Ltd. or Plc (UK)

As an exception, entities registered prior to 1985 may continue to be designated Société commerciale canadienne or by the abbreviation S.C.C.

Under the Canada Cooperatives Act (1998, c. 1), a co-operative must have the word "cooperative", "co-operative", "coop", "co-op", coopérative, "united" or "pool", or another grammatical form of any of those words, as part of its name.

Unlike in many other Western countries, Canadian businesses generally only have one form of incorporation available. Unlimited liability corporations can be formed in Alberta "AULC", British Columbia "BCULC" [8] and Nova Scotia "NSULC". The aforementioned unlimited liability corporations are generally not used as operating business structures, but are instead used to create favorable tax positions for either Americans investing in Canada or vice versa. [9] For U.S. tax purposes the ULC is classified as a disregarded entity.

Rather, Canadian businesses are generally formed under one of the following structures:

Chile

China

Colombia

Costa Rica

Croatia

Types of legal person business entities: [13]

Types of natural person business entities:

Czech Republic

Denmark

Dominican Republic

Ecuador

Egypt

Estonia

Ethiopia

European Economic Area (including the European Union)

An SE or SCE may be created by registration in any of the EU/EEA member states and may relocate its registered office to any other member state with minimal formalities.

Finland

General economic entities

The abbreviations are usually in Finnish, but Swedish names may also be used either as is or in combination with Finnish, e.g. Oy Yritys Ab.

Non-profit entities
For-profit entities of public law
Economic entities for special purpose
Real estate law corporations

In the corporations of real estate law, the ownership or membership may be vested either in the real property or in a legal or natural person, depending on the corporation type. In many cases, the membership or ownership of such corporation is obligatory for a person or property that fulfils the legal requirements for membership or wishes to engage in certain activities.

In addition to native types, European Union types are implemented:

France

Germany

Greece

Guatemala

Haiti

Hong Kong

Hungary

In Hungary, business entities are mainly regulated by the Companies Act of 2006, [40] the Companies Registration Act of 2006 and the new Civil Code of 2013. [41] All companies are required to indicate their type in their name.

NameTypeNotes
e.v. (egyéni vállalkozó) sole trader must be a natural person
e.c. (egyéni cég)sole venturea company registered by and consisting of one sole trader
sy izuz ) limited partnership requires one general partner with unlimited liability and one or more members with limited liability
Uskkt. (közkereseti társaság) general partnership all members have unlimited liability
kft. (korlátolt felelősségű társaság) limited liability company company without stocks, the most common company type in Hungary [42]
kht. (közhasznú társaság) community interest company abolished in 2009, must operate as nonprofit company instead [43]
kv. (közös vállalat) joint venture abolished in 2006
rt. (részvénytársaság) joint-stock company replaced by Zrt. and Nyrt. in 2006
Nyrt. (nyilvánosan működő részvénytársaság) public limited company must be listed on a stock exchange
Zrt. (zártkörűen működő részvénytársaság) privately held company s sharesnot listed on stock exchange, otherwise the same as Nyrt.
szöv. (szövetkezet) cooperative
egyesülésinterest rates group is goingnational version of European Economic Interest

Grouping / EEIG10202

Iceland

NameTypeNotes
ehf. einkahlutafélag Ltd. (UK)
  • Minimum capital: ISK 500,000 (£2,750; €3,260; $4,250).
  • Minimum shareholders: 1.
einstaklingsfyrirtæki sole proprietorship
hf. hlutafélag plc (UK)
  • Minimum capital: ISK 4,000,000 (£22,000; €26,100; $34,000).
  • Minimum shareholders: 2.
ohf. opinbert hlutafélag government-owned corporation
saf. samlagsfélag limited partnership
sv. samvinnufélag cooperative
sf. sameignarfélag general partnership
sfs. sjálfseignarstofnun non-profit organization
  • Minimum capital: ISK 1,000,000 (£5,500; €6,520; $8,500).

India

Indonesia

Most of the legal entity types are regulated in a modified version of the original version of the Dutch Burgerlijk Wetboek .

Iran

Ireland

Situation in Ireland is similar to United Kingdom below, though without the class Community Interest Company. There were two forms of Company Limited by Guarantee, but only the form without a share capital is now used. Irish names may also be used, such as cpt (cuideachta phoibli theoranta) for plc, and Teo (Teoranta) for Ltd.

Israel

Italy

Japan

Business corporations are referred to as kaisha (会社) and are formed under the Companies Act of 2005. There are currently (2015) 4 types and each of them has legal personality:

Partnerships are referred to as kumiai (組合). Each of these 4 types has no legal personality though other corporations, which include "kumiai" in their name, have:

Jordan

Kazakhstan

Korea, South

South Korea's legal entity types are a remnant from Japanese occupation.

Latvia

Lebanon

  1. S.N.C.(Société en Nom Collectif): General partnership
  2. S.C.S.(Société en Commandite Simple): Partnership in commendam

Lithuania

Luxembourg

Malaysia

Mexico

Business entities according to the "Ley General de Sociedades Mercantiles" (General Law of Business entities)

Note: Any of these entities can be incorporated as a "Capital Variable" entity, in which case has to add the " de C.V." sufix to its company name. Example: "S.A. de C.V.", "S. de R.L. de C.V."

Business entities according to the "Ley del Mercado de Valores" (Stock Market Law)

Monaco

Mongolia

Montenegro

one of above mentioned form (Preduzetnik; O.D.; K.D.; A.D.; D.O.O.), as such it is registered in the Central Register of Companies. This form is a little bit specific and was created for companies that are domiciled registered in other countries and have its part in Montenegro.

Morocco

Namibia

Nepal

Netherlands

Companies are registered on the Companies Register and with a regional Chamber of Commerce. [47]

New Zealand

Nicaragua

The Commercial Code establishes the following types of companies:

Nigeria

North Macedonia

Norway

Oman

Pakistan

There are three main forms of business:

(a) Sole Proprietorship (b) Partnership (c) Company

In a sole proprietorship, an individual on his/her own account carries out the business or profession. No formal procedure or formality is required for setting up a sole proprietary concern.

A partnership is a business relationship entered into by a formal agreement between two or more persons or corporations carrying on a business in common. The capital for a partnership is provided by the partners who are liable for the total debts of the firms and who share the profits and losses of the business concern according to the terms of the partnership agreement.

Partnerships (other than banking companies) are generally limited in size to twenty partners. The interest of a partner is transferable only with the prior consent of the other partner(s). However, a partner's right to a share of the partnership income may be received in trust for another person.

For taxation purposes, partnerships are classified into:

(i) Registered Firms (ii) Unregistered Firms

The income of the registered firm is subject to Super Tax before distribution to the partners. Also the individual income of the partners is subject to income tax at the usual rates.

For unregistered firms, income tax is levied on the firm's income and the partners are not liable to pay tax on the shares of profit received from the unregistered firm(s).

A company is a legal entity formed under the Companies Ordinance, 1984. It can have share capital or can be formed without share capital.

A company having share capital may be formed as:

(i) A company limited by shares. (ii) A company limited by guarantee. (iii) An unlimited company.

The liability of its members is limited to the extent of their shares in the paid-up capital of the company. These companies may further be classified as public limited and private limited companies.

(i) Restricts the right to transfer its shares; (ii) Limits the number of its members to fifty; and; (iii) Prohibits any invitation to the public to subscribe for shares or debentures of the company.

A private limited company is required to use the words "(Private) Limited" as the last words of its name.

Means a company having the liability of its members limited by memorandum to such amounts as the members may respectively undertake to contribute to the capital of the company in the event of its winding up. A company limited by guarantee is usually formed on a 'non profit basis'. Companies limited by guarantee use the words (Guarantee) Limited" as the last words of their n Unlimited Company

Means a company having unlimited liability of its members

https://www.secp.gov.pk

Peru

Philippines

Older forms (now rarely used)

Poland

References: (Polish) Commercial Companies Code of 15 September 2000 (Dz.U. No 94 item 1037 as amended); (Polish) Civil Code of 23 April 1964 (Dz.U. No 16 item 93 as amended); (Polish) Law on Cooperatives of 16 September 1982 (Dz.U. 2003 No 188 item 1848 as amended)

Portugal

Romania

Societăți comerciale, abbreviated SC (Companies):

  1. Societăți de persoane(Unincorporated companies, also called Partnerships)
    • Societatea în nume colectiv, abbreviated SNC (General Partnership, abbreviated GP)
    • Societatea în comandită simplă, abbreviated SCS (Limited Partnership, abbreviated LP)
  2. Societăți de capitaluri(Incorporated companies, also called Corporations)
    • Societatea în comandită pe acțiuni, abbreviated SCA (Company Limited by Shares)
    • Societatea pe acțiuni, abbreviated SA (Joint-Stock Company)
  3. Societăți hibride (Hybrid companies)
    • Societate cu răspundere limitată , abbreviated SRL (Limited Liability Company)
    • Societatea cu răspundere limitată cu proprietar unic, abbreviated SRL cu proprietar unic
  1. S.A. (Societate pe Acţiuni): ≈ plc (UK)
  2. S.C.A. (societate în comandită pe acţiuni): limited partnership with shares
  3. S.C.S. (societate în comandită simplă): ≈ limited partnership
  4. S.N.C. (societate în nume colectiv): ≈ general partnership
  5. S.R.L. (societate cu răspundere limitată): ≈ Ltd. (UK)
  6. PFA (persoana fizica autorizata): ≈ self-employed (UK) Sole Proprietorship (US)
  7. O.N.G. (Organizație Non-Guvernamentală): ≈ Non-state pension fund (literally: Non-Governmental Organization)

limited liability company "societate cu raspundere limitata" (SRL); joint stock company "societate pe actiuni" (SA);

Russia

Saudi Arabia

Serbia

Singapore

Private Limited Company, Sole Proprietorship and Partnership are the predominant types of business found in Singapore. [54]

Slovakia

Slovenia

South Africa

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland

AG (Aktiengesellschaft) SA (Société anonyme) SA (Società anonima)plc (UK) or Inc. (US). Min. share capital CHF 100,000. Bearer or registered shares, of a par value of min. CHF 0.01 each. Details of shareholders generally not publicly available (except for main shareholders and management shares of publicly listed companies).
GmbH (Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung) Sàrl (Société à responsabilité limitée)Sagl (Società a garanzia limitata)Ltd. (UK), LLC (US). Min. capital CHF 20,000. Registered shares only, of a par value of min. CHF 100 each. Name, address and share of each owner (and any changes) publicly recorded in the Official Register of Commerce.<https://web.archive.org/web/20110706221252/http://www.zefix.admin.ch/%3E

Taiwan

Thailand

Turkey

According to Code of Obligations (fifth book of Civil Code) (Act No: 6098)

According to the Commercial Code (Act No: 6102)

Şahıs şirketleri ≈ Partnerships (Unlike the partnerships in Anglo-American law, they also have legal personality like companies)

Sermaye şirketleri ≈ Companies

According to the Capital Markets Act (Act No: 6362)

According to the Cooperatives Act (Act No: 1136)

Other entitites:

Tunisia

Ukraine

Company formation is regulated by the Ukrainian Civil Code and Commercial Code, Law of Commercial companies, Law of stock companies, law and order.[ citation needed ]

United Kingdom

United States

In the United States, the individual states incorporate most businesses. Very few special types are incorporated by the federal government.

Tax classifications

For federal tax purposes, the Internal Revenue Service has separate entity classification rules. Under the tax rules, an entity may be classified as a corporation, a partnership, a cooperative or a disregarded entity. A corporation may be taxed as either a C corporation or elect to be treated as a Subchapter S corporation. A disregarded entity has one owner (or a married couple as owner) that is not recognized for tax purposes as an entity separate from its owner. Types of disregarded entities include single-member LLCs; qualified sub-chapter S subsidiaries and qualified real estate investment trust subsidiaries. A disregarded entity's transparent tax status does not affect its status under state law. For example, for federal tax purposes, a sole-member LLC (SMLLC) is disregarded, so that all its assets and liabilities are treated as owned by its single member. But under state law, an SMLLC can contract in its own name and its owner is generally not personally liable for the debts and obligations of the entity. [62] To be recognized as a Cooperative for tax purposes Cooperatives must follow certain rules under Sub Chapter T of the Internal Revenue Code. [63]

Federally incorporated

The key word for a bank is "national". A bank chartered by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) must have the word "national" in its name. A bank chartered by a state cannot have "national" in its name.

For a savings bank (formerly called a savings and loan association) or credit union, the key word is "federal", and the same rules apply; a federally chartered savings bank or credit union must have the word "federal" in its name, while a state chartered savings bank or credit union cannot have "federal" in its name.

Many federal governmental units are specially formed public corporations, while some private organizations have received a charter from Congress.

State, territory or commonwealth incorporated

The following are the main business designations and types:

Partnerships

  • General partnership : a partnership in which all the partners are jointly and separately liable for the debts of the partnership. In most U.S. states, it can be created by agreement without requiring a public filing. The partners may themselves be legal entities or individuals.
  • LP, Limited partnership: a partnership where at least one partner (the general partner, which may itself be an entity or an individual) has unlimited liability for the LP's debts and one or more partners (the limited partners) have limited liability (which means that they are not responsible for the LP's debts beyond the amount they agreed to invest). Limited partners generally do not participate in the management of the entity or its business.
  • LLP, Limited Liability Partnership: a partnership where a partner's liability for the debts of the partnership is limited except in the case of liability for acts of professional negligence or malpractice. In some states, LLPs may only be formed for purposes of practicing a licensed profession, typically attorneys, accountants and architects. This is often the only form of limited partnership allowed for law firms (as opposed to general partnerships).
  • LLLP, Limited Liability Limited Partnership: a combination of LP and LLP, available in some states.

Limited Liability Companies

  • LLC, LC, Ltd. Co., Limited Liability Company: a form of business whose owners enjoy limited liability, but which is not a corporation. Allowable abbreviations vary by state. Note that in some states Ltd. by itself is not a valid abbreviation for an LLC, because in some states (e.g. Texas), it may denote a corporation instead. See also Series LLC. For U.S. federal tax purposes, in general, an LLC with two or more members is treated as a partnership, and an LLC with one member is treated as a sole proprietorship.
  • PLLC, Professional Limited Liability Company: some states do not allow certain professionals to form an LLC that would limit the liability that results from the services professionals provide such as doctors, medical care; lawyers, legal advice; and accountants, accounting services; architects, architectural services; when the company formed offers the services of the professionals. Instead those states allow a PLLC or in the LLC statutes, the liability limitation only applies to the business side, such as creditors of the company, as opposed to the client/customer service side, the level of medical care, legal services, or accounting provided to clients. This is meant to maintain the higher ethical standards that these professionals have committed themselves to by becoming licensed in their profession and to prevent them from being immune (or at least limit their immunity) to malpractice suits.

Corporations

  • Corp., Inc., Corporation, Incorporated: used to denote corporations (public or otherwise). These are the only terms universally accepted by all 51 corporation chartering jurisdictions in the United States. However, in some states other suffixes may be used to identify a corporation, such as Ltd., Co./Company, or the Italian term S.p.A. (in Connecticut; see under Italy). Some states that allow the use of "Company" prohibit the use of "and Company", "and Co.", "& Company" or "& Co.". In most states sole proprietorships and partnerships may register a fictitious "doing business as" name with the word "Company" in it. For a full list of allowed designations by state, see the table below.
  • Professional corporation , PC or P.C.: those corporate entities for which many corporation statutes make special provision, regulating the use of the corporate form by licensed professionals such as attorneys, architects, accountants, and doctors.
  • Doing Business As : denotes a business name used by a person or entity that is different from the person's or entity's true name. DBAs are not separate entities and do not shield the person or entity who uses the DBA as a business name from liability for debts or lawsuits. Filing requirements vary and are not permitted for some types of businesses or professional practices. See also Delaware corporation, Delaware statutory trust, Nevada corporation, and Massachusetts business trust.

Required designations for corporations, by U.S. state, territory or commonwealth:

State, territory or commonwealthRequired in corporation nameAuthority
Alabama "corporation", or "incorporated", or an abbreviation of one of such words, or if a banking corporation the words "bank", "banking", or "bankers"§ 10-2B-4.01(a)(1) Code of Alabama 1975
Alaska "corporation", "company", "incorporated", or "limited", or an abbreviation of one of these words; may not contain the word "city", "borough", or "village" or otherwise imply that the corporation is a municipality.§ 10.06.105 (a) and (b), Alaska Corporations Code
Arizona "association", "bank", "company", "corporation", "limited" or "incorporated" or an abbreviation of one of these words or the equivalent in a foreign language. Corporation may not use "bank", "deposit", "credit union", "trust" or "trust company" unless it also has a license to operate one. May not use "limited liability company" or "limited company" or the abbreviations "L.L.C.", "L.C.", "LLC", or "LC"§ 10-401 Arizona Revised Statutes
Arkansas "Corporation", "Company", or "Incorporated", "Limited" or shall contain an abbreviation of one of those words; but the name may not end with the word "Company" nor the abbreviation "Co." if the final word or abbreviation is immediately preceded by "and" or any symbol for "and"§ 4-26-401 (1), Arkansas Code
California "corporation", "incorporated" or "limited" or an abbreviation of one of such words is required and for a statutory close corporations for corporate provisions to apply. May not contain "bank", " trust", "trustee" or "credit union" unless approved by the Commissioner of Financial Institutions.§ 202(a), California Corporations Code
Colorado "corporation", "incorporated", "company", "limited", "corp.", inc.", "co." or "ltd"; If the corporation is a professional corporation, it must contain the term or abbreviation "professional corporation", "p.c.", or "pc".§ 7-90-601, Colorado Revised Statutes
Connecticut "corporation", "incorporated", "company", "Societa per Azioni" or "limited", or the abbreviation "corp.", "inc.", "co.", "S.p.A." or "ltd."§ 33-655 General Statutes of Connecticut
Delaware "association", "company", "corporation", "club", "foundation", "fund", "incorporated", "institute", "society", "union", "syndicate", or "limited", (or abbreviations thereof, with or without punctuation), or words (or abbreviations thereof, with or without punctuation) of like import of foreign countries or jurisdictions (provided they are written in Roman characters or letters)Title 8, § 102, Delaware Code
District of Columbia "corporation", "company", "incorporated", or "limited", or shall contain an abbreviation of 1 of such words§ 29-101.08 District of Columbia Official Code
Florida "corporation", "company", or "incorporated" or the abbreviation "Corp.", "Inc.", or "Co.", or the designation "Corp", "Inc", or "Co"§ 607.0401 Florida Statutes
Georgia 'corporation,' 'incorporated,' 'company,' or 'limited,' or the abbreviation 'corp.,' 'inc.,' 'co.,' or 'ltd.,' or words or abbreviations of like import in another language; must not be longer than 80 charactersO.C.G.A. § 14-2-401
Guam "corporation", "incorporated", "company", or "limited", or the abbreviation "corp.", "inc.", "co.", or "ltd.", or words or abbreviations of like import in another language; if the word "company" or its abbreviation is used, it shall not be immediately preceded by the word "and" or an abbreviation or symbol representing the word "and."Title 18, § 2110, Guam Code Annotated
Hawaii "corporation", "incorporated", or "limited", or the abbreviation "corp.", "inc.", or "ltd."§ 414-51 Hawaii Revised Statutes
Idaho "corporation", "incorporated", "company", "limited", or the abbreviation "corp.", "inc.", "co.", or "ltd.", or words or abbreviations of like import in another language; provided however, that if the word "company" or its abbreviation is used it shall not be immediately preceded by the word "and" or by an abbreviation of or symbol representing the word "and"§ 30-1-401 Idaho Statutes
Illinois "corporation", "company", "incorporated", or "limited", or an abbreviation of one of such words805 ILCS 5/4.05 Illinois Compiled Statutes
Indiana "corporation", "incorporated", "company", or "limited", or the abbreviation "corp.", "inc.", "co.", or "ltd.", or words or abbreviations of like import in another language§ 23-1-23-1 Indiana Code
Iowa "corporation", "incorporated", "company", or "limited", or the abbreviation "corp.", "inc.", "co.", or "ltd.", or words or abbreviations of like import in another language§ 490.401 Iowa Acts
Kansas (except for banks) "association", "church", "college", "company", "corporation", "club", "foundation", "fund", "incorporated", "institute", "society", "union", "university", "syndicate" or "limited", or one of the abbreviations "co.", "corp.", "inc.", "ltd.", or words or abbreviations of like import in other languages if they are written in Roman characters or letters§ 17-6002 Kansas Statutes
Kentucky "corporation", "incorporated" or the abbreviation "Inc.", or the word "company" or the abbreviation "Co."; but if the word "company" or the abbreviation "Co." is used, it may not be immediately preceded by the word "and" or the abbreviation "&."§ 273.177 Kentucky Revised Statutes
Louisiana (except for railroad, telegraph and telephone corporations) "Corporation", "Incorporated" or "Limited", or the abbreviation of any of those words, or may contain instead the word "Company" or the abbreviation "Co." if the latter word or abbreviation is not immediately preceded by the word "and" or the symbol "&". No corporate name shall contain the phrase "doing business as" or the abbreviation "d/b/a". Only a bank or bank holding company is allowed to use any of "bank", "banker", "banking", "savings", "safe deposit", "trust", "trustee", "building and loan", "homestead", "credit union", "insurance", "casualty", "redevelopment corporation", or "electric cooperative".§ 12:23 Louisiana Revised Statutes
Maine words or abbreviations of words that describe the nature of the entity, including "professional association", "corporation", "company", "incorporated", "chartered", "limited", "limited partnership", "limited liability company", "professional limited liability company", "limited liability partnership", "registered limited liability partnership", "service corporation" or "professional corporation"; beginning July 1, 2007, may also include "limited liability limited partnership"for business corporations: Title 13-C § 401 Maine Revised Statutes; for non-profit corporations: Title 13-B § 301-A Maine Revised Statutes
Maryland For Corporations: "Company", if it is not preceded by the word "and" or a symbol for the word "and"; "Corporation", "Incorporated" or "Limited" or abbreviations; for Limited liability companies: "limited liability company", "L.L.C.", "LLC", "L.C.", or "LC"; for Limited liability partnerships: "limited liability partnership", "L.L.P." or "LLP"; for Limited partnerships: "limited partnership", "L.P.", or "LP"; for Limited liability limited partnerships: "limited liability limited partnership", "L.L.L.P.", or "LLLP"; for Professional corporations: "chartered", "chtd.", "professional association", "P.A.", "professional corporation", or "P.C."Maryland Code – Corporations and Associations § 1-502
Massachusetts "any name which, in the judgment of the secretary, indicates that it is a corporation"General Laws Of Massachusetts – Chapter 155: Section 9
Michigan "corporation", "company", "incorporated", or "limited" or shall contain 1 of the following abbreviations, corp., co., inc., or ltd.Act 284 of 1972 Section 450.1211 Michigan Business Corporation Act
Minnesota nonprofit corporations are not required to use any of these words; for business corporations, they must use "corporation", "incorporated", or "limited", or shall contain an abbreviation of one or more of these words, or the word "company" or the abbreviation "Co." if that word or abbreviation is not immediately preceded by the word "and" or the character "&"Chapter 302A, Section 302A.115 Minnesota Statutes (for Business Corporations); Chapter 317A, Section 317A.115 Minnesota Statutes (for non-profit corporations)
Mississippi "corporation", "incorporated", "company" or "limited", or the abbreviation "corp.", "inc.", "co." or "ltd." or words or abbreviations of like import in another language§ 79-4-4.01 Mississippi code
Missouri "corporation", "company", "incorporated", or "limited", or shall end with an abbreviation of one of said words

Chapter 351 Section 351.110 Missouri Revised Statutes

Montana "corporation", "incorporated", "company", or "limited"; the abbreviation "corp.", "inc.", "co.", or "ltd."; or words or abbreviations of similar meaning in another language35-1-308 Montana Code Annotated
Nebraska corporation, incorporated, company, or limited, or the abbreviation corp., inc., co., or ltd., or words or abbreviations of like import in another language, except that a corporation organized to conduct a banking business under the Nebraska Banking Act may use a name which includes the word bank without using any such words or abbreviationsSection 21-2028 State of Nebraska Statutes
Nevada No specific requirements stated except that a name appearing to be that of a natural person and containing a given name or initials must not be used as a corporate name except with an additional word or words such as "Incorporated", "Limited", "Inc.", "Ltd.", "Company", "Co.", "Corporation", "Corp.", or other word which identifies it as not being a natural person78.035 Nevada Revised Statutes
New Hampshire Contain the word "corporation", "incorporated", or "limited" or the abbreviation "corp.", "inc.", or "ltd."New Hampshire Revised Statutes – Title XXVII; Section 293-A:4.01 for business corporations
New Jersey Shall contain the word "corporation", "company", "incorporated", or shall contain an abbreviation of one of those words, or shall include the abbreviation Ltd.New Jersey Statutes 14A:2-2
New Mexico contain the separate word "corporation", "company", "incorporated" or "limited" or shall contain a separate abbreviation of one of these wordsNew Mexico Statutes Unannotated 53-11-7
New York Shall contain the word "corporation", "incorporated" or "limited", or an abbreviation of one of such words; there is also a long list of words a business corporation is not allowed to use without additional approval from other agencies including "board of trade", "state police", "urban development", "chamber of commerce", "state trooper", "urban relocation", "community renewal", "tenant relocation", "acceptance", "endowment", "loan", "annuity", "fidelity", "mortgage", "assurance", "finance", "savings" and many othersNew York State Consolidated Laws, Business Corporations Law § 301; Not-For-Profit Corporations Law, § 301
North Carolina a corporation must contain the word "corporation", "incorporated", "company", or "limited", or the abbreviation "corp.", "inc.", "co.", or "ltd."; a limited liability company must contain the words "limited liability company" or the abbreviation "L.L.C." or "LLC", or the combination "ltd. liability co.", "limited liability co.", or "ltd. liability company"; a limited partnership that is not a limited liability limited partnership must contain the words "limited partnership", the abbreviation "L.P." or "LP", or the combination "ltd. partnership"; a limited liability limited partnership must contain the words "registered limited liability limited partnership" or "limited liability limited partnership" or the abbreviation "L.L.L.P.", "R.L.L.L.P.", "LLLP", or "RLLLP"; a registered limited liability partnership's name must contain the words "registered limited liability partnership" or "limited liability partnership" or the abbreviation "L.L.P.", "R.L.L.P.", "LLP" or "RLLP".North Carolina General Statutes § 55D‑20
North Dakota must contain the word "company", "corporation", "incorporated", "limited", or an abbreviation of one or more of these words; may not contain the words "limited liability company", "limited partnership", "limited liability partnership", "limited liability limited partnership", or any abbreviation of these words.North Dakota century Code 10-19.1-13
Ohio It shall end with or include the word or abbreviation "company", "co.", "corporation", "corp.", "incorporated", or "inc."Ohio Revised Code § 1701.05
Oklahoma The name of the corporation which shall contain one of the words "association", "company", "corporation", "club", "foundation", "fund", "incorporated", "institute", "society", "union", "syndicate", or "limited" or abbreviations thereof, with or without punctuationOklahoma Statutes § 18-1006
Oregon For private corporations it shall contain one or more of the words "corporation", "incorporated", "company" or "limited" or an abbreviation of one or more of those words; shall not contain the word "cooperative." For non-profit corporations there is no specific requirement except the name cannot imply a purpose not dictated in its articles of incorporation and cannot contain the word "cooperative" or the phrase "limited partnership." Oregon Revised Statutes 60.094 for Private Corporations; ORS 65.094 for Non-Profit corporations
Pennsylvania Corporation, Corp., Company, Co., Incorporated, Inc., Limited, Ltd., Association., Fund., Syndicate or words or abbreviations of like import in languages other than EnglishPennsylvania Code, Chapter 19, § 23.3
Puerto Rico Corporation, Corp. or Inc., or words or abbreviations of like import in other languages, provided they are written in roman letters or charactersTitle 14, Subtitle 4, § 2602, Laws of Puerto Rico.
Rhode Island "corporation", "company", "incorporated", or "limited", or an abbreviation of one of these wordsRhode Island General Laws § 7-1.2-401
South Carolina "corporation", "incorporated", "company", or "limited", the abbreviation "corp.", "inc.", "co.", or "ltd.", or words or abbreviations of like import in another languageSouth Carolina Code of Laws Section 33-4-101
South Dakota corporation, incorporated, company, or limited, or the abbreviation, corp., inc., co., or ltd., or terms or abbreviations of like import in another languageSouth Dakota Codified Laws 47-1A-401
Tennessee "corporation", "incorporated", "company", or the abbreviation "corp.", "inc.", "co.", or words or abbreviations of like import in another language (provided they are written in Roman characters or letters); existing corporations which were formed using only "limited" or "ltd" are not required to change their name§ 48-14-101 Tennessee Code
Texas "company", "corporation", "incorporated", or "limited", or an abbreviation of one of those words.Texas Business Organizations Code § 5.054
U.S. Virgin Islands name shall be such as to indicate that it is a corporation as distinguished from a natural person or partnership.Title Thirteen, § 2, Virgin Islands Code
Utah "corporation", "incorporated", "company"; the abbreviation: "corp.", "inc." or "co." or words or abbreviations of like import to the words or abbreviations listed in another language; without the written consent of the United States Olympic Committee, may not contain the words "Olympic", "Olympiad", or "Citius Altius Fortius"; without the written consent of the Division of Consumer Protection may not contain the words "university", "college" or "institute"§ 16-10a-401 Utah Code
Vermont "corporation", "incorporated", "company", or "limited", or the abbreviation "corp.", "inc.", "co.", or "ltd.", or words or abbreviations of like import in another language; shall not have the word "cooperative" or any abbreviation thereof as part of its name unless the corporation is a worker cooperative corporationTitle 11A, § 4.01 Vermont Statutes
Virginia "corporation", "incorporated", "company", or "limited", or the abbreviation "corp.", "inc.", "co.", or "ltd."§ 13.1-630. Code of Virginia
Washington "corporation", "incorporated", "company", or "limited", or the abbreviation "corp.", "inc.", "co.", or "ltd."; must not include "Bank", "banking", "banker", "trust", "cooperative", or any combination of the words "industrial" and "loan", or any combination of any two or more of the words "building", "savings", "loan", "home", "association", and "society"§ 23B.04.010 Revised Code of Washington
West Virginia "corporation", "incorporated", "company" or "limited", or the abbreviation "corp.", "inc.", "co." or "ltd.", or words or abbreviations of like import in another language§ 31D-4-401 West Virginia Code
Wisconsin "corporation", "incorporated", "company" or "limited" or the abbreviation "corp.", "inc.", "co." or "ltd." or words or abbreviations of like import in another language§ 180.0401 Wisconsin Statutes (for Stock corporations) and § 181.0401 Wisconsin Statutes (for non-stock corporations)
Wyoming Unclear; apparently any of "corporation", "company", "incorporated", and probably the usual abbreviations of "Corp." "Co." and "Inc."§ 17-16-401 Wyoming Statutes

Uzbekistan

Vietnam

See also

Related Research Articles

Corporation Separate legal entity that has been incorporated through a legislative or registration process established through legislation

A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the state to act as a single entity and recognized as such in law for certain purposes. Early incorporated entities were established by charter. Most jurisdictions now allow the creation of new corporations through registration.

Public limited company type of public company in the UK, some Commonwealth jurisdictions, and Ireland

A sharmoot man is a type of public company under United Kingdom company law, some Commonwealth jurisdictions, and the Republic of Ireland. It is a limited liability company whose shares may be freely sold and traded to the public, with a minimum share capital of £50,000 and usually with the letters PLC after its name. Similar companies in the United States are called publicly traded companies. Public limited companies will also have a separate legal identity.

Business Organization undertaking commercial, industrial, or professional activity

Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products. Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit. It does not mean it is a company, a corporation, partnership, or have any such formal organization, but it can range from a street peddler to General Motors."

S.A. (corporation) type of corporation in countries that mostly employ civil law

S.A. or SA designates a type of public company in certain countries that mostly employ civil law. Depending on language, it means anonymous company, anonymous partnership, share company, or joint-stock company, roughly equivalent to public limited company in United Kingdom company law. It is different from partnerships and private limited companies.

Limited liability company US-specific form of a private limited company

A limited liability company (LLC) is the US-specific form of a private limited company. It is a business structure that can combine the pass-through taxation of a partnership or sole proprietorship with the limited liability of a corporation. An LLC is not a corporation under state law; it is a legal form of a company that provides limited liability to its owners in many jurisdictions. LLCs are well known for the flexibility that they provide to business owners; depending on the situation, an LLC may elect to use corporate tax rules instead of being treated as a partnership, and, under certain circumstances, LLCs may be organized as not-for-profit. In certain U.S. states, businesses that provide professional services requiring a state professional license, such as legal or medical services, may not be allowed to form an LLC but may be required to form a similar entity called a professional limited liability company (PLLC).

Joint-stock company business entity which is owned by shareholders

A joint-stock company is a business entity in which shares of the company's stock can be bought and sold by shareholders. Each shareholder owns company stock in proportion, evidenced by their shares. Shareholders are able to transfer their shares to others without any effects to the continued existence of the company.

Incorporation (business) forming of a new corporation

Incorporation is the formation of a new corporation. The corporation may be a business, a nonprofit organization, sports club, or a government of a new city or town.

Limited company company in which the liability of members or subscribers of the company is limited

In a limited company, the liability of members or subscribers of the company is limited to what they have invested or guaranteed to the company. Limited companies may be limited by shares or by guarantee. The former may be further divided in public companies and private companies. Who may become a member of a private limited company is restricted by law and by the company's rules. In contrast, anyone may buy shares in a public limited company.

Limited liability partnership partnership in which some or all partners (depending on the jurisdiction) have limited liabilities

A limited liability partnership (LLP) is a partnership in which some or all partners have limited liabilities. It therefore can exhibit elements of partnerships and corporations. In a LLP, each partner is not responsible or liable for another partner's misconduct or negligence. This is an important difference from the traditional partnership under the UK Partnership Act 1890, in which each partner has joint liability. In an LLP, some or all partners have a form of limited liability similar to that of the shareholders of a corporation. Unlike corporate shareholders, the partners have the right to manage the business directly. In contrast, corporate shareholders must elect a board of directors under the laws of various state charters. The board organizes itself and hires corporate officers who then have as "corporate" individuals the legal responsibility to manage the corporation in the corporation's best interest. An LLP also contains a different level of tax liability from that of a corporation.

Private limited company type of company used in many jurisdictions

A private limited company is a type of business entity in "private" ownership used in many jurisdictions, in contrast to "public" ownership, with some differences from country to country. Examples include LLC in the US, private company limited by shares in the UK, GmbH in Germany or společnost s ručením omezeným in the Czech Republic.

<i>Aktiengesellschaft</i> type of business entity in German-speaking countries

Aktiengesellschaft is a German word for a corporation limited by share ownership whose shares may be traded on a stock market. The term is used in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and South Tyrol for companies incorporated there. It is also used in Luxembourg, although the equivalent French language term société anonyme is more common. In the United Kingdom, the equivalent term is "PLC" and in the United States while the terms "incorporated" or "corporation" are typically used, technically the more precise equivalent term is "joint-stock company".

Privately held company business company owned either by non-governmental organizations or by a relatively small number of shareholders or company members, and the companys capital stock is offered, owned and traded or exchanged privately

A privately held company, private company, or close corporation is a business company owned either by non-governmental organizations or by a relatively small number of shareholders or company members which does not offer or trade its company stock (shares) to the general public on the stock market exchanges, but rather the company's stock is offered, owned and traded or exchanged privately or over-the-counter. More ambiguous terms for a privately held company are closely held corporation, unquoted company, and unlisted company.

Limited partnership form of partnership

A limited partnership (LP) is a form of partnership similar to a general partnership except that while a general partnership must have at least two general partners (GPs), a limited partnership must have at least one GP and at least one limited partner.

Kommanditgesellschaft private company in which two or more natural or legal persons have come together under a joint name to trade

A Kommanditgesellschaft is the German name for a limited partnership business entity and is used in German, Belgian, Dutch, Austrian, some other European legal systems as well as in Japan where it is called as gōshi gaisha.

A company, abbreviated as co., is a legal entity made up of an association of people, be they natural, legal, or a mixture of both, for carrying on a commercial or industrial enterprise. Company members share a common purpose, and unite to focus their various talents and organize their collectively available skills or resources to achieve specific, declared goals. Companies take various forms, such as:

Besloten vennootschap met beperkte aansprakelijkheid Dutch and Belgian version of a private limited liability company

Besloten vennootschap met beperkte aansprakelijkheid, or Société Privée à Responsabilité Limitée (SPRL), is the Dutch and Belgian version of a private limited liability company. The company is owned by shareholders, and the company's shares are privately registered and not freely transferable. The phrase means "secluded partnership" or private company with limited liability and it is the most common form of limited company in the Netherlands and Belgium.

For United States income tax purposes, a business entity may elect to be treated either as a corporation or as other than a corporation. This entity classification election is made by filing Internal Revenue Service Form 8832. Absent filing the form, a default classification applies. U.S. corporations of the type that can be publicly traded must be treated as corporations. There is a list of specific foreign entities that must be treated as corporations. The election is effective for Federal income tax purposes.

South African company law

South African company law is that body of rules which regulates corporations formed under the Companies Act. A company is a business organisation which earns income by the production or sale of goods or services. This entry also covers rules by which partnerships and trusts are governed in South Africa, together with cooperatives and sole proprietorships.

Indian company law The difference between partnership and sole proprietorship

Indian company law regulates the corporations formed under the Section 2(20) Indian Companies Act 2013. "Company means a company incorporated under this Act or under any previous Company Law"

United Arab Emirates corporate law

United Arab Emirates corporate law regulates the governance, finance and power of corporations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) through UAE law. Every emirate has its own basic corporate code.

References

  1. "Choose a legal structure for a new business". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 2013-01-15. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
  2. Limited liability company
  3. "Sociedades de Garantía Reciproca". Archived from the original on 2016-01-17. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
  4. "Sociedades de Garantía Reciproca". Argentina Ministry of Industry. Archived from the original on 19 August 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
  5. "What is an Incorporated Limited Partnership?". LegalVision. 2016-11-06. Archived from the original on 2017-08-15. Retrieved 2017-08-15.
  6. "Types of Business". Ministry of Finance, Brunei Darussalam. Archived from the original on 2017-12-25. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
  7. "Types of Business". Brunei Economic Development Board. Archived from the original on 2016-04-29. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
  8. Services, Ministry of Citizens. "Incorporating an Unlimited Liability Company (ULC) - Province of British Columbia". www2.gov.bc.ca. Retrieved 2019-07-17.
  9. "NS vs. Alberta ULCs". Archived from the original on 2014-07-23. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
  10. "Agenda brochure" (PDF). www.sbif.cl. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-01-17. Retrieved 2013-07-21.
  11. Estudios sobre la sociedad por acciones simplificada. U. Externado de Colombia. 2010. ISBN   978-958-710-477-6.
  12. "Starting a business in Costa Rica: 5 common questions". ALPI. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  13. Trade Associations Act (in Croatian) http://narodne-novine.nn.hr/clanci/sluzbeni/2011_12_152_3144.html Archived 2015-05-08 at the Wayback Machine
  14. Trade Associations Act, article 389, section 2 (in Croatian) http://narodne-novine.nn.hr/clanci/sluzbeni/2011_12_152_3144.html Archived 2015-05-08 at the Wayback Machine
  15. Trade Associations Act – Addendum (in Croatian) http://narodne-novine.nn.hr/clanci/sluzbeni/2012_10_111_2392.html Archived 2015-05-08 at the Wayback Machine
  16. Cooperatives Act (in Croatian) http://narodne-novine.nn.hr/clanci/sluzbeni/2011_03_34_764.html Archived 2015-04-15 at the Wayback Machine
  17. Sole proprietorship Act (in Croatian) http://narodne-novine.nn.hr/clanci/sluzbeni/2013_12_143_3065.html Archived 2015-06-30 at the Wayback Machine
  18. Ministry of entrepreneurship and crafts portal (in Croatian) http://portor.mingorp.hr/sporedna.htm Archived 2014-12-20 at the Wayback Machine
  19. Agriculture Act (in Croatian) http://narodne-novine.nn.hr/clanci/sluzbeni/2015_03_30_612.html Archived 2015-06-30 at the Wayback Machine
  20. "§ 154 a následující Obchodního zákoníku". Obchodni-zakonik.eu. Archived from the original on 2017-12-11. Retrieved 2018-09-18.
  21. "§ 105 a následující Obchodního zákoníku". Obchodni-zakonik.eu. Archived from the original on 2017-10-24. Retrieved 2018-09-18.
  22. Castllo Silverio, YuniorAndrés. "Constitución de Compañía CXA, y un Analisis de la Ley 479-08". Archived from the original on 2013-09-09. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
  23. Religious Freedom Act (453/2003) Archived 2012-05-19 at the Wayback Machine , Chapter 2
  24. Laki Suomen Punaisesta Rististä (453/2003) Archived 2012-05-19 at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved 31-05-2012.
  25. The decision of the Ministry of Justice to approve the bylaws of the general bar association (191/1959) Archived 2012-08-27 at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved 31-05-2012
  26. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2008-02-12.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  27. Asunto-osakeyhtiölaki (1599/2009) Archived 2012-05-12 at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved 31-05-2012.
  28. 1 2 Vakuutusyhtiölaki Archived 2012-06-12 at the Wayback Machine , Article 10. Retrieved 31-05-2012
  29. Asunto-osakeyhtiölaki (1599/2009) Archived 2012-05-12 at the Wayback Machine , Chapter 28. Retrieved 31-05-2012.
  30. Finnish Sea Act (674/1994) Archived 2012-04-01 at the Wayback Machine , Chapter 5 "Laivaisännistöyhtiö". Retrieved 31-5-2012.
  31. Säästöpankkilaki (1502/2001) Archived 2012-06-12 at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved 31-05-2012.
  32. Vesilaki (587/2011) Archived 2012-06-04 at the Wayback Machine , Chapter 6. Retrieved 31-05-2012
  33. 1 2 Vesilaki (587/2011) Archived 2012-06-04 at the Wayback Machine , Chapter 7. Retrieved 31-05-2012
  34. Laki yksityisistä teistä (358/1962), §50 Archived 2012-07-17 at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved 31-5-2012
  35. Vesilaki (587/2011) Archived 2012-06-04 at the Wayback Machine , Chapter 9. Retrieved 31-05-2012
  36. Vesilaki (587/2011) Archived 2012-06-04 at the Wayback Machine , Chapter 12. Retrieved 31-05-2012
  37. Yhteisaluelaki (758/1989) Archived 2012-06-29 at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved 31-05-2012
  38. Yhtesimetsälaki (109/2003) Archived 2012-03-04 at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved 31-05-2012
  39. "§§ 705 ff. BGB". Gesetze-im-internet.de. Archived from the original on 2018-09-18. Retrieved 2018-09-18.
  40. "Act IV of 2006 on Business Associations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 2015-12-08. Retrieved 28 December 2015.
  41. "Changes in Hungarian corporate law in the new Civil Code". Eversheds. Archived from the original on 2015-12-08. Retrieved 28 December 2015.
  42. "A kft. a legnépszerűbb cégforma". 24.hu. Archived from the original on 2015-12-08. Retrieved 28 December 2015.
  43. "Kht helyett nonprofit gazdasági társaság". Vállalkozói negyed. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 28 December 2015.
  44. "Online Partnership Firm Registration | Apply Now - MyOnlineCA" . Retrieved 2019-07-17.
  45. Libro Quinto – Titolo V: Delle società: Capo V: Della società per azioni (in Italian) via Wikisource.
  46. "PRIVET (Ligustrum)", Westcott's Plant Disease Handbook, Springer Netherlands, 2008, pp. 1040–1041, doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-4585-1_2435, ISBN   9781402045844
  47. "Inschrijven bij de Kamer van Koophandel". Archived from the original on 2013-12-02. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
  48. "Register a Joint Stock Company". Sultanate of Oman, Ministry of Commerce and Industry. Archived from the original on 2014-09-13. Retrieved 21 July 2013. The commercial name should bear Omani Joint Stock Company (S.A.O.G)
  49. "Require to obtain pre approval to carry on business of the companies operating in the field of securities". Sultanate of Oman, Capital Market Authority.[ permanent dead link ]
  50. "Sociedad Anonima Cerrada y Abierta". 27 July 2007. Archived from the original on 10 August 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  51. "Company & Corporation Types in Peru - LimaEasy". www.limaeasy.com. Retrieved 2019-07-17.
  52. 1 2 https://www.paragraf.rs/propisi/zakon_o_privrednim_drustvima.html
  53. https://www.paragraf.rs/propisi/zakon_o_stecaju.html
  54. Singapore Business Types Archived 2011-09-10 at the Wayback Machine
  55. "Registration info". www.sbsgroup.com.sg. Archived from registering subsidiary company the original Check |url= value (help) on 2016-08-17. Retrieved 2016-08-11.
  56. "(The new companies' act that was always spoken about is now a reality)". Archived from the original on 2012-01-23. Retrieved 2011-10-27.
  57. "Gábilos – Sociedad Anónima Laboral", www.gabilos.com (in Spanish), archived from the original on 2012-06-20, retrieved 2012-03-27
  58. "SOCIETAT COOPERATIVA CATALANA LIMITADA (SCCL)" (PDF), www.elclubdelemprenedor.org (in Spanish)[ permanent dead link ]
  59. 1 2 "有限公司 - Chinese English Pinyin Dictionary". Yabla. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  60. "Companies Act 2006". Parliament of the United Kingdom. Archived from the original on 2016-10-09. Retrieved 2016-10-13.
  61. Presti and Naegele Newsletter Archived 2013-01-15 at the Wayback Machine , 4 April 2012.
  62. "IRS Sub Chapter T". Archived from the original on 2014-09-04. Retrieved 15 October 2014.